Detailed Multiplex Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Specific Antibodies in COVID-19 Disease.
ABSTRACT: A detailed understanding of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 is of high importance, especially with the emergence of novel vaccines. A multiplex-based assay, analyzing IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD), spike 1 (S1), and nucleocapsid proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was set up. The multiplex-based analysis was calibrated against the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay on a Roche Cobas® instrument, using positive and negative samples. The calibration of the multiplex based assay yielded a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.7%. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were analyzed by multiplex in 251 samples from 221 patients. A significant increase in all antibody types (IgM, IgG, and IgA) against RBD was observed between the first and the third weeks of disease. Additionally, the S1 IgG antibody response increased significantly between weeks 1, 2, and 3 of disease. Class switching appeared to occur earlier for IgA than for IgG. Patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care had higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA levels than outpatients. These findings describe the initial antibody response during the first weeks of disease and demonstrate the importance of analyzing different antibody isotypes against multiple antigens and include IgA when examining the immunological response to COVID-19.
Project description:To better understand the immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with COVID-19, it is important to investigate the kinetics of the antibody responses and their associations with the clinical course in different populations, since there seem to be considerable differences between Western and Asian populations in the clinical features and spread of COVID-19. In this study, we serially measured the serum titers of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies generated against the nucleocapsid protein (NCP), S1 subunit of the spike protein (S1), and receptor-binding domain in the S1 subunit (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in Japanese individuals with COVID-19. Among the IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies, IgA antibodies against all of the aforementioned viral proteins were the first to appear after the infection, and IgG and/or IgA seroconversion often preceded IgM seroconversion. In regard to the timeline of the antibody responses to the different viral proteins (NCP, S1 and RBD), IgA against NCP appeared than IgA against S1 or RBD, while IgM and IgG against S1 appeared earlier than IgM/IgG against NCP or RBD. The IgG responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to S1 and RBD were sustained for longer durations than the IgA/IgM responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to NCP, respectively. The seroconversion of IgA against NCP occurred later and less frequently in patients with mild COVID-19. These results suggest possible differences in the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens between the Japanese and Western populations.
Project description:The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic of the respiratory disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Antibody testing is essential to identify persons exposed to the virus and potentially in predicting disease immunity. 183 COVID-19 patients (68 of whom required mechanical ventilation) and 41 controls were tested for plasma IgG, IgA and IgM against the SARS-CoV-2 S1, S2, receptor binding domain (RBD) and N proteins using the MILLIPLEX <sup>®</sup> SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Panel. Plasma cytokines were concurrently measured using the MILLIPLEX® MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine/Growth Factor Panel A. As expected the 183 COVID-19 positive patients had high levels of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies against each of the viral proteins. Sensitivity of anti-S1 IgG increased from 60% to 93% one week after symptom onset. S1-IgG and S1-IgA had specificities of 98% compared to the 41 COVID-19 negative patients. The 68 ventilated COVID-19 positive patients had higher antibody levels than the 115 COVID-19 positive patients who were not ventilated. IgG antibody levels against S1 protein had the strongest positive correlation to days from symptom onset. There were no statistically significant differences in IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against S1 based on age. We found that patients with the highest levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies had the lowest viral load in the nasopharynx. Finally there was a correlation of high plasma IL-10 with low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, as measured by a novel antigen panel, increased within days after symptom onset, achieving > 90% sensitivity and specificity within one week, and were highest in patients who required mechanical ventilation. Antibody levels were inversely associated with viral load but did not differ as a function of age. The correlation of high IL-10 with low antibody response suggests a potentially suppressive role of this cytokine in the humoral immune response in COVID-19.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Primary diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is based on detection of virus RNA in nasopharyngeal swab samples. In addition, analysis of humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 has an important role in viral diagnostics and seroprevalence estimates.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed and optimized an enzyme immunoassays (EIA) using SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N), S1 and receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein, and N proteins from SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and 4 low-pathogenic human CoVs. Neutralizing antibody activity was compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, and IgM EIA results.<h4>Results</h4>The sensitivity of EIA for detecting immune response in COVID-19 patients (n = 101) was 77% in the acute phase and 100% in the convalescent phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection when N and RBD were used as antigens in IgG and IgA specific EIAs. SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increased humoral immune responses against the 229E and NL63 N proteins. S1 and RBD-based EIA results had a strong correlation with microneutralization test results.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The data indicate a combination of SARS-CoV-2 S1 or RBD and N proteins and analysis of IgG and IgA immunoglobulin classes in sera provide an excellent basis for specific and sensitive serological diagnostics of COVID-19.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Detection of antibodies to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens in a single assay could increase diagnostic accuracy, differentiate vaccination from natural disease, and aid in retrospective exposure determination. Correlation of binding antibody assessment in clinical assays with neutralizing antibodies is needed to better understand the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and establish of correlates of protection.<h4>Methods</h4>A cohort of 752 samples was used to assess specificity, sensitivity, and comparison to 6 other Conformitè Europëenne serologic assays for the BioRad SARS-CoV-2 IgG multiplex assay which measures receptor binding domain IgG (RBD), spike-S1 IgG (S1), spike-S2 IgG (S2), and nucleocapsid IgG (N). A subset of serial specimens from 14 patients was also tested for neutralizing antibodies (n=61).<h4>Results</h4>Specificity for RBD and S1 IgG was 99.4% (n=170) and 100% for S2 and N IgG (n=170) in a cohort selected for probable interference. Overall assay concordance with other assays was >93% for IgG and total antibody assays and reached 100% sensitivity for clinical concordance at >14 days as a multiplex assay. RBD and S1 binding antibody positivity demonstrated 79-95% agreement with the presence of neutralizing antibodies.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The BioRad SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay is comparable to existing assays, and achieved 100% sensitivity when all markers were included. The ability to measure antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins simultaneously may be advantageous for complex clinical presentations, epidemiologic research, and in decisions regarding infection prevention strategies. Additional independent validations are needed to further determine binding antibody and neutralizing antibody correlations.
Project description:Serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies must be validated for performance with a large panel of clinical specimens. Most existing assays utilize a single antigen target and may be subject to reduced diagnostic specificity. This study evaluated a multiplex assay that detects antibodies to three SARS-CoV-2 targets. Human serum specimens (<i>n</i> = 323) with known previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure status were tested on a commercially available multiplex bead assay (MBA) measuring IgG to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), nucleocapsid protein (NP), and RBD/NP fusion antigens. Assay performance was evaluated against reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) results and also compared with test results for two single-target commercial assays. The MBA had a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%, with serum collection at >28 days following COVID-19 symptom onset showing the highest seropositivity rates (sensitivity: 94.7%). The MBA performed comparably to single-target assays with the ability to detect IgG against specific antigen targets, with 19 (5.9%) discrepant specimens compared to the NP IgG assay and 12 (3.7%) compared to the S1 RBD IgG assay (kappa coefficients 0.92 and 0.88 compared to NP IgG and S1 RBD IgG assays, respectively. These findings highlight inherent advantages of using a SARS-CoV-2 serological test with multiple antigen targets; specifically, the ability to detect IgG against RBD and NP antigens simultaneously. In particular, the 100.0% diagnostic specificity exhibited by the MBA in this study is important for its implementation in populations with low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence or where background antibody reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 antigens has been detected. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Reporting of SARS-CoV-2 infections through nucleic acid or antigen based diagnostic tests severely underestimates the true burden of exposure in a population. Serological data assaying for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 antigens offers an alternative source of data to estimate population exposure, but most current immunoassays only include a single target for antibody detection. This report outlines a direct comparison of a multiplex bead assay to two other commercial single-target assays in their ability to detect IgG against SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Against a well-defined panel of 323 serum specimens, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were very high for the multiplex assay, with strong agreement in IgG detection for single targets compared to the single-target assays. Collection of more data for individual- and population-level seroprofiles allows further investigation into more accurate exposure estimates and research into the determinants of infection and convalescent responses.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific antibody production and plasma neutralizing capacity against B.1 wild-type-like strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants-of-concern, in subjects with different Covid-19 disease and vaccination histories.<h4>Methods</h4>Adult subjects were: 1) Unvaccinated/hospitalized for Covid-19; 2) Covid-19-recovered followed by one BNT162b2 vaccine dose; and 3) Covid-19-naïve/2-dose BNT162b2 vaccinated. Multiplex Luminex<sup>®</sup> immunoassays measured IgG, IgA, and IgM plasma levels against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike-1 (S), and nucleocapsid proteins. Neutralizing activity was determined in Vero E6 cytopathic assays.<h4>Results</h4>Maximum anti-RBD IgG levels were similar in Covid<sup>-</sup>19‑recovered individuals 8‒10 days after single-dose vaccination and in Covid-19-naïve subjects 7 days after 2<sup>nd</sup> vaccine dosing; both groups had ≈2‑fold higher anti-RBD IgG levels than Unvaccinated/Covid-19 subjects tracked through 2 weeks post-symptom onset. Anti-S IgG expression patterns were similar to RBD within each group, but with lower signal strengths. Viral antigen-specific IgA and IgM levels were more variable than IgG patterns. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulins were not detected in Covid-19-naïve subjects. Neutralizing activity against the B.1 strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants, was highest in Covid‑19-recovered/single-dose vaccinated subjects; although neutralization against the Delta variant in this group was only 26% compared to B.1 neutralization, absolute anti-Delta titers suggested maintained protection. Neutralizing titers against the Gamma and Delta variants were 33‒77% and 26‒67%, respectively, versus neutralization against the B.1 strain (100%) in the three groups.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings support SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine usefulness regardless of Covid-19 history, and confirm remarkable protection provided by a single vaccine dose in people who have recovered from Covid-19.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Quantitative serological assays detecting response to SARS-CoV-2 are needed to quantify immunity. This study analyzed the performance and correlation of two quantitative anti-S1 assays in oligo-/asymptomatic individuals from a population-based cohort.<h4>Methods</h4>In total, 362 plasma samples (108 with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]-positive pharyngeal swabs, 111 negative controls, and 143 with positive serology without confirmation by RT-PCR) were tested with quantitative assays (Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [EI-S1-IgG-quant]) and Roche Elecsys<sup>®</sup> Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S [Ro-RBD-Ig-quant]), which were compared with each other and confirmatory tests, including wild-type virus micro-neutralization (NT) and GenScript<sup>®</sup>cPass™. Square roots R of coefficients of determination were calculated for continuous variables and non-parametric tests were used for paired comparisons.<h4>Results</h4>Quantitative anti-S1 serology correlated well with each other (true positives, 96%; true negatives, 97%). Antibody titers decreased over time (< 30 to > 240 days after initial positive RT-PCR). Agreement with GenScript-cPass was 96%/99% for true positives and true negatives, respectively, for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and 93%/97% for EI-S1-IgG-quant. Ro-RBD-Ig-quant allowed distinct separation between positives and negatives, and less non-specific reactivity versus EI-S1-IgG-quant. Raw values (95% CI) ≥ 28.7 U/mL (22.6-36.4) for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and ≥ 49.8 U/mL (43.4-57.1) for EI-S1-IgG-quant predicted NT > 1:5 in 95% of cases.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings suggest both quantitative anti-S1 assays (EI-S1-IgG-quant and Ro-RBD-Ig-quant) may replace direct neutralization assays in quantitative measurement of immune protection against SARS-CoV-2 in certain circumstances. However, although the mean antibody titers for both assays tended to decrease over time, a higher proportion of Ro-RBD-Ig-quant values remained positive after 240 days.
Project description:The new WHO reference standard allows for the definition of serum antibodies against various SARS-CoV-2 antigens in terms of binding antibody units (BAU/mL) and thus to compare the results of different ELISA systems. In this study, the concentration of antibodies (ABs) against both the S- and the N-protein of SARS-CoV-2 as well as serum neutralization activity were evaluated in three patients after a mild course of COVID-19. Serum samples were collected frequently during a period of over one year. Furthermore, in two individuals, the effects of an additional vaccination with a mRNA vaccine containing the S1-RBD sequence on these antibodies were examined. After natural infection, the antibodies (IgA, IgG) against the S1-protein remained elevated above the established cut-off to positivity (S-IgA 60 BAU/mL and S-IgG 50 BAU/mL, respectively) for over a year in all patients, while this was not the case for ABs against the N-protein (cut-off N-IgG 40 BAU/mL, N-IgA 256 BAU/mL). Sera from all patients retained the ability to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 for more than a year. Vaccination resulted in a rapid boost of antibodies to S1-protein but, as expected, not to the N-protein. Most likely, the wide use of the WHO reference preparation will be very useful in determining the individual immune status of patients after an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or after vaccination.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>As the world transitions into a new era of the COVID-19 pandemic in which vaccines become available, there is an increasing demand for rapid reliable serological testing to identify individuals with levels of immunity considered protective by infection or vaccination.<h4>Methods</h4>We used 34 SARS-CoV-2 samples to perform a rapid surrogate virus neutralisation test (sVNT), applicable to many laboratories as it circumvents the need for biosafety level-3 containment. We correlated results from the sVNT with five additional commonly used SARS-CoV-2 serology techniques: the microneutralisation test (MNT), in-house ELISAs, commercial Euroimmun- and Wantai-based ELISAs (RBD, spike and nucleoprotein; IgG, IgA and IgM), antigen-binding avidity, and high-throughput multiplex analyses to profile isotype, subclass and Fc effector binding potential. We correlated antibody levels with antibody-secreting cell (ASC) and circulatory T follicular helper (cTfh) cell numbers.<h4>Results</h4>Antibody data obtained with commercial ELISAs closely reflected results using in-house ELISAs against RBD and spike. A correlation matrix across ten measured ELISA parameters revealed positive correlations for all factors. The frequency of inhibition by rapid sVNT strongly correlated with spike-specific IgG and IgA titres detected by both commercial and in-house ELISAs, and MNT titres. Multiplex analyses revealed strongest correlations between IgG, IgG1, FcR and C1q specific to spike and RBD. Acute cTfh-type 1 cell numbers correlated with spike and RBD-specific IgG antibodies measured by ELISAs and sVNT.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our comprehensive analyses provide important insights into SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity across distinct serology assays and their applicability for specific research and/or diagnostic questions to assess SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral responses.
Project description:Mucosal immunity plays a significant role in host defense against viruses in the respiratory tract. Because the upper respiratory airway is a primary site of SARS-CoV-2 entry, immunization at the mucosa via the intranasal route could potentially lead to induction of local sterilizing immunity that protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein loaded into <i>N,N,N</i>-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (RBD-TMC NPs). We showed that intranasal delivery of RBD-TMC NPs into mice induced robust local mucosal immunity, as evidenced by the presence of IgG and IgA responses in BALs and the lungs of immunized mice. Furthermore, mice intranasally administered with this platform of immunogens developed robust systemic antibody responses including serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgA and neutralizing antibodies. In addition, these immunized mice had significantly higher levels of activated splenic CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> cells compared with those that were administered with soluble RBD immunogen. Collectively, these findings shed light on an alternative route of vaccination that mimics the natural route of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This route of administration stimulated not only local mucosal responses but also the systemic compartment of the immune system.