Ultra-Robust Thermoconductive Films Made from Aramid Nanofiber and Boron Nitride Nanosheet for Thermal Management Application.
ABSTRACT: The development of highly thermally conductive composites with excellent electrical insulation has attracted extensive attention, which is of great significance to solve the increasingly severe heat concentration issue of electronic equipment. Herein, we report a new strategy to prepare boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) via an ion-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation method. Then, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) modified BNNS (BNNS@Ag) was obtained by in situ reduction properties. The exfoliation yield of BNNS was approximately 50% via the ion-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation method. Subsequently, aramid nanofiber (ANF)/BNNS@Ag composites were prepared by vacuum filtration. Owing to the "brick-and-mortar" structure formed inside the composite and the adhesion of AgNP, the interfacial thermal resistance was effectively reduced. Therefore, the in-plane thermal conductivity of ANF/BNNS@Ag composites was as high as 11.51 W m-1 K-1, which was 233.27% higher than that of pure ANF (3.45 W m-1 K-1). The addition of BNNS@Ag maintained tensile properties (tensile strength of 129.14 MPa). Moreover, the ANF/BNNS@Ag films also had good dielectric properties and the dielectric constant was below 2.5 (103 Hz). Hence, the ANF/BNNS@Ag composite shows excellent thermal management performance, and the electrical insulation and mechanical properties of the matrix are retained, indicating its potential application prospects in high pressure and high temperature application environments.
Project description:Adding heat conducting particles to a polymer matrix to prepare thermally conductive and electrical insulation materials is an effective approach to address the safety issues arising from the accumulation of heat in the working process of electronic devices. In this work, thermally conductive and electrical insulation nano-paper, consisting of Boron Nitride nano-sheet (BNNS) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF), was prepared using an aerogel 3D skeleton template method. For comparison, BNNS/CNF nano-paper was also produced using a simple blending method. At a BNNS loading of 50 wt%, the thermal conductivity of BNNS/CNF aerogel nano-paper and blended nano-paper at 70 °C are 2.4 W/mK and 1.2 W/mK respectively, revealing an increase of 94.4%. Under similar conditions, the volume resistivity of BNNS/CNF aerogel nano-paper and blended nano-paper are 4.0 × 10<sup>14</sup> and 4.2 × 10<sup>14</sup> Ω·cm respectively. In view of its excellent thermal conductivity and electrical insulation performance, therefore, BNNS/CNF aerogel nano-paper holds great potential for electronic-related applications.
Project description:Boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) hold the similar two-dimensional structure as graphene and unique properties complementary to graphene, which makes it attractive in application ranging from electronics to energy storage. The exfoliation of boron nitride (BN) still remains challenge and hinders the applications of BNNS. In this work, the preparation of BNNS has been realized by a shear-assisted supercritical CO2 exfoliation process, during which supercritical CO2 intercalates and diffuses between boron nitride layers, and then the exfoliation of BN layers is obtained in the rapid depressurization process by overcoming the van der Waals forces. Our results indicate that the bulk boron nitride has been successfully exfoliated into thin nanosheets with an average 6 layers. It is found that the produced BNNS is well-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with a higher extinction coefficient compared with the bulk BN. Moreover, the BNNS/epoxy composite used as thermal interface materials has been prepared. The introduction of BNNS results in a 313% enhancement in thermal conductivity. Our results demonstrate that BNNS produced by supercritical CO2 exfoliation show great potential applications for heat dissipation of high efficiency electronics.
Project description:High-thermal-conductivity and low-dielectric-loss polymer nanocomposites have gained tremendous attention in microelectronics technology. Against this background, the present study deals with the development of a high-thermal-conductivity, low-dielectric-constant, and low-loss polymer nanocomposite based on silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) as the filler in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The nanocomposites were prepared through a facile solution-blending process. Elemental mapping of the prepared nanocomposite indicates the uniform distribution of filler particle in PMMA matrix. An impressive high-thermal conductivity (TC) enhancement of around 363% was achieved for nanocomposite of 0.35 <i>V</i> <sub>f</sub> of hybrid filler (1.48 W/m K) compared to pristine PMMA (0.32 W/m K). The addition of AgNP reduces the thermal contact resistance (<i>R</i> <sub>c</sub>) by bridging individual BNNS, thereby improving thermal transport. Measured TC values were fitted with a theoretical model that showed good agreement. Dielectric measurements performed at radiofrequencies and microwave frequencies revealed that the nanocomposites show a low dielectric constant (<5), low loss (10<sup>-2</sup>), and very low alternating current conductivity (10<sup>-7</sup> S/cm). The results suggest that silver-decorated BNNS is a promising hybrid filler for effective thermal management.
Project description:Thermal management has become a critical challenge in electronics and portable devices. To address this issue, polymer composites with high thermal conductivity (TC) and low dielectric property are urgently needed. In this work, we fabricated perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) composite with high anisotropic TC and low dielectric constant by aligning boron nitride nanosheets (BNNs) via hot pressing. We characterized the thermal stability, microstructure, in-plane and through-plane TCs, heat dissipation capability, and dielectric property of the composites. The results indicate that the BNNs-PFA composites possessed good thermal stability. When the BNNs content was higher than 10 wt %, the BNNs were well layer aligned in the PFA matrix, and the composites showed obvious anisotropic TC. The in-plane TC and through-plane TCs of 30 wt % BNNs-PFA composite were 4.65 and 1.94 W m-1 K-1, respectively. By using the composite in thermal management of high-power LED, we found that alignment of BNNs in composite significantly improves the heat dissipation capability of composite. In addition, the composites exhibited a low dielectric property. This study shows that hot pressing is a facile and low-cost method to fabricate bulk composite with anisotropic TC, which has wide applications in electronic packaging.
Project description:Highly flexible and electrically-conductive multifunctional textiles are desirable for use in wearable electronic applications. In this study, we fabricated multifunctional textile composites by vacuum filtration and wet-transfer of graphene oxide films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile in association with embedding Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the electrical conductivity. A flexible organic transistor can be developed by direct transfer of a dielectric/semiconducting double layer on the graphene/AgNP textile composite, where the textile composite was used as both flexible substrate and conductive gate electrode. The thermal treatment of a textile-based transistor enhanced the electrical performance (mobility = 7.2 cm²·V<sup>-1</sup>·s<sup>-1</sup>, on/off current ratio = 4 × 10?, and threshold voltage = -1.1 V) due to the improvement of interfacial properties between the conductive textile electrode and the ion-gel dielectric layer. Furthermore, the textile transistors exhibited highly stable device performance under extended bending conditions (with a bending radius down to 3 mm and repeated tests over 1000 cycles). We believe that our simple methods for the fabrication of graphene/AgNP textile composite for use in textile-type transistors can potentially be applied to the development of flexible large-area electronic clothes.
Project description:A green approach to prepare exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNS) from commercially pristine h-BN involving a two-step procedure was investigated. The first step involves the dispersion of pristine h-BN within an aqueous solution containing gelatin and potassium or zinc chloride using a sonication method. The second involves the removal of larger exfoliated h-BNNS through a centrifugation procedure. The exfoliation was caused not only by the sonication effect but also by intercalation of K? and Zn<sup>2+</sup> ions. Transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques show that the obtained h-BNNS generally display a thickness of about a few (2?3) layers with an exfoliation efficiency as high as 16.3 ± 0.4%.
Project description:Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)-based heat-spreading materials have drawn considerable attention in electronic diaphragm and packaging fields because of their high thermal conductivity and desired electrical insulation properties. However, the traditional approach to fabricate thermally conductive composites usually suffers from low thermal conductivity, and cannot meet the requirement of thermal management. In this work, novel h-BN/cellulose-nano fiber (CNF) composite films with excellent thermal conductivity in through plane and electrical insulation properties are fabricated via an innovative process, i.e., the perfusion of h-BN into porous three dimensional (3D) CNF aerogel skeleton to form the h-BN thermally conductive pathways by filling the CNF aerogel voids. When at an h-BN loading of 9.51 vol %, the thermal conductivity of h-BN/CNF aerogel perfusion composite film is 1.488 W·m<sup>-1</sup>·K<sup>-1</sup> at through plane, an increase by 260.3%. The volume resistivity is 3.83 × 10<sup>14</sup> ?·cm, superior to that of synthetic polymer materials (about 10<sup>9</sup>~10<sup>13</sup> ?·cm). Therefore, the resulting h-BN/CNF film is very promising to replace the traditional synthetic polymer materials for a broad spectrum of applications, including the field of electronics.
Project description:The design and development of thermal insulation materials is very important for the treatment of offshore oil pipelines. Understanding thermal energy transport in thermal insulation materials and predicting their thermal conductivities have important theoretical and practical value for the design of thermal insulation materials. In this work, lightweight and thermally insulated (LWTI) composites with the desired mechanical strength for offshore oil pipelines applications were prepared using epoxy resin (EP) as the matrix and hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) as the filler. The morphology, density, and mechanical properties of HGM/EP LWTI composites were studied first. The flexural strength and the flexural modulus of HGM/EP LWTI composites could still be as high as 22.34 ± 2.75 Mpa and 1.34 ± 0.03 GPa, respectively, while the density was only 0.591 g/cm3. The relationship between the effective thermal conductivity of HGM/EP LWTI composites and material parameters (sizes and contents together) has been studied systematically. A three-phase prediction model was built using the self-consistent approximation method to predict the effective thermal conductivity of HGM/EP LWTI composites, and the resin matrix, the wall thickness, the HGM particle size, and other parameters (such as air) were fully considered during the derivation of this three-phase thermal conductivity model. Finally, the insulation mechanism of HGM/EP LWTI composites was systematically analyzed. The thermal conductivities of HGM/EP LWTI composites with different diameters and HGM contents calculated by the three-phase prediction model agreed well with the experimental test results, with a minimum error of only 0.69%. Thus, this three-phase thermal conductivity model can be used to theoretically simulate the thermal conductivity of epoxy resin-based LWTI composites and can be the theoretical basis for the design and prediction of the thermal conductivity of other similar hollow spheres filled materials.
Project description:In this study, a new fabrication technique for three-dimensional (3D) filler networks was employed for the first time to prepare thermally conductive composites. A silver nanowire (AgNW)- aluminum nitride (AlN) (AA) filler was produced by a polyol method and hot-pressed in mold to connect the adjacent fillers by sintering AgNWs on the AlN surface. The sintered AA filler formed a 3D network, which was subsequently impregnated with epoxy (EP) resin. The fabricated EP/AA 3D network composite exhibited a perpendicular direction thermal conductivity of 4.49 W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup> at a filler content of 400 mg (49.86 vol.%) representing an enhancement of 1973% with respect to the thermal conductivity of neat EP (0.22 W m<sup>-1</sup> K<sup>-1</sup>). Moreover, the EP/AA decreased the operating temperature of the central processing unit (CPU) from 86.2 to 64.6 °C as a thermal interface material (TIM). The thermal stability was enhanced by 27.28% (99 °C) and the composites showed insulating after EP infiltration owing to the good insulation properties of AlN and EP. Therefore, these fascinating thermal and insulating performances have a great potential for next generation heat management application.
Project description:Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have recently attracted much attention, along with the rapid development of the electronic devices toward higher speed and performance. However, a common method to enhance polymer thermal conductivity through an addition of high thermally conductive fillers usually cannot provide an expected value, especially for composites requiring electrical insulation. Here, we show that polymeric composites with silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride nanosheets as fillers could effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of polymer, thanks to the bridging connections of silver nanoparticles among boron nitride nanosheets. The thermal conductivity of the composite is significantly increased from 1.63?W/m-K for the composite filled with the silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride nanosheets to 3.06?W/m-K at the boron nitride nanosheets loading of 25.1 vol %. In addition, the electrically insulating properties of the composite are well preserved. Fitting the measured thermal conductivity of epoxy composite with one physical model indicates that the composite with silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride nanosheets outperforms the one with boron nitride nanosheets, owning to the lower thermal contact resistance among boron nitride nanosheets' interfaces. The finding sheds new light on enhancement of thermal conductivity of the polymeric composites which concurrently require the electrical insulation.