The Application of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy and Uniportal and Tubeless Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery in the Multidisciplinary Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung disease-A Real-World Prospective Study.
ABSTRACT: The application of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) and uniportal and tubeless video-assisted thoracic surgery (UT-VATS) in the multidisciplinary diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been demonstrated in real-world clinical practice. This prospective study included 137 patients with no definitive diagnosis who were the subject of two multidisciplinary discussion (MDD) sessions. As indicated in the first MDD, 67 patients underwent UT-VATS and 70 underwent TBLC. The specificity of biopsy information and its contribution to final MDD diagnosis were evaluated in the second MDD. The post-operative complications and hospitalization costs associated with the two biopsy methods were compared. UT-VATS was favored for patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD)/desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and undefined idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (UIIP), while TBLC was preferred for pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (PLAM) and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The spirometry parameters were better in patients who underwent UT-VATS than those who underwent TBLC. UT-VATS provided more specific pathological results than TBLC (85.7 vs 73.7%, p = 0.06). In patients initially diagnosed with UIIP, pathological information from UT-VATS was more clinically useful than that obtained from TBLC, although both tests contributed similarly to cases initially diagnosed as interstitial pneumonia with auto-immune features (IPAF)/connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD). The safety of UT-VATS was comparable with TBLC although TBLC was cheaper during hospitalization (US$4,855.7 vs US$3,590.9, p < 0.001). multidisciplinary discussion decisions about biopsies were driven by current knowledge of sampling and diagnosis capacity as well as potential risks of different biopsy methods. The current MDD considered UT-VATS more informative than TBLC in cases initially diagnosed as UIIP although they were equally valuable in patients initially diagnosed with IPAF/CTD-ILD.
Project description:Background:When a clinical context is indeterminate for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), or a chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pattern is not indicative of typical or probable usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), surgical lung biopsy should be considered to make a confident diagnosis on the basis of multidisciplinary diagnosis (MDD). Aim:The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and safety of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in patients with ILD. Methods:A total of 143 patients with ILD underwent VATS at Toho University Medical Center Omori Hospital between March 2004 and April 2017. We conducted a retrospective study on the usefulness and safety of VATS in the diagnosis of ILD under MDD. Results:The 30-day mortality was 0%. The postoperative complication rate was 12.6%, which included 5 cases of pneumothorax after discharge (3.5%), 4 cases of prolonged air leakage (2.8%), and 2 cases of acute exacerbation (1.4%). Three of 9 cases (33.3%) complicated by pneumothorax after discharge or prolonged air leakage were resected specimens of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Two patients had acute exacerbation, who were ultimately diagnosed as having idiopathic unclassifiable IP and had histologically significant irregular dense fibrosis and numerous fibroblastic foci. The comparison between chest HRCT and histopathological findings revealed 55 cases of possible UIP [UIP (45%), NSIP (25%), and unclassifiable IP (29%)] and 21 cases of inconsistent with UIP [UIP (10%), NSIP (33%), organizing pneumonia (10%), unclassifiable IP (24%), and PPFE (24%)]. Conclusion:VATS can be safely performed to obtain a confident diagnosis for appropriate treatment strategies in patients with ILD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) has been introduced as an alternative to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in the diagnostics of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Despite controversy on safety, TBLC is increasingly implemented in ILD centers with an apparent diagnostic yield comparable to SLB. The aim of this study was to assess TBLC implementation experiences from a tertiary Danish ILD center regarding diagnosis, complications, and learning curves for TBLC performance.<h4>Methods</h4>TBLC was prospectively performed in a cohort of patients with unclassifiable ILD based on a preceding multidisciplinary clinical and radiological revision. TBLC was performed as an outpatient procedure with the patients in general anesthesia using a flexible bronchoscope with 1.9 or 2.4 mm cryoprobes. Learning curves for TBLC performance were calculated using cumulated sum (CUSUM) scores for diagnostic yield, pneumothorax, and bleeding.<h4>Results</h4>From February 2017 to March 2020 141 patients (86 (61%) men, median age 69 years [IQR, 60-74 years]) had TBLC performed. A histological and confirmative diagnosis was made in 101 patients (75.2%) and 124 patients (87.9%, i.e. clinical diagnostic yield), respectively, in whom idiopathic interstitial pneumonias constituted the majority (67.3%) of the clinical diagnoses. We observed 2 deaths (1.4%) within 30 days of TBLC, but no procedure-related mortality or severe bleeding. Moderate bleeding occurred in 23 patients (16.3%), pneumothorax in 21 patients (14.9%) with only 14 patients (9.9%) requiring a pleural drain. Based on the CUSUM score analysis, the diagnostic yield obtained was satisfactory throughout the period.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study reports experiences of outpatient TBLC implementation in a tertiary referral ILD center from the largest investigated TBLC cohort in Scandinavia The diagnostic yield and prevalence of complications obtained by TBLC from this single center study on unclassifiable ILD support outpatient TBLC as a valuable and safe alternative to SLB to diagnose ILD in well-selected patients. The learning curves for TBLC were acceptable in the hands of experienced bronchoscopists.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine the risk of developing a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD) after an initial diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF). METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) who were evaluated at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from 2009 to 2017. We divided patients with idiopathic ILD into two groups: those who met IPAF criteria and those who did not meet IPAF criteria at initial ILD diagnosis. We examined the association between IPAF and diagnosis of ARD during the follow-up period using a multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model. RESULTS:Of the 697 patients with ILD who were screened, 174 met inclusion criteria (50 met IPAF criteria and 124 did not). During a median follow-up period of 5.2 years, 16% (8/50) of subjects with IPAF were diagnosed with an ARD compared with 1.6% (2/124) of subjects without IPAF (P = 0.001). Adjusting for age, sex, smoking status and use of immunosuppressive therapy, the odds of progressing to an ARD were 14 times higher in subjects with IPAF than in those without IPAF (odds ratio 14.18, 95% CI 1.44-138.95, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION:The presence of IPAF confers an increased risk of developing an ARD. Patients with IPAF should therefore be followed closely for the development of an ARD.
Project description:Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) characterises individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and features of connective tissue disease (CTD) who fail to satisfy CTD criteria. Inclusion of myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) in the IPAF criteria has generated controversy, as these patients also meet proposed criteria for an anti-synthetase syndrome. Whether MSAs and myositis associated antibodies (MAA) identify phenotypically distinct IPAF subgroups remains unclear.A multi-center, retrospective investigation was conducted to assess clinical features and outcomes in patients meeting IPAF criteria stratified by the presence of MSAs and MAAs. IPAF subgroups were compared to cohorts of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy-ILD (IIM-ILD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and non-IIM CTD-ILDs. The primary endpoint assessed was three-year transplant-free survival. Two hundred sixty-nine patients met IPAF criteria, including 35 (13%) with MSAs and 65 (24.2%) with MAAs. Survival was highest among patients with IPAF-MSA and closely approximated those with IIM-ILD. Survival did not differ between IPAF-MAA and IPAF without MSA/MAA cohorts. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) morphology was associated with differential outcome risk, with IPAF patients with non-UIP morphology approximating survival observed in non-IIM CTD-ILDs. MSAs, but not MAAs identified a unique IPAF phenotype characterised by clinical features and outcomes similar to IIM-ILD. UIP morphology was a strong predictor of outcome in others meeting IPAF criteria. Because IPAF is a research classification without clear treatment approach, these findings suggest MSAs should be removed from the IPAF criteria and such patients should be managed as an IIM-ILD.
Project description:Interstitial lung disease (ILD) encompasses a large group of pulmonary conditions sharing common clinical, radiological and histopathological features as a consequence of fibrosis of the lung interstitium. The majority of ILDs are idiopathic in nature with possible genetic predisposition, but is also well recognised as a complication of connective tissue disease or with certain environmental, occupational or drug exposures. In recent years, a concerted international effort has been made to standardise the diagnostic criteria in ILD subtypes, formalise multidisciplinary pathways and standardise treatment recommendations. In this review, we discuss some of the current challenges around ILD diagnostics, the role of serological testing, especially, in light of the new classification of Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features (IPAF) and discuss the evidence for therapies targeted at idiopathic and immune-related pulmonary fibrosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Transbronchial lung forceps biopsy (TBLF) is of limited value for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, in cases with predominantly peribronchial pathology, such as sarcoidosis, TBLF is considered to be diagnostic in most cases. The present study examines whether transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is superior to TBLF in terms of diagnostic yield in cases of sarcoidosis.<h4>Methods</h4>In this post hoc analysis of a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicentre study, 359 patients with ILD requiring diagnostic bronchoscopic tissue sampling were included. TBLF and TBLC were both used for each patient in a randomized order. Histological assessment was undertaken on each biopsy and determined whether sarcoid was a consideration.<h4>Results</h4>A histological diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established in 17 of 272 cases for which histopathology was available. In 6 out of 17 patients, compatible findings were seen with both TBLC and TBLF. In 10 patients, where the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was confirmed by TBLC, TBLF did not provide a diagnosis. In one patient, TBLF but not TBLC confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this post hoc analysis, the histological diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made significantly more often by TBLC than by TBLF. As in other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), the use of TBLC should be considered when sarcoidosis is suspected.
Project description:Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a research classification proposed by the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force on Undifferentiated Forms of Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease as an initial step to uniformly define, identify, and study patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) who have features of autoimmunity, yet fall short of a characterizable connective tissue disease. Since its publication in July 2015, there has been substantial interest in IPAF. Centers from around the world have published their findings of retrospectively identified cohorts of patients who fulfill IPAF criteria, suggestions for modification of the criteria have been offered, and patients who fulfill IPAF criteria are being included as a subset in the ongoing phase II multicenter unclassifiable ILD treatment trial with pirfenidone. The IPAF designation represents an important first step toward studying and furthering our understanding of the natural history of this cohort of patients with ILD using uniform nomenclature and a standardized set of criteria. Prospective evaluations and, ideally, interdisciplinary and multicenter collaborations will inform best practices for treatment and management and will guide future refinement to the IPAF criteria. This review focuses on the relevant background that led to the development of IPAF, summarizes the proposed criteria, discusses cohort studies of patients with IPAF published to date and what they have taught us about the IPAF phenotype, and offers insights into future directions in this arena. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03099187).
Project description:Leukocyte telomere length (LTL), MUC5B rs35705950 and TOLLIP rs5743890 have been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).In this observational cohort study, we assessed the associations between these genomic markers and outcomes of survival and rate of disease progression in patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF, n=250) and connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD, n=248). IPF (n=499) was used as a comparator.The LTL of IPAF and CTD-ILD patients (mean age-adjusted log-transformed T/S of -0.05±0.29 and -0.04±0.25, respectively) is longer than that of IPF patients (-0.17±0.32). For IPAF patients, LTL <10th percentile is associated with faster lung function decline compared to LTL ?10th percentile (-6.43% per year versus -0.86% per year; p<0.0001) and worse transplant-free survival (hazard ratio 2.97, 95% CI 1.70-5.20; p=0.00014). The MUC5B rs35705950 minor allele frequency (MAF) is greater for IPAF patients (23.2, 95% CI 18.8-28.2; p<0.0001) than controls and is associated with worse transplant-free IPAF survival (hazard ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1.18-3.13; p=0.0091). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ILD (RA-ILD) has a shorter LTL than non-RA CTD-ILD (-0.14±0.27 versus -0.01±0.23; p=0.00055) and higher MUC5B MAF (34.6, 95% CI 24.4-46.3 versus 14.1, 95% CI 9.8-20.0; p=0.00025). Neither LTL nor MUC5B are associated with transplant-free CTD-ILD survival.LTL and MUC5B MAF have different associations with lung function progression and survival for IPAF and CTD-ILD.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by varying degrees of lung inflammation and/or fibrosis. We investigated biomarkers to infer whether patients with collagen vascular diseases associated ILD (CVD-ILD) and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively investigated patients with CVD-ILD, IPAF, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) between June 2013 and May 2017 at our department. First, we assessed differences in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of cytokines between groups. Second, we assessed the associations of patient's clinical variables with serum and BALF levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. Finally, we assessed the associations of diagnosis and response to immunosuppressive therapy with serum levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. RESULTS:We included 102 patients (51 with IPF, 35 with IPAF, and 16 with CVD-ILD). Serum and BALF levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were significantly elevated in patients with IPAF or CVD-ILD compared with those in patients with IPF. BALF levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with BALF levels. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were correlated C-reactive protein, percent predicted forced vital capacity, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, and the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 showed moderate accuracy to distinguish patients with CVD-ILD from those with IPAF and IPF. Pre-treatment serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL11 showed strong positive correlations with the annual forced vital capacity changes in patients with IPAF and CVD-ILD treated with immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSIONS:Serum CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are potential biomarkers for autoimmune inflammation and predictors of the immunosuppressive therapy responses in ILD with background autoimmunity.
Project description:Introduction:Despite extensive multidisciplinary team (MDT) assessment, some patients have interstitial lung disease (ILD) that is considered unclassifiable (uILD), for which there are currently no approved treatments. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of the antifibrotic pirfenidone in treating uILD. Methods and analysis:This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase II trial is enrolling adults with fibrosing ILD, including uILD that fulfils proposed research criteria for interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF), that cannot be classified with moderate or high confidence to any category of ILD following MDT discussion. Study participants must have >10% fibrosis on high-resolution CT scan within the previous 12 months, forced vital capacity (FVC) ?45% and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ?30% of predicted values. Study participants will be randomised to receive 801 mg pirfenidone or placebo three times daily for 24 weeks. The efficacy of pirfenidone vs placebo will be assessed by daily measurement of FVC using a handheld spirometer over the treatment period. Other functional parameters, patient-reported outcomes, samples for biomarker analysis and safety endpoints will be collected. Additionally, the study will assess the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone with and without concomitant mycophenolate mofetil treatment and in study participants with or without IPAF. Ethics and dissemination:This trial is being conducted in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonisation E6 guideline for Good Clinical Practice, Declaration of Helsinki and local laws for countries in which the research is conducted. Trial registration number:NCT03099187.