Connecting Metabolism to Mastitis: Hyperketonemia Impaired Mammary Gland Defenses During a Streptococcus uberis Challenge in Dairy Cattle.
ABSTRACT: β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) has been associated with disease incidence in early lactation dairy cattle, but such associations do not demonstrate causation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of BHB during an intramammary Streptococcus uberis challenge. A secondary objective was to elucidate the mechanisms behind BHB effects on cytokine transcript abundance using the RAW 264.7 cell line. Late lactation multiparous dairy cows (n = 12) were continuously infused intravenously with either BHB to induce hyperketonemia (target concentration: 1.8 mM) or with saline (CON) for 72 h during a S. uberis intramammary challenge. Body temperature, dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk S. uberis cfu were measured daily until one week post-challenge. Blood samples were collected during infusion to assess changes in metabolism (glucose, insulin, glucagon, NEFA, and cortisol) and systemic inflammation (IL-1β and SAA). Mammary biopsies were conducted at 72 h post-challenge to assess transcript abundance of inflammation-associated genes. BHB-infused cows exhibited a delayed febrile response, noted by a lesser vaginal temperature during the final day of infusion, followed by a greater vaginal temperature 6 d post-challenge. Consequently, BHB-infused cows had greater S. uberis cfu on d 4, 6, and 7 as compared to CON. Accordingly, BHB-infused cows consumed less DM, produced less milk, had reduced blood glucose, and had increased cortisol concentrations, however, no effects were seen on other systemic parameters or transcript abundance of inflammation-related genes in mammary tissue. To elucidate mechanisms behind the impaired immune defenses, RAW 264.7 cells were transfected with a GPR109A siRNA for 24 h and then treated with or without 1.8 mM BHB and challenged or left unchallenged with S. uberis for an additional 3 h. Transfection with siRNA reduced Gpr109a by 75%. Although BHB treatment did not significantly increase Il10, GPR109A knockdown as compared to the scrambled control reduced Il10 by 90% in S. uberis challenged macrophages treated with BHB, suggesting that macrophage immune responses to S. uberis can be altered via a GPR109A-dependent mechanism. Taken together, these data suggest that BHB altered the immune response promoting tolerance toward S. uberis rather than resistance.
Project description:<i>Streptococcus uberis</i> is a common cause of intramammary infection and mastitis in dairy cattle. Unlike other mammary pathogens, <i>S. uberis</i> evades detection by mammary epithelial cells, and the host-pathogen interactions during early colonisation are poorly understood. Intramammary challenge of dairy cows with <i>S. uberis</i> (strain 0140 J) or isogenic mutants lacking the surface-anchored serine protease, SUB1154, demonstrated that virulence was dependent on the presence and correct location of this protein. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant lacking SUB1154 failed to elicit IL-1? from ex vivo CD14+ cells obtained from milk (bovine mammary macrophages, BMM), but this response was reinstated by complementation with recombinant SUB1154; the protein in isolation elicited no response. Production of IL-1? was ablated in the presence of various inhibitors, indicating dependency on internalisation and activation of NLRP3 and caspase-1, consistent with inflammasome activation. Similar transcriptomic changes were detected in ex vivo BMM in response to the wild-type or the SUB1154 deletion mutant, consistent with <i>S. uberis</i> priming BMM, enabling the SUB1154 protein to activate inflammasome maturation in a transcriptionally independent manner. These data can be reconciled in a novel model of pathogenesis in which, paradoxically, early colonisation is dependent on the innate response to the initial infection.
Project description:A peptidomic investigation of milk from an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy cows has incorporated a study of milk high abundance and acute phase (APP) proteins as well as analysis of low molecular weight peptide biomarkers. Intramammary infection (IMI) with S. uberis caused a shift in abundance from caseins, ?-lactoglobulin and ?-lactalbumin to albumin, lactoferrin and IgG with the increase in lactoferrin occurring last. The APP response of haptoglobin, mammary associated serum amyloid A3 and C-reactive protein occurred between 30-48 hours post challenge with peak concentrations of APPs at 72-96 hours post challenge and declined thereafter at a rate resembling the fall in bacterial count rather than the somatic cell count. A peptide biomarker panel for IMI based on capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was developed. It comprised 77 identified peptides (IMI77) composed mainly of casein derived peptides but also including peptides of glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule and serum amyloid A. The panel had a biomarker classification score that increased from 36 hour to 81 hour post challenge, significantly differentiating infected from non-infected milk, thus suggesting potential as a peptide biomarker panel of bovine mastitis and specifically that of S. uberis origin. The use of omic technology has shown a multifactorial cross system reaction in high and low abundance proteins and their peptide derivatives with changes of over a thousand fold in analyte levels in response to S. uberis infection.
Project description:A mutant strain of Streptococcus uberis (AJS001) that was unable to grow in bovine milk was isolated following random insertional mutagenesis. The level of growth in milk was restored to that of the parental strain (strain 0140J) following addition of MnSO(4) but not following addition of other metal ions. The mutant contained a single insertion within mtuA, a homologue of mtsA and psaA, which encode metal-binding proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. Strain AJS001 was unable to infect any of eight quarters on four dairy cows following intramammary challenge with 10(5) CFU. Bacteria were never recovered directly from milk of these animals but were detected following enrichment in Todd-Hewitt broth in three of eight milk samples obtained within 24 h of challenge. The animals showed no inflammatory response and no signs of mastitis. Three mammary quarters on two different animals simultaneously challenged with 600 CFU of the parental strain, strain 0140J, became colonized, shed high numbers of S. uberis organisms in milk, displayed a marked inflammatory response to infection, and showed overt signs of mastitis. These data indicate that mtuA was required for efficient uptake of Mn(2+) during growth in bovine milk and infection of the lactating bovine mammary gland.
Project description:There is no effective vaccine against <i>Streptococcus uberis</i> mastitis in dairy cows. Objectives of this study were (1) to extract <i>S. uberis</i> surface proteins (SUSP) and determine immunoreactivity in vitro and (2) immunogenicity and efficacy in vivo. SUSP was extracted from <i>S. uberis</i>, and their immunoreactivity was tested by western blot. In total, 26 Jersey dairy cows were randomly divided into four groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were vaccinated subcutaneously with 4 mg, 1 mg, and 100 μg of SUSP, respectively, with Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Group 4 (control) was injected with placebo. <i>S. uberis</i> UT888 was infused into two contralateral quarters of each cow during early lactation. Somatic cell count (SCC), bacteria count in milk, and mastitis were monitored. Our results show that SUSP contains multiple protein bands, that ranged from 10 to 100 kDa. All vaccinates showed an increased anti-SUSP IgG antibody. The SCC of all experimentally infected quarters increased after challenge but slightly decreased after day 3 with no significant difference among groups. Milk bacterial count was significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.05) reduced in high and medium doses vaccinated groups than low and control groups. In conclusion, SUSP vaccine is immunogenic and showed a promising efficacy to control bovine <i>S. uberis</i> mastitis.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the effect of evaporative cooling and dietary supplemental Zn source on blood metabolites, insulin and mineral concentrations, and milk mineral concentrations following intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Seventy-two multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments included two environments: with or without evaporative cooling using fans and misters over the freestall and feedbunk, and two dietary sources of supplemental Zn: 75 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) supplied by Zn hydroxychloride (inorganic Zn; IOZ) or Zn hydroxychloride (35 mg of Zn/kg of DM) + Zn-Met complex (ZMC; 40 mg of Zn/kg of DM). A subset of cows (n = 16; 263 ± 63 d in milk) was infused with 10 μg of LPS or a saline control in the left or right rear quarters on day 34 of the environmental treatment. Individual milk samples collected from LPS-infused quarters at -4, 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 h relative to infusion were analyzed for minerals. Blood samples were collected at the same time with an additional sample collected at 3 h post-infusion to analyze glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, and minerals. Cooling by time interactions (P ≤ 0.07) were observed for plasma glucose, NEFA, and serum insulin. Compared with cooled cows, non-cooled cows had lower concentrations of plasma glucose except at 3 h following intramammary LPS infusion, greater serum insulin at 3 and 12 h, and lower plasma NEFA at 24 and 48 h after infusion. Relative to cooled cows, non-cooled cows tended (P = 0.07) to have lower serum K concentration and had lower (P < 0.01) serum Zn 6 h following infusion (cooling by time interaction: P < 0.01). Relative to ZMC cows, IOZ cows had greater (P ≤ 0.09) concentrations of plasma Se, skim milk Na and Se, and skim milk Na to K ratio. Regardless of treatment, intramammary LPS infusion reduced (P < 0.01) serum or plasma concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Se, but increased (P < 0.01) their concentration in skim milk. In conclusion, deprivation of cooling resulted in more rapid and prolonged insulin release and influenced the systemic and mammary mineral metabolism during mammary inflammation induced by LPS of lactating dairy cows. Dietary supplementation of Zn-Met complex reduced blood and milk Se concentrations compared with cows fed Zn from an inorganic source.
Project description:Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI) with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J.Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARalpha/RXRalpha Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020) included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2) and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL) and antioxidant activity (SOD1).Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J) elicited a strong transcriptomic response, leading to potent activation of pro-inflammatory pathways that were associated with a marked inhibition of lipid synthesis, stress-activated kinase signaling cascades, and PPAR signaling (most likely PPARgamma). This latter effect may provide a mechanistic explanation for the inverse relationship between immune response and milk fat synthesis.
Project description:Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle in the western world. It is primarily caused by bacteria, with Streptococcus uberis as one of the most prevalent causative agents. To characterize the proteome during Streptococcus uberis mastitis, an experimentally induced model of intramammary infection was used. Milk whey samples obtained from 6 cows at 6 time points were processed using label-free relative quantitative proteomics. This proteomic analysis complements clinical, bacteriological and immunological studies as well as peptidomic and metabolomic analysis of the same challenge model. A total of 2552 non-redundant bovine peptides were identified, and from these, 570 bovine proteins were quantified. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed clear clustering of results by stage of infection, with similarities between pre-infection and resolution stages (0 and 312 h post challenge), early infection stages (36 and 42 h post challenge) and late infection stages (57 and 81 h post challenge). Ingenuity pathway analysis identified upregulation of acute phase protein pathways over the course of infection, with dominance of different acute phase proteins at different time points based on differential expression analysis. Antimicrobial peptides, notably cathelicidins and peptidoglycan recognition protein, were upregulated at all time points post challenge and peaked at 57 h, which coincided with 10?000-fold decrease in average bacterial counts. The integration of clinical, bacteriological, immunological and quantitative proteomics and other-omic data provides a more detailed systems level view of the host response to mastitis than has been achieved previously.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intramammary infusions of natural composition GLP 810 with immunomodulating properties on the local nonspecific cellular and humoral immune response in cows with subclinical mastitis. The composition GLP 810 consists of lactic acid, lysozyme, glycopeptides, and 0.9% solution of NaCl. The following parameters were studied: (1) leukocyte differential distribution in milk, (2) expression of cytokines in milk leukocytes, (3) antibacterial activity, and (4) milk quality. Nineteen mammary glands in five lactating cows were infused with 10?mL of GLP 810, and nineteen other glands from five control cows were treated with 10?mL 0.9% NaCl. The results showed that after intramammary administration of the composition GLP 810 three times with 48?h intervals, the following effects on leukocyte populations in milk were observed: (1) an increase in the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes and (2) a decrease in the number of macrophages. A reduction in the number of pathogenic bacteria was also detected. The analyses of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, and beta-defensin-2 revealed that the production of the aforementioned cytokines significantly increased, whereas no significant effects on interleukin-1 and caspase-6 expression in milk leukocytes were recorded. However, there were significant differences between mammary glands with high and low milk somatic cell count. The results suggest that the composition GLP 810 has an immunomodulatory effect on mammary glands and it could be used for improving the immune response in cows with subclinical mastitis during lactation.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate innate immune responses of mammary glands induced by intramammary infusion of Bifidobacterium breve in dairy cows. Somatic cell counts in quarters of cows showed a marked increase following B. breve infusion on days 1 and 2. Opsonized-stimulated chemiluminescence response in quarter milk was significantly (P<0.05) increased by B. breve infusion on days 1 to 3 compared to that of pre-infusion. Lactoferrin concentrations in B. breve-infused quarter milk increased significantly (P<0.05) on days 2 to 4 and 6 compared to those of pre-infusion. IgG and IgA concentrations in B. breve-infused quarters significantly (P<0.05) increased on days 2 to 4 for IgG and days 3, 4, 6 and 8 for IgA compared to those of pre-infusion. Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-8 mRNA levels in somatic cells from B. breve-infused quarters were significantly (P<0.05) upregulated on day 1 compared to those on days 0 and 14. Conversely, IL-6 mRNA levels in somatic cells from B. breve-infused quarters on days 0, 1 and 14 and NF-?B mRNA levels on day 0 were significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated compared to those of control. IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-6 concentrations increased on days 1, 3 and 7 after B. breve infusion in quarters. Intramammary infusion of B. breve (3 × 10<sup>9</sup> cfu) induces a massive influx of leukocytes and enhances innate immune response in mammary glands. This event may contribute to the enhancing host defense in the mammary gland.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Streptococcus spp. and other Gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci (PNC) form a large group of microorganisms which can be found in the milk of cows with intramammary infection. The most frequently observed PNC mastitis pathogens (major pathogens) are Streptococcus uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and Strep. agalactiae. The remaining PNC include a few minor pathogens and a large nonpathogenic group. Improved methods are needed for the accurate identification and differentiation of PNC. A total of 151 PNC were collected from cows with intramammary infection and conclusively identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as reference method. Nine phenotypic microbiological tests (alpha-hemolysis, CAMP reaction, esculin hydrolysis, growth on kanamycin esculin azide agar and on sodium chloride agar, inulin fermentation, hippurate hydrolysis, leucine aminopeptidase and pyrrolidonyl peptidase activity), multiplex PCR for the three major pathogens (target genes for Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. agalactiae: pauA, 16S rRNA, and sklA3, respectively), and mass spectroscopy using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) were evaluated for the diagnosis and discrimination of the three clinically most relevant PNC. RESULTS: The probability that a strain of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. agalactiae was correctly identified by combining the results of the 9 phenotypic tests was 92%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. Applying the multiplex PCR, all strains of the three major pathogens were correctly identified and no false positive results occurred. Correct identification was observed for all strains of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae using MALDI-TOF MS. In the case of Strep. dysgalactiae, some variability was observed at the subspecies level, but all strains were allocated to one single cluster. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study show that reliable identification of the clinically most relevant PNC (Strep. uberis, Strep. agalactiae and Strep. dysgalactiae) can be obtained by use of a combination of colony morphology, hemolysis type and catalase reaction, and a multiplex PCR with specific primers restricted to these 3 pathogens. The MALDI-TOF MS is a fast method that shows promising results, although identification of Strep. dysgalactiae at the subspecies level is not yet satisfactory.