Mildly Increased Renin Expression in the Absence of Kidney Injury in the Murine Transverse Aortic Constriction Model.
ABSTRACT: Cardiorenal syndrome type 2 is characterized by kidney failure as a consequence of heart failure that affects >50% of heart failure patients. Murine transverse aortic constriction (TAC) is a heart failure model, where pressure overload is induced on the heart without any systemic hypertension or its consequences. Whether renal function is altered in this model is debated, and if so, at which time post-TAC renal dysfunction starts to contribute to worsening of cardiac function. We therefore studied the effects of progressive heart failure development on kidney function in the absence of chronically elevated systemic blood pressure and renal perfusion pressure. C57BL/6J mice (N = 129) were exposed to TAC using a minimally invasive technique and followed from 3 to 70 days post-TAC. Cardiac function was determined with 3D ultrasound and showed a gradual decrease in stroke volume over time. Renal renin expression and plasma renin concentration increased with progressive heart failure, suggesting hypoperfusion of the kidney. In addition, plasma urea concentration, a surrogate marker for renal dysfunction, was increased post-TAC. However, no structural abnormalities in the kidney, nor albuminuria were present at any time-point post-TAC. Progressive heart failure is associated with increased renin expression, but only mildly affected renal function without inducing structural injury. In combination, these data suggest that heart failure alone does not contribute to kidney dysfunction in mice.
Project description:In type 2 cardiorenal syndrome, chronic heart failure is thought to cause or promote chronic kidney disease; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of Wnt signaling in heart and kidney injury in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). At 8 weeks after TAC, cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis were prominent, and echocardiography confirmed impaired cardiac function. The cardiac lesions were accompanied by upregulation of multiple Wnt ligands and activation of ?-catenin, as well as activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Wnt3a induced multiple components of the RAS in primary cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. TAC also caused proteinuria and kidney fibrosis, accompanied by klotho depletion and ?-catenin activation in the kidney. Pharmacologic blockade of ?-catenin with a small molecule inhibitor or the RAS with losartan ameliorated cardiac injury, restored heart function, and mitigated the renal lesions. Serum from TAC mice was sufficient to activate ?-catenin and trigger tubular cell injury in vitro, indicating a role for circulating factors. Multiple inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in the circulation of TAC mice, and tumor necrosis factor-? was able to inhibit klotho, induce ?-catenin activation, and cause tubular cell injury in vitro. These studies identify Wnt/?-catenin signaling as a common pathogenic mediator of heart and kidney injury in type 2 cardiorenal syndrome after TAC. Targeting this pathway could be a promising therapeutic strategy to protect both organs in cardiorenal syndrome.
Project description:Although chronic heart failure is clinically associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), the precise mechanism that connects kidney and heart remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the effect of pre-existing heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) on kidney via sympathetic activity, using the combining models of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion (IR). The evaluation of acute (24 h) and chronic (2 weeks) phases of renal injury following IR 8 weeks after TAC in C57BL/6 mice revealed that the development of renal fibrosis in chronic phase was significantly attenuated in TAC mice, but not in non-TAC mice, whereas no impact of pre-existing heart failure was observed in acute phase of renal IR. Expression of transforming growth factor-β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage infiltration were significantly reduced in TAC mice. Lastly, to investigate the effect of sympathetic nerve activity, we performed renal sympathetic denervation two days prior to renal IR, which abrogated attenuation of renal fibrosis in TAC mice. Collectively, we demonstrate the protective effect of pre-existing HFrEF on long-term renal ischemic injury. Renal sympathetic nerve may contribute to this protection; however, further studies are needed to fully clarify the comprehensive mechanisms associated with attenuated renal fibrosis and pre-existing HFrEF.
Project description:The early events that signal renal dysfunction in presymptomatic heart failure are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that functional and mechanistic changes occur in the kidney that precede the development of symptomatic heart failure. We employed a transgenic mouse model with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of mutant α-B-crystallin that develops slowly progressive cardiomyopathy. Presymptomatic transgenic mice displayed an increase in serum creatinine (1.17 ± 0.34 vs. wild type 0.65 ± 0.16 mg/dl, <i>P</i> < 0.05) and in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL; 278.92 ± 176.24 vs. wild type 49.11 ± 22.79 ng/ml, <i>P</i> < 0.05) but no renal fibrosis. Presymptomatic transgenic mouse kidneys exhibited a twofold upregulation of the <i>Ren1</i> gene, marked overexpression of renin protein in the tubules, and a worsened response to ischemia-reperfusion injury based on serum creatinine (2.77 ± 0.66 in transgenic mice vs. 2.01 ± 0.58 mg/dl in wild type, <i>P</i> < 0.05), urine NGAL (9,198.79 ± 3,799.52 in transgenic mice vs. 3,252.94 ± 2,420.36 ng/ml in wild type, <i>P</i> < 0.05), tubule dilation score (3.4 ± 0.5 in transgenic mice vs. 2.6 ± 0.5 in wild type, <i>P</i> < 0.05), tubule cast score (3.2 ± 0.4 in transgenic mice vs. 2.5 ± 0.5 in wild type, <i>P</i> < 0.05), and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei (10.1 ± 2.1 in the transgenic group vs. 5.7 ± 1.6 per 100 cells counted in wild type, <i>P</i> < 0.01). Our findings indicate functional renal impairment, urinary biomarker elevations, and induction of renin gene and protein expression in the kidney that occur in early presymptomatic heart failure, which increase the susceptibility to subsequent acute kidney injury.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis plays a key role in mediating cardiac and kidney injury. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism has beneficial effects on cardiac dysfunction, but effects are less well quantified in the cardiorenal syndrome. This study investigated cardiac and kidney pathophysiology following permanent surgical ligation to induce myocardial infarction (MI) in hypertensive animals with or without mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism.<h4>Methods</h4>Hypertension was induced in adult male Cyp1a1Ren2 rats. Hypertensive animals underwent MI surgery (n = 6), and were then treated daily with spironolactone for 28 days with serial systolic blood pressure measurements, echocardiograms and collection of urine and serum biochemical data. They were compared to hypertensive animals (n = 4), hypertensive animals treated with spironolactone (n = 4), and hypertensive plus MI without spironolactone (n = 6). Cardiac and kidney tissue was examined for histological and immunohistochemical analysis.<h4>Results</h4>MI superimposed on hypertension resulted in an increase in interstitial cardiac fibrosis (p<0.001), renal cortical interstitial fibrosis (p<0.01) and glomerulosclerosis (p<0.01). Increased fibrosis was accompanied by myofibroblast and macrophage infiltration in the heart and the kidney. Spironolactone post-MI, diminished the progressive fibrosis (p<0.001) and inflammation (myofibroblasts (p<0.05); macrophages (p<0.01)) in both the heart and the kidney, despite persistently elevated SBP (182±19 mmHg). Despite the reduction in inflammation and fibrosis, spironolactone did not modify ejection fraction, proteinuria, or renal function when compared to untreated animals post MI.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This model of progressive cardiorenal dysfunction more closely replicates the clinical setting. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade at a clinically relevant dose, blunted progression of cardiac and kidney fibrosis with reduction in cardiac and kidney inflammatory myofibroblast and macrophage infiltration. Further studies are underway to investigate the combined actions of angiotensin blockade with mineralocorticoid receptor blockade.
Project description:The transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model surgery is a widely used disease model to study pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice. The severity of adverse cardiac remodeling of the TAC model is largely dependent on the degree of constriction around the aorta, and the phenotypes of TAC are also different in different mouse strains. Few studies focus on directly comparing phenotypes of the TAC model with different degrees of constriction around the aorta, and no study compares the difference in C57BL/6N mice. In the present study, C57BL/6N mice aged 10 weeks were subjected to sham, 25G TAC, 26G TAC, and 27G TAC surgery for 4 weeks. We then analyzed the different phenotypes induced by 25G TAC, 26G TAC, and 27G TAC in c57BL/6N mice in terms of pressure gradient, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac function, heart failure situation, survival condition, and cardiac fibrosis. All C57BL/6N mice subjected to TAC surgery developed significantly hypertrophy. Mice subjected to 27G TAC had severe cardiac dysfunction, severe cardiac fibrosis, and exhibited characteristics of heart failure at 4 weeks post-TAC. Compared with 27G TAC mice, 26G TAC mice showed a much milder response in cardiac dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis compared to 27G TAC, and a very small fraction of the 26G TAC group exhibited characteristics of heart failure. There was no obvious cardiac dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and characteristics of heart failure observed in 25G TAC mice. Based on our results, we conclude that the 25G TAC, 26G TAC, and 27G TAC induced distinct phenotypes in C57BL/6N mice.
Project description:We previously reported that gentisic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we examined whether gentisic acid prevents the development of heart failure. Heart failure was induced in mice via chronic TAC. Mice were administered the vehicle, gentisic acid (10 and 100?mg?kg-1?day-1), or bisoprolol (0.5?mg?kg-1?day-1) orally for 3 weeks, beginning 3 weeks after TAC. After oral administration of gentisic acid (2000 mg?kg-1), no significant differences in organ weight, histology, or analyzed serum and hematological parameters were observed between female mice in the control and gentisic acid-treated groups. Gentisic acid administration inhibited cardiac dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, as was revealed via western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, and Masson's trichrome staining. Gentisic acid dose-dependently reduced the expression of fibrosis marker genes, suppressed the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and reduced lung size and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our data indicate that gentisic acid prevents cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction, and pulmonary pathology in TAC-induced heart failure. These findings suggest that supplementation with gentisic acid may provide an advantage in preventing the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.
Project description:The presence of chronic kidney disease is a significant independent risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. However, the mechanisms and mediators underlying this interaction are poorly understood. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that chronic cardiac volume overload leads to de novo renal dysfunction by coactivating the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system in the kidney. We also examined the therapeutic potential of renal denervation and renin-angiotensin system inhibition to suppress renal injury in chronic heart failure.Sprague-Dawley rats underwent aortic regurgitation and were treated for 6 months with vehicle, olmesartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker), or hydralazine. At 6 months, albuminuria and glomerular podocyte injury were significantly increased in aortic regurgitation rats. These changes were associated with increased urinary angiotensinogen excretion, kidney angiotensin II and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and enhanced angiotensinogen and angiotensin type 1a receptor gene expression and oxidative stress in renal cortical tissues. Aortic regurgitation rats with renal denervation had decreased albuminuria and glomerular podocyte injury, which were associated with reduced kidney NE, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, and oxidative stress. Renal denervation combined with olmesartan prevented podocyte injury and albuminuria induced by aortic regurgitation.In this chronic cardiac volume-overload animal model, activation of the sympathetic nervous system augments kidney renin-angiotensin system and oxidative stress, which act as crucial cardiorenal mediators. Renal denervation and olmesartan prevent the onset and progression of renal injury, providing new insight into the treatment of cardiorenal syndrome.
Project description:Type-1 cardiorenal syndrome, characterized by acute kidney dysfunction secondary to cardiac failure and renal arteriolar vasoconstriction, is mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and sympathetic nervous system activation. Previous reports indicate that angiotensin II modulates immune function and causes recruitment and activation of T-lymphocytes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of postischemic heart failure on renal morphology and circulation and the beneficial effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in T-lymphocyte-suppressed severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups: sham, myocardial infarction (MI), MI treated with an HO-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin, and with or without stannous mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO activity. Heart and kidney function were studied 30 days after surgery. Fractional area change was reduced 30 days after surgery in both the C57 and SCID MI-groups as compared with their respective controls (P<0.01). Renal Pulsatility Index and renal injury were increased in C57 and SCID MI-groups compared with the sham group. HO-1 induction improved renal vasoconstriction as well as ameliorated renal injury in both the SCID and C57 MI-groups (P<0.01). However, improvement was more evident in SCID mice. In addition, our results showed that plasma creatinine, angiotensin II, and renin were significantly increased in the C57 and SCID MI-groups as compared with their respective controls. HO-1 induction decreased these parameters in both MI groups. Stannous mesoporphyrin reversed the beneficial effect of cobalt protoporphyrin in both mouse strains. The study demonstrates that T-lymphocyte suppression facilitated the HO-1-dependent improvement in the attenuation of type-1 cardiorenal syndrome.
Project description:Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.
Project description:Multicenter, prospective, observational study to compare the relative bioavailability of once-daily tacrolimus formulations in de novo kidney transplant recipients. De novo kidney transplant recipients who started a tacrolimus-based regimen were included 14 days post-transplant and followed up for 6 months. Data from 218 participants were evaluated: 129 in the LCPT group (Envarsus) and 89 in the PR-Tac (Advagraf) group. Patients in the LCPT group exhibited higher relative bioavailability (C<sub>min</sub> /total daily dose [TDD]) vs. PR-Tac (61% increase; P < .001) with similar C<sub>min</sub> and 30% lower TDD levels (P < .0001). The incidence of treatment failure was 3.9% in the LCPT group and 9.0% in the PR-Tac group (P = .117). Study discontinuation rates were 6.2% in the LCPT group and 12.4% in the PR-Tac group (P = .113). Adverse events, renal function and other complications were comparable between groups. The median accumulated dose of tacrolimus in the LCPT group from day 14 to month 6 was 889 mg. Compared to PR-Tac, LCPT showed higher relative bioavailability, similar effectiveness at preventing allograft rejection, comparable effect on renal function, safety, adherence, treatment failure and premature discontinuation rates.