Synthesis of 1-indolyl-3,5,8-substituted γ-carbolines: one-pot solvent-free protocol and biological evaluation.
ABSTRACT: 1,5-Disubstituted indole-2-carboxaldehyde derivatives 1a-h and glycine alkyl esters 2a-c are shown to undergo a novel cascade imination-heterocylization in the presence of the organic base DIPEA to provide 1-indolyl-3,5,8-substituted γ-carbolines 3aa-ea in good yields. The γ-carbolines are fluorescent and exhibit anticancer activities against cervical, lung, breast, skin, and kidney cancer cells.
Project description:Indoles are converted into ?-carbolines in four steps by acylation at C-3, Boc-protection, olefination of the resulting 3-indolyl aldehydes or ketones to give N-Boc-3-indolyl alkenyl oxime O-methyl ethers, which upon heating to 240 °C under microwave irradiation undergo loss of the Boc-group, and 6?-electrocyclization to ?-carbolines, following aromatization by loss of methanol (11 examples, 30-90% yield).
Project description:Enantiomerically enriched indole-containing heterocycles play a vital role in bioscience, medicine, and chemistry. As one of the most attractive subtypes of indole alkaloids, highly substituted tetrahydro-?-carbolines are the basic structural unit in many natural products and pharmaceuticals. However, the syntheses of tetrahydro-?-carbolines with high functionalities from readily available reagents are significant challenging. In particular, the stereodivergent syntheses of tetrahydro-?-carbolines containing multi-stereogenic centers remain quite difficult. Herein, we report an expedient and stereodivergent assembly of tetrahydro-?-carbolines with remarkably high levels of stereoselective control in an efficient cascade process from aldimine esters and indolyl allylic carbonates via a synergistic Cu/Ir catalyst system. Control experiments-guided optimization of synergistic catalysts and mechanistic investigations reveal that a stereodivergent allylation reaction and a subsequent highly stereoselective iso-Pictet-Spengler cyclization are the key elements to success.
Project description:Some studies have ascribed a protective effect against neurodegenerative diseases to the ?-carbolines harman (H) and norharman (NH), which occur mostly in coffee and coffee substitutes. We determined the concentrations of ?-carbolines and undesirable compounds (such as acrylamide) in roasted coffee substitute ingredients and found that chicory coffee was optimal. Two in vivo experiments were conducted with seventeen-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats fed a diet with the addition of pure carboline standards in the first stage, and chicory in the second. We observed an increase in the level of H and NH in blood plasma, as well as higher activity of animals in the battery behavioral test, particularly in the second stage. The results of in vitro studies-particularly the level of the expression in brain tissue of genes associated with aging processes and neurodegenerative diseases-clearly show the benefits of a diet rich in ?-carbolines.
Project description:The 1,3-diaryl-β-carboline derivatives, including 3,4-dihydro variants, were synthesized via a multiple-step approach. These compounds possess rigid and twisted configurations, which are expected to exhibit unique optical properties. The absorption and fluorescence properties of the newly synthesized compounds were investigated. These synthetic 1,3-diaryl-β-carbolines displayed strong emission in the range of 387-409 nm and exhibited absolute photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 74%. Density functional theory calculations were performed to better elucidate the geometric, electronic, and optical properties of these novel 1,3-diaryl-β-carbolines.
Project description:Strictosidine synthase triggers the formation of strictosidine from tryptamine and secologanin, thereby generating a carbon-carbon bond and a new stereogenic center. Strictosidine contains a tetrahydro-?-carboline moiety - an important N-heterocyclic framework found in a range of natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. Stereoselective methods to produce tetrahydro-?-carboline enantiomers are greatly valued. We report that strictosidine synthase from Ophiorrhiza pumila utilizes a range of simple achiral aldehydes and substituted tryptamines to form highly enantioenriched (ee >98%) tetrahydro-?-carbolines via a Pictet-Spengler reaction. This is the first example of aldehyde substrate promiscuity in the strictosidine synthase family of enzymes and represents a first step towards developing a general biocatalytic strategy to access chiral tetrahydro-?-carbolines.
Project description:The β-carbolines in our diet, mainly including harman and norharman, are a group of biologically active, naturally occurring plant-derived alkaloids. Fragrant sesame seed oil is one of the most popular flavor edible oils in China. Considering that sesame seeds are roasted at 200-240 °C during the processing of flavor sesame seed oils, it is meaningful to investigate the levels of β-carboline compounds in various sesame seed oils. In this work, the levels of β-carbolines (harman and norharman) in different types of sesame seed oils in China (e.g., pressed fragrant sesame oil, ground fragrant sesame oil) have been determined systematically. The results showed that the levels of total β-carbolines in pressed fragrant sesame oils (700.5~2423.2 μg/kg) were higher than that in ground fragrant sesame oils (660.4~1171.7 μg/kg). Roasting sesame seeds at high temperatures (200-240 °C) led to higher levels of β-carbolines (660~2400 μg/kg) in fragrant sesame seed oils. In addition, the loss of tryptophan might be attributed to the formation of β-carbolines in sesame seeds during the roasting process. In general, fragrant sesame seed oils (pressed fragrant sesame oils, ground fragrant sesame oils) contain higher levels of β-carbolines due to the formation of harman and norharman during the roasting sesame seed process.
Project description:Intramolecular inverse electron demand cycloadditions of isatin-derived 1,2,4-triazines with acetylenic dienophiles tethered by amidations or transesterifications proceed in excellent yields to produce lactam- or lactone-fused ?-carbolines. Beginning with various isatins and alkynyl dienophiles, a pilot-scale library of eighty-eight ?-carbolines was prepared by using this robust methodology for biological evaluation.
Project description:The β-carbolines, mainly including harman and norharman, are a group of naturally occurring, plant-derived alkaloids, and are also considered as nonpolar heterocyclic aromatic amines. Sesame seed oils contain a high level of β-carbolines (harman and norharman). In China, sesame seed oil blends are one of the most popular types of vegetable oils blends, which can be used as cooking oils or frying oils. Thus, it is meaningful to investigate the degradation of β-carbolines (harman and norharman) in sesame seed oil blends as frying oils during heating. In this work, the loss of harman and norharman in different types of sesame seed oil blends have been investigated. The results showed that the degradation of harman and norharman were dependent both on the type of oil blends, heating temperature and time. Harman and norharman were more degraded during heating (150 °C, 180 °C) in oleic acid-rich oil blends compared to polyunsaturated acid-rich oil blends. Mechanistic investigation suggested that the reduction in harman and norharman in oil blends during heating was mainly due to the oxidative degradation reaction between β-carbolines and lipid oxidation products. Therefore, the contents of β-carbolines (harman and norharman) in sesame seed oil blends when used as frying oils and heated can be decreased with prolonged cooking time.
Project description:The present manuscript pertains to the design and synthesis of a series of 3-hydroxyindole-substituted ?-carbolines/tetrahydro-?-carbolines with an aim to explore their antiproliferative structure-activity relationship against breast cancer. The conjugate with an optimum combination of a flexible tetrahydro-?-carboline core, a tertiary alcoholic group along with a chloro substituent on the indole ring, proved to be the most active compound. It displayed IC50 values of 13.61 and 22.76 ?M against MCF-7 (ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-) cells, respectively. The docking studies were found to be consistent with experimental results owing to the stronger binding affinity of the synthesized conjugates via hydrophobic and H-bonding interactions.
Project description:Methuosis is a form of nonapoptotic cell death characterized by the accumulation of macropinosome-derived vacuoles. Herein, we identify PIKFYVE, a class III phosphoinositide (PI) kinase, as the protein target responsible for the methuosis-inducing activity of indolyl-pyridinyl-propenones (3-(5-methoxy-2-methyl-1<i>H</i>-indol-3-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one). We further characterize the effects of chemical substitutions at the 2- and 5-indolyl positions on cytoplasmic vacuolization and PIKFYVE binding and inhibitory activity. Our study provides a better understanding of the mechanism of methuosis-inducing indolyl-pyridinyl-propenones.