Development of DNA Markers From Physically Mapped Loci in Aegilops comosa and Aegilops umbellulata Using Single-Gene FISH and Chromosome Sequences.
ABSTRACT: Breeding of agricultural crops adapted to climate change and resistant to diseases and pests is hindered by a limited gene pool because of domestication and thousands of years of human selection. One way to increase genetic variation is chromosome-mediated gene transfer from wild relatives by cross hybridization. In the case of wheat (Triticum aestivum), the species of genus Aegilops are a particularly attractive source of new genes and alleles. However, during the evolution of the Aegilops and Triticum genera, diversification of the D-genome lineage resulted in the formation of diploid C, M, and U genomes of Aegilops. The extent of structural genome alterations, which accompanied their evolution and speciation, and the shortage of molecular tools to detect Aegilops chromatin hamper gene transfer into wheat. To investigate the chromosome structure and help develop molecular markers with a known physical position that could improve the efficiency of the selection of desired introgressions, we developed single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps for M- and U-genome progenitors, Aegilops comosa and Aegilops umbellulata, respectively. Forty-three ortholog genes were located on 47 loci in Ae. comosa and on 52 loci in Ae. umbellulata using wheat cDNA probes. The results obtained showed that M-genome chromosomes preserved collinearity with those of wheat, excluding 2 and 6M containing an intrachromosomal rearrangement and paracentric inversion of 6ML, respectively. While Ae. umbellulata chromosomes 1, 3, and 5U maintained collinearity with wheat, structural reorganizations in 2, 4, 6, and 7U suggested a similarity with the C genome of Aegilops markgrafii. To develop molecular markers with exact physical positions on chromosomes of Aegilops, the single-gene FISH data were validated in silico using DNA sequence assemblies from flow-sorted M- and U-genome chromosomes. The sequence similarity search of cDNA sequences confirmed 44 out of the 47 single-gene loci in Ae. comosa and 40 of the 52 map positions in Ae. umbellulata. Polymorphic regions, thus, identified enabled the development of molecular markers, which were PCR validated using wheat-Aegilops disomic chromosome addition lines. The single-gene FISH-based approach allowed the development of PCR markers specific for cytogenetically mapped positions on Aegilops chromosomes, substituting as yet unavailable segregating map. The new knowledge and resources will support the efforts for the introgression of Aegilops genes into wheat and their cloning.
Project description:Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat-Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.
Project description:Recent stem rust epidemics in eastern Africa and elsewhere demonstrated that wheat stem rust is a re-emerging disease posing a threat to wheat production worldwide. The cultivated wheat gene pool has a narrow genetic base for resistance to virulent races, such as races in the Ug99 race group. Wild relatives of wheat are a tractable source of stem rust resistance genes. Aegilops species in the tertiary genepool have not been exploited to any great extent as a source of stem rust resistance. We evaluated 1,422 accessions of Aegilops spp. for resistance to three highly virulent races (TTKSK, TRTTF, and TTTTF) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Species studied include Ae. biuncialis, Ae. caudata, Ae. comosa, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta, Ae. peregrina, Ae. triuncialis, and Ae. umbellulata that do not share common genomes with cultivated wheat. High frequencies of resistance were observed as 977 (68.8%), 927 (65.2%), and 850 (59.8%) accessions exhibited low infection types to races TTKSK, TTTTF, and TRTTF, respectively. Contingency table analyses showed strong association for resistance to different races in several Aegilops spp., indicating that for a given species, the resistance genes effective against multiple races. Inheritance studies in selected accessions showed that resistance to race TTKSK is simply inherited.
Project description:This study characterized and evaluated a set of wheat-Aegilops comosa introgression lines, including six additions and one substitution. A total of 47 PLUG markers and a set of cytogenetic markers specific for Ae. comosa chromosomes were established after screening 526 PLUG primer pairs and performing FISH using oligonucleotides as probes. Marker analysis confirmed that these lines were wheat-Ae. comosa 2M-7M addition lines and a 6M(6A) substitution line. The molecular and cytogenetic markers developed herein could be used to trace Ae. comosa chromatin in wheat background. In order to evaluate the breeding value of the material, disease resistance tests and agronomical trait investigations were carried out on these alien chromosome introgression lines. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosomes 2M and 7M of Ae. comosa might harbor new stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance genes, respectively, therefore, they could be used as resistance sources for wheat breeding. Investigations into agronomical traits showed that all chromosomes 2M to 7M had detrimental effects on the agronomic performance of wheat, therefore, the selection of plants with relatively negative effects should be avoided when inducing wheat-A. comosa chromosome translocations using chromosome engineering procedures.
Project description:High-density genetic maps are useful to precisely localize QTL or genes that might be used to improve traits of nutritional and/or economical importance in crops. However, high-density genetic maps are lacking for most wild relatives of crop species, including wheat. <i>Aegilops umbellulata</i> is a wild relative of wheat known for its potential as a source of biotic and abiotic stress resistance genes. In this work, we have developed a framework consensus genetic map using two biparental populations derived from accessions PI 298905, PI 542369, PI 5422375, and PI 554395. The framework map comprised 3009 genotype-by-sequence SNPs with a total map size of 948.72 cM. On average, there were three SNPs per centimorgan for each chromosome. Chromosome 1U was the shortest (66.5 cM), with only 81 SNPs, whereas the remaining chromosomes had between 391 and 591 SNP markers. A total of 2395 unmapped SNPs were added to the linkage maps through a recombination frequency approach, and increased the number of SNPs placed on the consensus map to a total of 5404 markers. Segregation distortion was disproportionally high for chromosome 1U for both populations used to construct component linkage maps, and thus segregation distortion could be one of the probable reasons for the exceptionally reduced linkage size for chromosome 1U. From comparative analysis, <i>Ae</i><i>umbellulata</i> chromosomes except 4U showed moderate to strong collinearity with corresponding homeologous chromosomes of hexaploid wheat and barley. The present consensus map may serve as a reference map in QTL mapping and validation projects, and also in genome assembly to develop a reference genome sequence for <i>Ae. umbellulata</i>.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk. (2n?=?14), a wild diploid wheat relative, has been the source of trait improvement in wheat breeding. Intraspecific genetic variation of Ae. umbellulata, however, has not been well studied and the genomic information in this species is limited. RESULTS:To develop novel genetic markers distributed over all chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata and to evaluate its genetic diversity, we performed RNA sequencing of 12 representative accessions and reconstructed transcripts by de novo assembly of reads for each accession. A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (indels) were obtained and anchored to the pseudomolecules of Ae. tauschii and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), which were regarded as virtual chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata. Interestingly, genetic diversity in Ae. umbellulata was higher than in Ae. tauschii, despite the narrow habitat of Ae. umbellulata. Comparative analyses of nucleotide polymorphisms between Ae. umbellulata and Ae. tauschii revealed no clear lineage differentiation and existence of alleles with rarer frequencies predominantly in Ae. umbellulata, with patterns clearly distinct from those in Ae. tauschii. CONCLUSIONS:The anchored SNPs, covering all chromosomes, provide sufficient genetic markers between Ae. umbellulata accessions. The alleles with rarer frequencies might be the main source of the high genetic diversity in Ae. umbellulata.
Project description:Aegilops umbellulata is a wild diploid wheat species with the UU genome that is an important genetic resource for wheat breeding. To exploit new synthetic allohexaploid lines available as bridges for wheat breeding, a total of 26 synthetic hexaploid lines were generated through crossing between the durum wheat cultivar Langdon and 26 accessions of Ae. umbellulata. In nascent synthetic hexaploids with the AABBUU genome, the presence of the set of seven U-genome chromosomes was confirmed with U-genome chromosome-specific markers developed based on RNA-seq-derived data from Ae. umbellulata. The AABBUU synthetic hexaploids showed large variations in flowering- and morphology-related traits, and these large variations transmitted well from the parental Ae. umbellulata accessions. However, the variation ranges in most traits examined were reduced under the AABBUU hexaploid background compared with under the diploid parents. The AABBUU and AABBDD synthetic hexaploids were clearly discriminated by several morphological traits, and an increase of plant height and in the number of spikes and a decrease of spike length were commonly observed in the AABBUU synthetics. Thus, interspecific differences in several morphological traits between Ae. umbellulata and A. tauschii largely affected the basic plant architecture of the synthetic hexaploids. In conclusion, the AABBUU synthetic hexaploid lines produced in the present study are useful resources for the introgression of desirable genes from Ae. umbellulata to common wheat.
Project description:Production of wheat-alien disomic addition lines is of great value to the exploitation and utilization of elite genes originated from related species to wheat. In this study, a novel wheat-Aegilops biuncialis 5Mb disomic addition line WA317 was characterized by in situ hybridization (ISH) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) markers. Compared to its parent Chinese Spring (CS), the glumes of WA317 had black color and were difficult to remove after harvesting, suggesting chromosome 5Mb carried gene(s) related to glume development and Triticeae domestication process. A total of 242 Ae. biuncialis SLAF-based markers (298 amplified patterns) were developed and further divided into four categories by Ae. biuncialis Y17, Ae. umbellulata Y139 and Ae. comosa Y258, including 172 markers amplifying the same bands of U and M genome, six and 102 markers amplifying U-specific and M-specific bands, respectively and eighteen markers amplifying specific bands in Y17. Among them, 45 markers had the specific amplifications in WA317 and were 5Mb specific markers. Taken together, line WA317 with tenacious and black glumes should serve as the foundation for understanding of the Triticeae domestication process and further exploitation of primitive alleles for wheat improvement. Ae. biuncialis SLAF-based markers can be used for studying syntenic relationships between U and M genomes as well as rapid tracking of U and M chromosomal segments in wheat background.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Repetitive DNA sequences are thought to be involved in the formation of chromosomal rearrangements. The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of microsatellite clusters in Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata, and its relationship with the intergenomic translocations in these allotetraploid species, wild genetic resources for wheat improvement. METHODS: The chromosomal localization of (ACG)(n) and (GAA)(n) microsatellite sequences in Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata and in their diploid progenitors Aegilops comosa and Aegilops umbellulata was investigated by sequential in situ hybridization with simple sequence repeat (SSR) probes and repeated DNA probes (pSc119·2, Afa family and pTa71) and by dual-colour genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Thirty-two Ae. biuncialis and 19 Ae. geniculata accessions were screened by GISH for intergenomic translocations, which were further characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and GISH. KEY RESULTS: Single pericentromeric (ACG)(n) signals were localized on most U and on some M genome chromosomes, whereas strong pericentromeric and several intercalary and telomeric (GAA)(n) sites were observed on the Aegilops chromosomes. Three Ae. biuncialis accessions carried 7U(b)-7M(b) reciprocal translocations and one had a 7U(b)-1M(b) rearrangement, while two Ae. geniculata accessions carried 7U(g)-1M(g) or 5U(g)-5M(g) translocations. Conspicuous (ACG)(n) and/or (GAA)(n) clusters were located near the translocation breakpoints in eight of the ten translocated chromosomes analysed, SSR bands and breakpoints being statistically located at the same chromosomal site in six of them. CONCLUSIONS: Intergenomic translocation breakpoints are frequently mapped to SSR-rich chromosomal regions in the allopolyploid species examined, suggesting that microsatellite repeated DNA sequences might facilitate the formation of those chromosomal rearrangements. The (ACG)(n) and (GAA)(n) SSR motifs serve as additional chromosome markers for the karyotypic analysis of UM genome Aegilops species.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The gamma-gliadins are considered to be the oldest of the gliadin family of storage proteins in Aegilops/Triticum. However, the expansion of this multigene family has not been studied in an evolutionary perspective. RESULTS: We have cloned 59 gamma-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species (Aegilops caudata L., Aegilops comosa Sm. in Sibth. & Sm., Aegilops mutica Boiss., Aegilops speltoides Tausch, Aegilops tauschii Coss., Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., Aegilops uniaristata Vis., and Triticum monococcum L.) representing eight different genomes: Am, B/S, C, D, M, N, T and U. Overall, 15% of the sequences contained internal stop codons resulting in pseudogenes, but this percentage was variable among genomes, up to over 50% in Ae. umbellulata. The most common length of the deduced protein, including the signal peptide, was 302 amino acids, but the length varied from 215 to 362 amino acids, both obtained from Ae. speltoides. Most genes encoded proteins with eight cysteines. However, all Aegilops species had genes that encoded a gamma-gliadin protein of 302 amino acids with an additional cysteine. These conserved nine-cysteine gamma-gliadins may perform a specific function, possibly as chain terminators in gluten network formation in protein bodies during endosperm development. A phylogenetic analysis of gamma-gliadins derived from Aegilops and Triticum species and the related genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum showed six groups of genes. Most Aegilops species contained gamma-gliadin genes from several of these groups, which also included sequences from the genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum. Hordein and secalin sequences formed separate groups. CONCLUSIONS: We present a model for the evolution of the gamma-gliadins from which we deduce that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Aegilops/Triticum-Dasypyrum-Lophopyrum-Crithopsis already had four groups of gamma-gliadin sequences, presumably the result of two rounds of duplication of the locus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Triticum and Aegilops diploid species have morphological and genetic diversity and are crucial genetic resources for wheat breeding. According to the chromosomal pairing-affinity of these species, their genome nomenclatures have been defined. However, evaluations of genome differentiation based on genome-wide nucleotide variations are still limited, especially in the three genomes of the genus Aegilops: Ae. caudata L. (CC genome), Ae. comosa Sibth. et Sm. (MM genome), and Ae. uniaristata Vis. (NN genome). To reveal the genome differentiation of these diploid species, we first performed RNA-seq-based polymorphic analyses for C, M, and N genomes, and then expanded the analysis to include the 12 diploid species of Triticum and Aegilops. RESULTS:Genetic divergence of the exon regions throughout the entire chromosomes in the M and N genomes was larger than that between A- and Am-genomes. Ae. caudata had the second highest genetic diversity following Ae. speltoides, the putative B genome donor of common wheat. In the phylogenetic trees derived from the nuclear and chloroplast genome-wide polymorphism data, the C, D, M, N, U, and S genome species were connected with short internal branches, suggesting that these diploid species emerged during a relatively short period in the evolutionary process. The highly consistent nuclear and chloroplast phylogenetic topologies indicated that nuclear and chloroplast genomes of the diploid Triticum and Aegilops species coevolved after their diversification into each genome, accounting for most of the genome differentiation among the diploid species. CONCLUSIONS:RNA-sequencing-based analyses successfully evaluated genome differentiation among the diploid Triticum and Aegilops species and supported the chromosome-pairing-based genome nomenclature system, except for the position of Ae. speltoides. Phylogenomic and epigenetic analyses of intergenic and centromeric regions could be essential for clarifying the mechanisms behind this inconsistency.