Rapid and simultaneous detection of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in chicken samples by duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupled with a lateral flow biosensor assay.
ABSTRACT: Development of a simple, rapid and specific assay for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. based on duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (d-LAMP), combined with lateral-flow biosensor (LFB) is reported herein. LAMP amplicons of both pathogens were simultaneously amplified and specifically differentiated by LFB. The specificity of the d-LAMP-LFB was evaluated using a set of 68 target and 12 non-target strains, showing 100% inclusivity and exclusivity. The assay can simultaneously detect Campylobacter and Salmonella strains as low as 1 ng and 100 pg genomic DNA per reaction, respectively. The lowest inoculated detection limits for Campylobacter and Salmonella species in artificially contaminated chicken meat samples were 103 CFU and 1 CFU per 25 grams, respectively, after enrichment for 24 h. Furthermore, compared to culture-based methods using field chicken meat samples, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of d-LAMP- LFB were 95.6% (95% CI, 78.0%-99.8%), 71.4% (95% CI, 29.0%-96.3%) and 90.0% (95% CI, 73.4%-97.8%), respectively. The developed d-LAMP-LFB assay herein shows great potentials for the simultaneous detection of the Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. and poses a promising alternative approach for detection of both pathogens with applications in food products.
Project description:<i>Salmonella</i> and <i>Campylobacter</i> ssp. are bacterial pathogens responsible for most foodborne infections in EU countries. Poultry serves as a reservoir for these pathogens, and its important role in the meat industry makes it essential to develop a rapid detection assay able to provide results in one day. Indeed, the rapid identification of foodborne pathogens is an important instrument for the monitoring and prevention of epidemic outbreaks. To date, <i>Salmonella</i> and <i>Campylobacter</i> screening is mainly conducted through molecular methods (PCR or real-time PCR) performed after 18-24 h long enrichments. In this study, we evaluated short enrichments (0, 2, 4, and 6 h) combined with a colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) or real-time PCR to detect <i>Salmonella</i> and <i>Campylobacter</i> in poultry meat contaminated at different concentration levels (10<sup>1</sup>, 10<sup>3</sup>, and 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g). Our results show that real-time PCR allows the detection of <i>Salmonella</i> and <i>Campylobacter</i>, even after shorter enrichment times than prescribed by ISO references; particularly, it detected <i>Salmonella</i> down to 10<sup>1</sup> CFU/g since T0 and <i>Campylobacter</i> from 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g since T0. Detection with LAMP was comparable to real-time PCR without the requirement of a thermal cycler and with shorter execution times. These characteristics make colorimetric LAMP a valid alternative when one-day results are needed, improving the timely identification of positive meat batches, even in the absence of specialized instrumentation.
Project description:Campylobacter spp. are the most common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. Contaminated chicken is the food vehicle associated with the majority of reported cases of campylobacteriosis, either by the consumption of undercooked meat or via cross- contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods during the handling of contaminated raw chicken parts and carcasses. Our results indicate that cooking salt (used for seasoning) is a potential vehicle for Campylobacter spp. cross-contamination from raw chicken to lettuce, through unwashed hands after handling contaminated chicken. Cross-contamination events were observed even when the chicken skin was contaminated with low levels of Campylobacter spp. (ca. 1.48 Log CFU/g). The pathogen was recovered from seasoned lettuce samples when raw chicken was contaminated with levels ≥ 2.34 Log CFU/g. We also demonstrated that, once introduced into cooking salt, Campylobacter spp. are able to survive in a culturable state up to 4 hours. After six hours, although not detected following an enrichment period in culture medium, intact cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. These findings reveal a "novel" indirect cross-contamination route of Campylobacter in domestic settings, and a putative contamination source to RTE foods that are seasoned with salt, that might occur if basic food hygiene practices are not adopted by consumers when preparing and cooking poultry dishes.
Project description:Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. Two Campylobacter species - C. jejuni and C. coli in poultry and poultry products are considered to be the main source of human campylobacteriosis. Therefore, studying Campylobacter status in poultry flocks is needed to prevent transmission of disease and reduce human risk, health cost, and economic losses. In this study, we adapted and used a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for specific, sensitive, simple and cost-effective rapid detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in the poultry production chain. Amplified LAMP products were detected using a small, low-cost portable commercial blue LED transilluminator and a direct visual detection strategy was demonstrated. By using optimized conditions for amplification a limit of detection (LOD) of 50 CFU/ml was achieved for testing of C. jejuni and C. coli in spiked chicken feces without enrichment. The method took 60-70 min from receiving the samples to the final results (including 30 min for amplification). The optimized LAMP showed a relative accuracy of 98.4%, a specificity of 97.9%, and a sensitivity of 100% in comparison to real-time PCR method. Cohen's kappa index also showed an excellent agreement (0.94) between the two methods. The results showed that the method is specific, sensitive and is suitable to develop for rapid detection of Campylobacter spp. at poultry production.
Project description:Shigella and Salmonella are frequently isolated from various food samples and can cause human gastroenteritis. Here, a novel multiple endonuclease restriction real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology (MERT-LAMP) were successfully established and validated for simultaneous detection of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains in only a single reaction. Two sets of MERT-LAMP primers for 2 kinds of pathogens were designed from ipaH gene of Shigella spp. and invA gene of Salmonella spp., respectively. Under the constant condition at 63°C, the positive results were yielded in as short as 12 min with the genomic DNA extracted from the 19 Shigella strains and 14 Salmonella strains, and the target pathogens present in a sample could be simultaneously identified based on distinct fluorescence curves in real-time format. Accordingly, the multiplex detection assay significantly reduced effort, materials and reagents used, and amplification and differentiation were conducted at the same time, obviating the use of postdetection procedures. The analytical sensitivity of MERT-LAMP was found to be 62.5 and 125 fg DNA/reaction with genomic templates of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains, which was consist with normal LAMP assay, and at least 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than that of qPCR and conventional PCR approaches. The limit of detection of MERT-LAMP for Shigella strains and Salmonella strains detection in artificially contaminated milk samples was 5.8 and 6.4 CFU per vessel. In conclusion, the MERT-LAMP methodology described here demonstrated a potential and valuable means for simultaneous screening of Shigella and Salmonella in a wide variety of samples.
Project description:We investigated the efficacy of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of chicken meat samples naturally contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. A total of 144 Preston enrichment broth cultures from chicken meat samples were assessed by using the LAMP assay and conventional culture methods, which consist of a combination of Preston enrichment culturing and plating onto Butzler and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agars. Compared with C. jejuni-C. coli isolation using the conventional culture test, the LAMP results showed 98.5% (67/68) and 97.4% (74/76) sensitivity and specificity, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 97.1% (67/69) and 98.7% (74/75), respectively. The conventional culture test required more than 3 to 4 days to isolate and identify C. jejuni and C. coli in the Preston enrichment cultures. In contrast, the LAMP assay was markedly faster, requiring less than 90 min from the beginning of DNA extraction to final detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli. In total, the LAMP assay required 23.5 to 25.5 h from the beginning of the enrichment culture to final determination. These results suggest that our LAMP assay is a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, and practical detection of C. jejuni and C. coli which may facilitate surveillance and control of C. jejuni-C. coli contamination in chicken, as well as investigations of food poisoning incidents caused by these organisms. This is the first report of a highly sensitive and specific LAMP assay to detect and differentiate C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken meat samples.
Project description:Contamination of foods, especially produce, with Salmonella spp. is a major concern for public health. Several methods are available for the detection of Salmonella in produce, but their relative efficiency for detecting Salmonella in commonly consumed vegetables, often associated with outbreaks of food poisoning, needs to be confirmed. In this study, the effectiveness of three molecular methods for detection of Salmonella in six produce matrices was evaluated and compared to the FDA microbiological detection method. Samples of cilantro (coriander leaves), lettuce, parsley, spinach, tomato, and jalapeno pepper were inoculated with Salmonella serovars at two different levels (10(5) and <10(1) CFU/25 g of produce). The inoculated produce was assayed by the FDA Salmonella culture method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual) and by three molecular methods: quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Comparable results were obtained by these four methods, which all detected as little as 2 CFU of Salmonella cells/25 g of produce. All control samples (not inoculated) were negative by the four methods. RT-qPCR detects only live Salmonella cells, obviating the danger of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of either qPCR or RT-qPCR) were avoided by the use of either a DNA or an RNA amplification internal control (IAC). Compared to the conventional culture method, the qPCR, RT-qPCR, and LAMP assays allowed faster and equally accurate detection of Salmonella spp. in six high-risk produce commodities.
Project description:Salmonella spp. are important zoonotic pathogens that are responsible for severe diseases in both animals and humans. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) and biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) are typical infectious pathogens detected in the chicken industry that have caused great economic losses. To facilitate their detection and prevent contamination, we developed a rapid multiple PCR method, which can simultaneously detect Salmonella spp. and further identify the biovars S. Pullorum/Gallinarum. This PCR detection method is based on the cigR gene, which is conserved among Salmonella spp. but has a 42-bp deletion in S. Pullorum/Gallinarum. The specificity and sensitivity of the PCR assay was evaluated with 41 different strains: 34 Salmonella strains, including 5 S. Pullorum/Gallinarum strains, and 7 non-Salmonella strains. The lower limit of detection was 8.15 pg of S. Pullorum (S06004) genomic DNA and 20 cfu in PCR, which shows a great sensitivity. In addition, this method was applied to detect or identify Salmonella from processing chicken liver and egg samples, and the results corresponded to those obtained from serotype analysis using the conventional slide agglutination test. Overall, the new cigR-based PCR assay is efficient and practical for Salmonella detection and S. Pullorum/Gallinarum identification and will greatly reduce the workload of epidemiologic investigation.
Project description:A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay system was established, allowing <i>rplD</i> gene-based simultaneous detection of <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i> and <i>Campylobacter coli</i> in enriched meat products. Additionally, one-step differentiation of target species on agar plates was enabled by <i>cdtC</i> gene- and <i>gyrA</i> gene-based duplex LAMP. Both the <i>rplD</i> and <i>cdtC</i>-<i>gyrA</i> LAMP assays amplified the target sequences in all 62 <i>C. jejuni</i> and 27 <i>C. coli</i> strains used for determining inclusivity and revealed 100% exclusivity toward 85 tested non-target species. Throughout the entire experiments, <i>C. jejuni</i> and <i>C. coli</i> strains were 100% distinguishable by melting curves of <i>cdtC</i> and <i>gyrA</i> LAMP products. After 24-h enrichment, the <i>rplD</i> LAMP assay reliably detected initial inoculation levels of 10-100 CFU/g in artificially contaminated minced meat. Investigation of naturally contaminated meat samples revealed a diagnostic accuracy of 95% toward real-time PCR and 94.1% toward the standard culture method applying the 24-h incubation period. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 89.8, 100, 100, and 91.2%, respectively, when measured against real-time PCR, and 89.6, 98.1, 97.7, and 91.2%, respectively, when measured against the standard culture method. After 48-h enrichment, the detection limit of the <i>rplD</i> LAMP assay improved to initial inoculation levels of 1-10 CFU/g in artificially contaminated minced meat. Applying the 48-h incubation period on naturally contaminated meat samples resulted in 100% concordant results between <i>rplD</i> LAMP, real-time PCR, and the standard culture method. The established LAMP assay system was proved to be suitable for rapid meat sample screening. Furthermore, it constitutes a promising tool for investigating other <i>Campylobacter</i> sources and could therefore make a valuable contribution to protect consumers from foodborne illness.
Project description:Chicken is a major source of human campylobacteriosis. Chicken meat originates not only from broilers but also from spent layers; however, few reports have documented the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in layers in Japan. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in 47 layer farms in Japan. Fecal samples were collected from the youngest and oldest flocks on the farm, and Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 46/47 (97.9%) farms. Among the C. jejuni isolates, the resistance rates to ampicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin were 29.6%, 22.2%, and 19.8%, respectively. The ciprofloxacin resistance rate (7.3%) in C. jejuni isolated from old flocks was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in young flocks (32.5%).
Project description:A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor (LAMP-LFB) was established for the rapid and accurate detection of the mobilized colistin resistance gene (mcr-1), which causes the loss of colistin antibacterial efficacy in clinical treatments. The amplification stage of the assay was completed in 60 min at 63°C, and the reaction products could be visually detected by employing the LFB, which provided a fast (within 2 min) and objective method to evaluate the amplification results. The LAMP assay amplified the target sequences of mcr-1 with high specificity. In pure strains, the detection limit of the LAMP-LFB assay was 360 fg plasmid DNA/reaction, and in spiked feces samples the value was approximately 6.3×103 CFU/mL (~6.3 CFU/reaction), which was tenfold more sensitive than the PCR assay. The results show that the developed LAMP-LFB assay will be a worthy tool for the simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of mcr-1 gene in clinical settings and resource-limited areas.