ITGA2 promotes expression of ACLY and CCND1 in enhancing breast cancer stemness and metastasis.
ABSTRACT: Cancer metastasis is largely incurable and accounts for 90% of breast cancer deaths, especially for the aggressive basal-like or triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Combining patient database analyses and functional studies, we examined the association of integrin family members with clinical outcomes as well as their connection with previously identified microRNA regulators of metastasis, such as miR-206 that inhibits stemness and metastasis of TNBC. Here we report that the integrin receptor CD49b-encoding ITGA2, a direct target of miR-206, promotes breast cancer stemness and metastasis. ITGA2 knockdown suppressed self-renewal related mammosphere formation and pluripotency marker expression, inhibited cell cycling, compromised migration and invasion, and therefore decreased lung metastasis of breast cancer. ITGA2 overexpression reversed miR-206-caused cell cycle arrest in G1. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that ITGA2 knockdown inhibits genes related to cell cycle regulation and lipid metabolism, including CCND1 and ACLY as representative targets, respectively. Knockdown of CCND1 or ACLY inhibits mammosphere formation of breast cancer cells. Overexpression of CCND1 rescues the phenotype of ITGA2 knockdown-induced cell cycle arrest. ACLY-encoded ATP citrate lyase is essential to maintain cellular acetyl-CoA levels. CCND1 knockdown further mimics ITGA2 knockdown in abolishing lung colonization of breast cancer cells. We identified that the low levels of miR-206 as well as high expression levels of ITGA2, ACLY and CCND1 are associated with an unfavorable relapse-free survival of the patients with estrogen receptor-negative or high grade breast cancer, especially basal-like or TNBC, possibly serving as potential biomarkers of cancer stemness and therapeutic targets of breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are implicated in tumor initiation, metastasis and drug resistance, and considered as attractive targets for cancer therapy. Here we identified a clinically relevant signaling nexus mediated by AXL receptor, PYK2 and PKCα and show its impact on stemness in TNBC. AXL, PYK2, and PKCα expression correlates with stemness signature in basal-like breast cancer patients, and their depletion in multiple mesenchymal TNBC cell lines markedly reduced the number of mammosphere-forming cells and cells harboring CSCs characteristic markers. Knockdown of PYK2 reduced the levels of AXL, PKCα, FRA1, and PYK2 proteins, and similar trend was obtained upon PKCα depletion. PYK2 depletion decreased AXL transcription through feedback loops mediated by FRA1 and TAZ, whereas PKCα inhibition induced redistribution of AXL to endosomal/lysosomal compartment and enhanced its degradation. PYK2 and PKCα cooperate at a convergence point of multiple stemness-inducing pathways to regulate AXL levels and concomitantly the levels/activation of STAT3, TAZ, FRA1, and SMAD3 as well as the pluripotent transcription factors Nanog and Oct4. Induction of stemness in TNBC sensitized cells to PYK2 and PKCα inhibition suggesting that targeting the AXL-PYK2-PKCα circuit could be an efficient strategy to eliminate CSCs in TNBC.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is among the most aggressive breast cancer subtypes with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to better understand the molecular basis of TNBC as well as develop new therapeutic strategies. Our results demonstrate that HDAC9 is overexpressed in TNBC compared to non-TNBC cell lines and tissues and is inversely proportional with miR-206 expression levels. We show that HDAC9 selective inhibition blocked the invasion of TNBC cells in vitro and repressed the angiogenesis shown via in vivo Matrigel plug assays. Subsequent HDAC9 siRNA knockdown was then shown to restore miR-206 while also decreasing VEGF and MAPK3 levels. Furthermore, the inhibition of miR-206 neutralized the action of HDAC9 siRNA on decreasing VEGF and MAPK3 levels. This study highlights HDAC9 as a mediator of cell invasion and angiogenesis in TNBC cells through VEGF and MAPK3 by modulating miR-206 expression and suggests that selective inhibition of HDAC9 may be an efficient route for TNBC therapy.
Project description:Triple negative breast tumors don't respond to Tamoxifen and Herceptin, two of the most effective medications for treating breast cancer. Additionally, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) intrinsically resists or will eventually acquire resistance to chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to understand better the molecular basis of TNBC as well as develop new therapeutic strategies against it. Here, we analyzed miRNA-206 expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. In addition, we investigated whether miR-206 mimics inhibited TNBC tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The results showed that miR-206 was downregulated in TNBC compared to non-TNBC cell lines and tissues. Additionally, the decreased levels of miR-206 were inversely consistent with expression levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the forced expression of miR-206 in the mimic-transfected TNBC cells downregulated VEGF, MAPK3, and SOX9 expression levels. The miR-206 mimics inhibited TNBC breast cell invasion and angiogenesis. These findings demonstrate for the first time the involvement of miRNA-206 in TNBC invasion and angiogenesis and suggest that miR-206 may be an efficient agent for therapy of TNBC.
Project description:Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have an overall poor prognosis, which is primarily due to a high metastatic capacity of these tumors. Novel therapeutic approaches to target the signaling pathways that promote metastasis are desirable, in order to improve the outcome for these patients. A loss of function of a microRNA, miR-206, is related to increased metastasis potential in breast cancers but the mechanism is not known. In this study, we show that miR-206 was decreased in TNBC clinical tumor samples and cell lines whereas one of its predicted targets, actin-binding protein CORO1C, was increased. Expression of miR-206 significantly reduced proliferation and migration while repressing CORO1C mRNA and protein levels. We demonstrate that miR-206 interacts with the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CORO1C and regulates this gene post-transcriptionally. This post-transcriptional regulation was dependent on two miR-206-binding sites within the 3'-UTR of CORO1C and was relieved by mutations of corresponding sites. Further, silencing of CORO1C reduced tumor cell migration and affected the actin skeleton and cell morphology, similar to miR-206 expression, but did not reduce proliferation. In accordance with this, overexpression of CORO1C rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-206 on cell migration. Our findings suggest that miR-206 represses tumor cell migration through direct targeting of CORO1C in TNBC cells which modulates the actin filaments. This pathway is a novel mechanism that offers a mechanistic basis through which the metastatic potential of TNBC tumors could be targeted.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks both early detection biomarkers and viable targeted therapeutics. Moreover, chemotherapy only produces 20-30% pathologic complete response. Because miRNAs are frequently dysregulated in breast cancer and have broad tissue effects, individual or combinations of circulating miRNAs may serve as ideal diagnostic, predictive or prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets. Understanding the role and mechanism of dysregulated miRNAs in TNBC may help to develop novel diagnostic and prognostic strategy for TNBC patients.The miRNA array profiles of 1299 breast cancer patients were collected from the Metabric database and subjected to analysis of the altered miRNAs between TNBC and non-TNBC. In Student's t-test and Kaplan-Meier analysis, four upregulated miRNAs correlated with poor survival in TNBC but not in non-TNBC. Four miRNAs were manipulated in multiple cell lines to investigate their functional role in carcinogenesis. From these results, we studied miR-105 and miR-93-3p in greater detail. The level of miR-105 and miR-93-3p were evaluated in 25 breast cancer tumor tissues. In addition, the diagnostic utility of circulating miR-105 and miR-93-3p were examined in 12 normal and 118 breast cancer plasma samples by ROC curve construction.miR-105 and miR-93-3p were upregulated and correlated with poor survival in TNBC patients. Both miR-105 and miR-93-3p were found to activate Wnt/?-catenin signaling by downregulation of SFPR1. By this action, stemness, chemoresistance, and metastasis were promoted. Importantly, the combination of circulating miR-105/93-3p may serve as a powerful biomarker for TNBC, even in early-stage disease.miR-105/93-3p activates Wnt/?-catenin signaling by downregulating SFRP1 and thereby promotes stemness, chemoresistance, and metastasis in TNBC cells. Most importantly, combined circulating miR-105/93-3p levels represent a prime candidate for development into a diagnostic biomarker for both early- and late-stage TNBC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways are both constitutively activated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We are interested in isolating the naturally-derived small-molecule inhibitor that could simultaneously targeting TGFβ/BMP pathways and further studying its anti-proliferative/-metastatic effects as well as the underlying mechanisms in multiple tumor models. METHODS:Multiple in vitro cell-based assays are used to examine the compound's inhibitory efficacy on TNBC cell growth, stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and migration by targeting TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways. Transgenic breast cancer mouse model (MMTV-PyMT), subcutaneous xenograft and bone metastasis models are used to examine ZL170's effects on TNBC growth and metastasis potentials in vivo. RESULTS:ZL170 dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation, EMT, stemness, invasion and migration in vitro via specifically targeting canonical TGFβ/BMP-SMADs pathways in TNBC cells. The compound significantly hinders osteolytic bone metastasis and xenograft tumor growth without inflicting toxicity on vital organs of tumor-bearing nude mice. ZL170 strongly inhibits primary tumor growth and lung metastases in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice. ZL170-treated tumors exhibit impaired TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways in both epithelial and stromal compartments, thereby creating a suppressive tumor microenvironment characterized by reduced extracellular matrix deposition and decreased infiltration of stromal cells. CONCLUSIONS:ZL170 inhibits tumor EMT, stemness and metastasis and could be further developed as a potent anti-metastatic agent used in combination with cytotoxic drugs for treatment of TNBC and other advanced metastatic cancers.
Project description:Chemotherapy currently remains the standard treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, TNBC frequently develop chemoresistance, which is responsible for cancer recurrence and distal metastasis. Both DNA damage repair and stemness are related to chemoresistance. FZD5, a member in Frizzled family, was identified to be preferentially expressed in TNBC, and associated with unfavorable prognosis. Loss and gain of function studies revealed that FZD5 contributed to TNBC cell G1/S transition, DNA replication, DNA damage repair, survival, and stemness. Mechanistically, transcription factor FOXM1, which promoted BRCA1 and BIRC5 transcription, acted as a downstream effecter of FZD5 signaling. FOXM1 overexpression in FZD5-deficient/low TNBC cells induced FZD5-associated phenotype. Finally, Wnt7B, a specific ligand for FZD5, was shown to be involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, and stemness. Taken together, FZD5 is a novel target for the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome chemoresistance and prevent recurrence in TNBC.
Project description:Tumor metastasis remains the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths, especially delayed breast cancer distant metastasis. The current study assessed the frequency of CD44<sup>-</sup>/CD24<sup>-</sup> breast cancer cells in 576 tissue specimens for associations with clinicopathological features and metastasis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that higher frequency (≥19.5%) of CD44<sup>-</sup>/CD24<sup>-</sup> cells was associated with delayed postoperative breast cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CD44<sup>-</sup>/CD24<sup>-</sup>triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells spontaneously converted into CD44<sup>+</sup>/CD24<sup>-</sup>cancer stem cells (CSCs) with properties similar to CD44<sup>+</sup>/CD24<sup>-</sup>CSCs from primary human breast cancer cells and parental TNBC cells in terms of stemness marker expression, self-renewal, differentiation, tumorigenicity, and lung metastasis in vitro and <i>in NOD/SCID mice</i>. RNA sequencing identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in newly converted CSCs and <i>RHBDL2</i>, one of the DEGs, expression was upregulated. More importantly, <i>RHBDL2</i> silencing inhibited the YAP1/USP31/NF-κB signaling and attenuated spontaneous CD44<sup>-</sup>/CD24<sup>-</sup> cell conversion into CSCs and their mammosphere formation. These findings suggest that the frequency of CD44<sup>-</sup>/CD24<sup>-</sup> tumor cells and <i>RHBDL2</i> may be valuable for prognosis of delayed breast cancer metastasis, particularly for TNBC.
Project description:Circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters mediate metastasis at a higher efficiency and are associated with lower overall survival in breast cancer compared to single cells. Combining single-cell RNA sequencing and protein analyses, here we report the profiles of primary tumor cells and lung metastases of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). ICAM1 expression increases by 200-fold in the lung metastases of three TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Depletion of ICAM1 abrogates lung colonization of TNBC cells by inhibiting homotypic tumor cell-tumor cell cluster formation. Machine learning-based algorithms and mutagenesis analyses identify ICAM1 regions responsible for homophilic ICAM1-ICAM1 interactions, thereby directing homotypic tumor cell clustering, as well as heterotypic tumor-endothelial adhesion for trans-endothelial migration. Moreover, ICAM1 promotes metastasis by activating cellular pathways related to cell cycle and stemness. Finally, blocking ICAM1 interactions significantly inhibits CTC cluster formation, tumor cell transendothelial migration, and lung metastasis. Therefore, ICAM1 can serve as a novel therapeutic target for metastasis initiation of TNBC.