Anti-Metastatic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Curcumin Analog DK1 on Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro.
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a life-threatening malignant bone tumor associated with poor prognosis among children. The survival rate of the patient is still arguably low even with intensive treatment provided, plus with the inherent side effects from the chemotherapy, which gives more unfavorable outcomes. Hence, the search for potent anti-osteosarcoma agent with promising safety profile is still on going. Natural occurring substance like curcumin has gained a lot of attention due to its splendid safety profile as well as it pharmacological advantages such as anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis. However, natural curcumin was widely known for its poor cellular uptake, which undermines all potential that it possesses. This prompted the development of synthetically synthesized curcuminoid analog, known as (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2- en-1-one (DK1). In this present study, in vitro scratch assay, transwell migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, and ex vivo rat aortic ring assays were performed in order to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic potential of DK1. For further comprehension of DK1 mechanism on human osteosarcoma cell lines, microarray gene expression analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and proteome profiler were adopted, providing valuable forecast from the expression of important genes and proteins related to metastasis and angiogenesis. Based on the data gathered from the bioassays, DK1 was able to inhibit the metastasis and angiogenesis of human osteosarcoma cell lines by significantly reducing the cell motility, number of migrated and invaded cells as well as the tube formation and micro-vessels sprouting. Additionally, DK1 also has significantly regulated several cancer pathways involved in OS proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis such as PI3K/Akt and NF-κB in both U-2 OS and MG-63. Regulation of PI3K/Akt caused up-regulation of genes related to metastasis inhibition, namely, PTEN, FOXO, PLK3, and GADD45A. Meanwhile, NF-κB pathway was regulated by mitigating the expression of NF-κB activator such as IKBKB and IKBKE in MG-63, whilst up-regulating the expression of NF-κB inhibitors such as NFKBIA and NFKBIE in U-2 OS. Finally, DK1 also has successfully hindered the metastatic and angiogenic capability of OS cell lines by down-regulating the expression of pro-metastatic genes and proteins like MMP3, COL11A1, FGF1, Endoglin, uPA, and IGFBP2 in U-2 OS. Whilst for MG-63, the significantly down-regulated oncogenes were Serpin E1, AKT2, VEGF, uPA, PD-ECGF, and Endoglin. These results suggest that curcumin analog DK1 may serve as a potential new anti-osteosarcoma agent due to its anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic attributes.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is one of the primary malignant bone tumors that confer low survival rates for patients even with intensive regime treatments. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-osteosarcoma drugs derived from natural products that are not harmful to the normal cells remains crucial. Curcumin is one of the natural substances that have been extensively studied due to its anti-cancer properties and is pharmacologically safe considering its ubiquitous consumption for centuries. However, curcumin suffers from a poor circulating bioavailability, which has led to the development of a chemically synthesized curcuminoid analog, namely (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (DK1). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the curcumin analog DK1 was investigated in both U-2OS and MG-63 osteosarcoma cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell death was microscopically examined via acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) double staining. Flow cytometer analysis including Annexin V/Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), cell cycle analysis and JC-1 were adapted to determine the mode of cell death. Subsequently in order to determine the mechanism of cell death, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and proteome profiling was carried out to measure the expression of several apoptotic-related genes and proteins. Results indicated that DK1 induced U-2 OS and MG-63 morphological changes and substantially reduced cell numbers through induction of apoptosis. Several apoptotic genes and proteins were steadily expressed after treatment with DK1; including caspase 3, caspase 9, and BAX, which indicated that apoptosis occurred through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, DK1 could be considered as a potential candidate for an anti-osteosarcoma drug in the near future, contingent upon its ability to induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines.
Project description:In the tumor microenvironment, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are key modulators of cancer cell behavior in response to several stimuli. Intratumoral acidosis is a metabolic trait of fast-growing tumors that can induce a pro-tumorigenic phenotype in MSCs through the activation of the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathway, driving tumor clonogenicity, invasion, and chemoresistance. Recent studies have indicated that curcumin, a natural ingredient extracted from <i>Curcuma longa</i>, acts as an NF-κB inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, highly proliferating osteosarcoma cells were used to study the ability of curcumin to reduce the supportive effect of MSCs when stimulated by acidosis. Due to the poor solubility of curcumin in biological fluids, we used spherical polymeric nanoparticles as carriers (SPN-curc) to optimize its uptake by MSCs. We showed that SPN-curc inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines (IL6 and IL8) by acidity-stimulated MSCs at a higher extent than by free curcumin. SPN-curc treatment was also successful in blocking tumor stemness, migration, and invasion that were driven by the secretome of acid-stressed MSCs. Overall, these data encourage the use of lipid-polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating NF-κB inhibitors such as curcumin to treat cancers whose progression is stimulated by an activated mesenchymal stroma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>As an inflammatory factor and oncogenic driver protein, the pleiotropic cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a crucial role in the osteosarcoma microenvironment. Although 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine (4-IPP) can inactivate MIF biological functions, its anti-osteosarcoma effect and molecular mechanisms have not been investigated. In this study, we identified the MIF inhibitor 4-IPP as a specific double-effector drug for osteosarcoma with both anti-tumour and anti-osteoclastogenic functions.<h4>Methods</h4>The anti-cancer effects of 4-IPP were evaluated by wound healing assay, cell cycle analysis, colony formation assay, CCK-8 assay, apoptosis analysis, and Transwell migration/invasion assays. Through the application of a luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation analyses, the transcriptional regulation of the NF-κB/P-TEFb complex on c-Myb- and STUB1-mediated proteasome-dependent MIF protein degradation was confirmed. The effect of 4-IPP on tumour growth and metastasis was assessed using an HOS-derived tail vein metastasis model and subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft tumour models.<h4>Results</h4>In vitro, 4-IPP significantly reduced the proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells by suppressing the NF-κB pathway. 4-IPP hindered the binding between MIF and CD74 as well as p65. Moreover, 4-IPP inhibited MIF to interrupt the formation of downstream NF-κB/P-TEFb complexes, leading to the down-regulation of c-Myb transcription. Interestingly, the implementation of 4-IPP can mediate small molecule-induced MIF protein proteasomal degradation via the STUB1 E3 ligand. However, 4-IPP still interrupted MIF-mediated communication between osteosarcoma cells and osteoclasts, thus promoting osteoclastogenesis. Remarkably, 4-IPP strongly reduced HOS-derived xenograft osteosarcoma tumourigenesis and metastasis in an in vivo mouse model.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate that the small molecule 4-IPP targeting the MIF protein exerts an anti-osteosarcoma effect by simultaneously inactivating the biological functions of MIF and promoting its proteasomal degradation. Direct destabilization of the MIF protein with 4-IPP may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating osteosarcoma.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of regorafenib on the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF)-κB-modulated expression of angiogenesis- and metastasis-associated proteins and cell invasion in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep1 cells. The SK-Hep1 cells were treated with different concentrations of NF-κB inhibitor 4-N-[2-(4-phenoxyphenyl) ethyl] quinazoline-4,6-diamine (QNZ) or regorafenib for 24 or 48 h. The effects of QNZ and regorafenib on cell viability, NF-κB activation, expression and secretion levels of angiogenesis- and metastasis-associated proteins and cell invasion were evaluated with MTT assays, western blotting, ELISA, gelatin zymography and cell invasion assays. The results demonstrated that QNZ and regorafenib significantly reduced the expression and secretion levels of the angiogenesis- and metastasis-associated proteins vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, NF-κB activation and cell invasion. In conclusion, the inhibition of NF-κB activation induces anti-angiogenic and antimetastatic effects in SK-Hep1 cells. Regorafenib reduces the level of expression and secretion of angiogenesis- and metastasis-associated proteins and cell invasion through the suppression of NF-κB activation in SK-Hep1 cells.
Project description:The prognosis of metastatic osteosarcoma (OS) remains poor with a <20% survival rate, particularly in cases of distant (non-lung) metastases. Tumor-treating field (TTF) therapy is a novel electric field-based treatment that causes metaphase arrest and tumor cell death, with the advantage of reduced side effects compared to radiation and chemotherapy. TTF shows promise in glioblastoma and other solid tumors; however, few studies have examined its potential in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Therefore, we explored the mechanism of TTF-induced metastasis inhibition and cell death using in vitro models. TTF (1.5 V/cm, 150 kHz) was applied to U2OS and KHOS/NP OS cell lines. In addition, a 3-dimensional culture system was established using these OS cell lines. Cell migration and invasion (i.e., metastatic potential) were examined using a wound-healing scratch assay and transwell assay, respectively. Western blotting of metastasis- and angiogenesis-related proteins was performed. TTF suppressed the migration of and invasion by OS cells and inhibited the expression of epithelial markers, thereby preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark of metastasis. Moreover, TTF prevented angiogenesis in human tumor endothelial cells and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Therefore, TTF shows potential as an improved treatment for osteosarcoma, warranting further preclinical studies in animal models to support clinical trials.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently shows early invasion into blood vessels as well as intrahepatic metastasis. Innovations of novel small-molecule agents to block HCC invasion and subsequent metastasis are urgently needed. Moscatilin is a bibenzyl derivative extracted from the stems of a traditional Chinese medicine, orchid Dendrobium loddigesii. Although moscatilin has been reported to suppress tumor angiogenesis and growth, the anti-metastatic property of moscatilin has not been elucidated. The present results revealed that moscatilin inhibited metastatic behavior of HCC cells without cytotoxic fashion in highly invasive human HCC cell lines. Furthermore, moscatilin significantly suppressed the activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), but not matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Interestingly, moscatilin-suppressed uPA activity was through down-regulation the protein level of uPA, and did not impair the uPA receptor and uPA inhibitory molecule (PAI-1) expressions. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of uPA was inhibited via moscatilin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated Akt, rather than ERK1/2, was inhibited by moscatilin treatment. The expression of phosphor-IκBα, and -p65, as well as κB-luciferase activity were also repressed after moscatilin treatment. Transfection of constitutively active Akt (Myr-Akt) obviously restored the moscatilin-inhibited the activation of NF-κB and uPA, and cancer invasion in HCC cells. Taken together, these results suggest that moscatilin impedes HCC invasion and uPA expression through the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Moscatilin might serve as a potential anti-metastatic agent against the disease progression of human HCC.
Project description:CONTEXT:Development of novel strategies in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer are needed. Our laboratory has previously identified a role for nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in human thyroid cancer cell growth, survival, and invasion. OBJECTIVE:Our goal was to establish the role of NF-κB signaling on thyroid cancer growth and metastases in vivo and to begin to dissect mechanisms regulating this effect. SETTING AND DESIGN:We examined tumor formation of five thyroid cancer cell lines in an in vivo model of thyroid cancer and observed tumor establishment in two of the cell lines (8505C and BCPAP). RESULTS:Inhibition of NF-κB signaling by overexpression of a dominant-negative IκBα (mIκBα) significantly inhibited thyroid tumor growth in tumors derived from both cell lines. Further studies in an experimental metastasis model demonstrated that NF-κB inhibition impaired growth of tumor metastasis and prolonged mouse survival. Proliferation (mitotic index) was decreased in 8505C tumors, but not in BCPAP tumors, while in vitro angiogenesis and in vivo tumor vascularity were significantly inhibited by mIkBα only in the BCPAP cells. Cytokine antibody array analysis demonstrated that IL-8 secretion was blocked by mIκBα expression. Interestingly, basal NF-κB activity and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in the two tumorigenic cell lines compared with the nontumorigenic lines. Furthermore, IL-8 transcript levels were elevated in high-risk human tumors, suggesting that NF-κB and IL-8 are associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. CONCLUSIONS:These studies suggest that NF-κB signaling is a key regulator of angiogenesis and growth of primary and metastatic thyroid cancer, and that IL-8 may be an important downstream mediator of NF-κB signaling in advanced thyroid cancer growth and progression.
Project description:Isothiocyanates, which are present as glucosinolate precursors in cruciferous vegetables, have strong activity against various cancers. Here, we compared the anti-metastatic effects of isothiocyanates (benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and sulforaphane (SFN)) by examining how they regulate MMP-9 expression. Isothiocyanates, particularly PEITC, suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP-9 activity and invasion in various cancer cell lines. By contrast, N-methyl phenethylamine, a PEITC analog without an isothiocyanate functional group, had no effect. A reporter gene assay demonstrated that BITC, PEITC, and SFN suppressed TAP-induced MMP-9 expression by inhibiting AP-1 and NF-κB in U20S osteosarcoma cells. All three compounds reduced phosphorylation of FAK, ERK1/2, and Akt. In addition, MMP-9 expression was downregulated by inhibiting FAK, ERK1/2, and Akt. Isothiocyanates-mediated inhibition of FAK phosphorylation suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in U2OS and A549 cells, along with the translocation of p65 and c-Fos, suggesting that isothiocyanates inhibit MMP-9 expression and cell invasion by blocking phosphorylation of FAK. Furthermore, isothiocyanates, abolished MMP-9 expression and tumor metastasis <i>in vivo</i> with the following efficacy: PEITC>BITC>SFN. Thus, isothiocyanates act as anti-metastatic compounds that suppress MMP-9 activity/expression by inhibiting NF-κB and AP-1 via suppression of the FAK/ERK and FAK/Akt signaling pathways.
Project description:Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from <i>curcumin longa</i> that exhibits anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The consumption of foods at supernutritional levels to obtain health benefits may paradoxically result in negative health outcomes. In the present study, multiple targeting characteristics of curcumin were analyzed using our gene expression screening system, which utilized the gene expression signatures of curcumin from human hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer cells to query gene expression databases and effectively identify the molecular actions of curcumin. In agreement with prediction, curcumin inhibited NF-κB and Aurora-A, and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Curcumin-suppressed NF-κB was identified through inhibition of PLCG1, PIK3R1, and MALT1 in the CD4-T-cell-receptor-signaling NF-κB cascade pathway. The results suggest that our novel gene expression screening platform is an effective method of rapidly identifying unknown biological functions and side effects of compounds with potential nutraceutical benefits.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub> S), an endogenous signaling gaseous molecule, is involved in various physiological activities, including vessel relaxation, regulation of cellular bioenergetics, inflammation, and angiogenesis. By using xenograft orthotopic implantation of prostate cancer PC3 cells and subsequently comparing bone metastatic with primary tumor-derived cancer cells, we find that H<sub>2</sub> S-producing enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) is upregulated in bone-metastatic PC3 cells. Clinical data further reveal that the expression of CTH is elevated in late-stage prostate cancer patients, and higher CTH expression correlates with poor survival from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) prostate cancer RNA-seq datasets. CTH promotes NF-κB nuclear translocation through H<sub>2</sub> S-mediated sulfhydration on cysteine-38 of the NF-κB p65 subunit, resulting in increased IL-1β expression and H<sub>2</sub> S-induced cell invasion. Knockdown of CTH in PC3 cells results in the suppression of tumor growth and distant metastasis, while overexpression of CTH in DU145 cells promotes primary tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in the orthotopic implanted xenograft mouse model. Together, our findings provide evidence that CTH generated H<sub>2</sub> S promotes prostate cancer progression and metastasis through IL-1β/NF-κB signaling pathways.