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An insulin-independent mechanism for transcriptional regulation of Foxo1 in type 2 diabetic mice.

ABSTRACT: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the major contributor to the hyperglycemia observed in both patients and animals with type 2 diabetes. The transcription factor FOXO1 plays a dominant role in stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. FOXO1 is mainly regulated by insulin under physiological conditions, but liver-specific disruption of Foxo1 transcription restores normal gluconeogenesis in mice in which insulin signaling has been blocked, suggesting that additional regulatory mechanisms exist. Understanding the transcriptional regulation of Foxo1 may be conducive to the development of insulin-independent strategies for the control of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we found that elevated plasma levels of adenine nucleotide in type 2 diabetes are the major regulators of Foxo1 transcription. We treated lean mice with 5'-AMP and examined their transcriptional profiles using RNA-seq. KEGG analysis revealed that the 5'-AMP treatment led to shifted profiles that were similar to db/db mice. Many of the upregulated genes were in pathways associated with the pathology of type 2 diabetes including Foxo1 signaling. As observed in diabetic db/db mice, lean mice treated with 5'-AMP displayed enhanced Foxo1 transcription, involving an increase in cellular adenosine levels and a decrease in the S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. This reduced methylation potential resulted in declining histone H3K9 methylation in the promoters of Foxo1, G6Pc, and Pepck. In mouse livers and cultured cells, 5'-AMP induced expression of more FOXO1 protein, which was found to be localized in the nucleus, where it could promote gluconeogenesis. Our results revealed that adenine nucleotide-driven Foxo1 transcription is crucial for excessive glucose production in type 2 diabetic mice.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8233149 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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