Mechanism of Deoxyguanosine Diphosphate Insertion by Human DNA Polymerase β.
ABSTRACT: DNA polymerases play vital roles in the maintenance and replication of genomic DNA by synthesizing new nucleotide polymers using nucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are the canonical substrates for DNA polymerases; however, some bacterial polymerases have been demonstrated to insert deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs), which lack a third phosphate group, the γ-phosphate. Whether eukaryotic polymerases can efficiently incorporate dNDPs has not been investigated, and much about the chemical or structural role played by the γ-phosphate of dNTPs remains unknown. Using the model mammalian polymerase (Pol) β, we examine how Pol β incorporates a substrate lacking a γ-phosphate [deoxyguanosine diphosphate (dGDP)] utilizing kinetic and crystallographic approaches. Using single-turnover kinetics, we determined dGDP insertion across a templating dC by Pol β to be drastically impaired when compared to dGTP insertion. We found the most significant impairment in the apparent insertion rate (kpol), which was reduced 32000-fold compared to that of dGTP insertion. X-ray crystal structures revealed similar enzyme-substrate contacts for both dGDP and dGTP. These findings suggest the insertion efficiency of dGDP is greatly decreased due to impairments in polymerase chemistry. This work is the first instance of a mammalian polymerase inserting a diphosphate nucleotide and provides insight into the nature of polymerase mechanisms by highlighting how these enzymes have evolved to use triphosphate nucleotide substrates.
Project description:Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are the normal substrates for DNA synthesis catalyzed by polymerases such as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). However, substantial amounts of deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs) are also present in the cell. Use of dNDPs in HIV-1 DNA synthesis could have significant implications for the efficacy of nucleoside RT inhibitors such as AZT which are first line therapeutics for treatment of HIV infection. Our earlier work on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) suggested that the interaction between the gamma-phosphate of the incoming dNTP and RT residue K65 in the active site is not essential for dNTP insertion, implying that this polymerase may be able to insert dNDPs in addition to dNTPs.We examined the ability of recombinant wild type (wt) and mutant RTs with substitutions at residue K65 to utilize a dNDP substrate in primer extension reactions. We found that wild type HIV-1 RT indeed catalyzes incorporation of dNDP substrates whereas RT with mutations of residue K65 were unable to catalyze this reaction. Wild type HIV-1 RT also catalyzed the reverse reaction, inorganic phosphate-dependent phosphorolysis. Nucleotide-mediated phosphorolytic removal of chain-terminating 3'-terminal nucleoside inhibitors such as AZT forms the basis for HIV-1 resistance to such drugs, and this removal is enhanced by thymidine analog mutations (TAMs). We found that both wt and TAM-containing RTs were able to catalyze Pi-mediated phosphorolysis of 3'-terminal AZT at physiological levels of Pi with an efficacy similar to that for ATP-dependent AZT-excision.We have identified two new catalytic functions of HIV-1 RT, the use of dNDPs as substrates for DNA synthesis, and the use of Pi as substrate for phosphorolytic removal of primer 3'-terminal nucleotides. The ability to insert dNDPs has been documented for only one other DNA polymerase, the RB69 DNA polymerase and the reverse reaction employing inorganic phosphate has not been documented for any DNA polymerase. Importantly, our results show that Pi-mediated phosphorolysis can contribute to AZT resistance and indicates that factors that influence HIV resistance to AZT are more complex than previously appreciated.
Project description:4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are important human carcinogens in tobacco products. They are metabolized to produce a variety 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl (POB) DNA adducts including O(2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O(2)-POB-dT), the most abundant POB adduct in NNK- and NNN-treated rodents. To evaluate the mutagenic properties of O(2)-POB-dT, we measured the rate of insertion of dNTPs opposite and extension past O(2)-POB-dT and O(2)-Me-dT by purified human DNA polymerases ?, ?, ?, and yeast polymerase ? in vitro. Under conditions of polymerase in excess, polymerase ? was most effective at the insertion of dNTPs opposite O(2)-alkyl-dTs. The time courses were biphasic suggesting the formation of inactive DNA-polymerase complexes. The kpol parameter was reduced approximately 100-fold in the presence of the adduct for pol ?, ?, and ?. Pol ? was the most reactive polymerase for the adducts due to a higher burst amplitude. For all three polymerases, the nucleotide preference was dATP > dTTP ? dGTP and dCTP. Yeast pol ? was most effective in bypassing the adducts; the kcat/Km values were reduced only 3-fold in the presence of the adducts. The identity of the nucleotide opposite the O(2)-alkyl-dT did not significantly affect the ability of pol ? to bypass the adducts. The data support a model in which pol ? inserts ATP or dTTP opposite O(2)-POB-dT, and then, pol ? extends past the adduct.
Project description:The activity of DNA polymerase underlies numerous biotechnologies, cell division, and therapeutics, yet the enzyme remains incompletely understood. We demonstrate that both thermostable and mesophilic DNA polymerases readily utilize deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs) for DNA synthesis and inorganic phosphate for the reverse reaction, that is, phosphorolysis of DNA. For Taq DNA polymerase, the KMs of the dNDP and phosphate substrates are ?20 and 200 times higher than for dNTP and pyrophosphate, respectively. DNA synthesis from dNDPs is about 17 times slower than from dNTPs, and DNA phosphorolysis about 200 times less efficient than pyrophosphorolysis. Such parameters allow DNA replication without requiring coupled metabolism to sequester the phosphate products, which consequently do not pose a threat to genome stability. This mechanism contrasts with DNA synthesis from dNTPs, which yield high-energy pyrophosphates that have to be hydrolyzed to phosphates to prevent the reverse reaction. Because the last common ancestor was likely a thermophile, dNDPs are plausible substrates for genome replication on early Earth and may represent metabolic intermediates later replaced by the higher-energy triphosphates.
Project description:The chemical integrity of the nucleotide pool and its homeostasis are crucial for genome stability. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is a crucial enzyme that carries out reversible conversions from nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) and deoxynucleoside diphosphate (dNDP) to deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Guanosine nucleotides (GDP, GTP, dGDP, and dGTP) are highly susceptible to oxidative damage to 8-oxo-GDP (8-O-GDP), 8-O-dGTP, 8-O-GTP, and 8-O-dGTP. MutT proteins in cells hydrolyze 8-O-GTP to 8-O-GMP or 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGMP to avoid its incorporation in nucleic acids. In <i>Escherichia coli</i>, 8-O-dGTP is also known to be hydrolyzed by RibA (GTP cyclohydrolase II). In this study, we show that <i>E. coli</i> NDK catalyzes the conversion of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP or vice versa. However, the rate of NDK-mediated phosphorylation of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP is about thrice as efficient as the rate of dephosphorylation of 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGDP, suggesting an additive role of NDK in net production of 8-O-dGTP in cells. Consistent with this observation, the depletion of NDK (?<i>ndk</i>) in <i>E. coli</i> ?<i>mutT</i> or ?<i>mutT</i> ?<i>ribA</i> strains results in a decrease of A-to-C mutations. These observations suggest that NDK contributes to the physiological load of MutT in <i>E. coli</i> <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), a ubiquitous enzyme, is known for its critical role in homeostasis of cellular nucleotide pools. However, NDK has now emerged as a molecule with pleiotropic effects in DNA repair, protein phosphorylation, gene expression, tumor metastasis, development, and pathogen virulence and persistence inside the host. In this study, we reveal an unexpected role of NDK in genome instability because of its activity in converting 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP. This observation has important consequences in escalating A-to-C mutations in <i>Escherichia coli</i> The severity of NDK in enhancing these mutations may be higher in the organisms challenged with high oxidative stress, which promotes 8-O-dGDP/8-O-dGTP production.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species induce oxidative damage in DNA precursors, i.e. dNTPs, leading to point mutations upon incorporation. Escherichia coli mutT strains, deficient in the activity hydrolysing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP), display more than a 100-fold higher spontaneous mutation frequency over the wild-type strain. 8-oxo-dGTP induces A to C transversions when misincorporated opposite template A. Here, we report that DNA pol III incorporates 8-oxo-dGTP ??20 times more efficiently opposite template A compared with template C. Single, double or triple deletions of pol I, pol II, pol IV or pol V had modest effects on the mutT mutator phenotype. Only the deletion of all four polymerases led to a 70% reduction of the mutator phenotype. While pol III may account for nearly all 8-oxo-dGTP incorporation opposite template A, it only extends ??30% of them, the remaining 70% being extended by the combined action of pol I, pol II, pol IV or pol V. The unique property of pol III, a C-family DNA polymerase present only in eubacteria, to preferentially incorporate 8-oxo-dGTP opposite template A during replication might explain the high spontaneous mutation frequency in E.?coli mutT compared with the mammalian counterparts lacking the 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolysing activities.
Project description:Alpha,beta-difluoromethylene deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates (dNTPs, N = A or C) are advantageously obtained via phosphorylation of corresponding dNDP analogues using catalytic ATP, PEP, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and pyruvate kinase. DNA pol beta K(d) values for the alpha,beta-CF(2) and unmodified dNTPs, alpha,beta-NH dUTP, and the alpha,beta-CH(2) analogues of dATP and dGTP are discussed in relation to the conformations of alpha,beta-CF(2) dTTP versus alpha,beta-NH dUTP bound into the enzyme active site.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species generate the genotoxic 8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as major oxidative lesions. The mutagenicity of oxoG is attributed to the lesion's ability to evade the geometric discrimination of DNA polymerases by adopting Hoogsteen base pairing with adenine in a Watson-Crick-like geometry. Compared with oxoG, the mutagenesis mechanism of oxoA, which preferentially induces A-to-C mutations, is poorly understood. In the absence of protein contacts, oxoA:G forms a wobble conformation, the formation of which is suppressed in the catalytic site of most DNA polymerases. Interestingly, human DNA polymerase ? (pol?) proficiently incorporates dGTP opposite oxoA, suggesting the nascent oxoA:dGTP overcomes the geometric discrimination of pol?. To gain insights into oxoA-mediated mutagenesis, we determined crystal structures of pol? bypassing oxoA. When paired with dGTP, oxoA adopted a syn-conformation and formed Hoogsteen pairing while in a wobble geometry, which was stabilized by Gln38-mediated minor groove contacts to oxoA:dGTP. Gln38Ala mutation reduced misinsertion efficiency ?55-fold, indicating oxoA:dGTP misincorporation was promoted by minor groove interactions. Also, the efficiency of oxoA:dGTP insertion by the X-family pol? decreased ?380-fold when Asn279-mediated minor groove contact to dGTP was abolished. Overall, these results suggest that, unlike oxoG, oxoA-mediated mutagenesis is greatly induced by minor groove interactions.
Project description:During oxidative stress, inflammation, or environmental exposure, ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides are oxidatively modified. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-guanosine (8-oxo-G) is a common oxidized nucleobase whose deoxyribonucleotide form, 8-oxo-dGTP, has been widely studied and demonstrated to be a mutagenic substrate for DNA polymerases. Guanine ribonucleotides are analogously oxidized to r8-oxo-GTP, which can constitute up to 5% of the rGTP pool. Because ribonucleotides are commonly misinserted into DNA, and 8-oxo-G causes replication errors, we were motivated to investigate how the oxidized ribonucleotide is utilized by DNA polymerases. To do this, here we employed human DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) and characterized r8-oxo-GTP insertion with DNA substrates containing either a templating cytosine (nonmutagenic) or adenine (mutagenic). Our results show that pol ? has a diminished catalytic efficiency for r8-oxo-GTP compared with canonical deoxyribonucleotides but that r8-oxo-GTP is inserted mutagenically at a rate similar to those of other common DNA replication errors (<i>i.e.</i> ribonucleotide and mismatch insertions). Using FRET assays to monitor conformational changes of pol ? with r8-oxo-GTP, we demonstrate impaired pol ? closure that correlates with a reduced insertion efficiency. X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that, similar to 8-oxo-dGTP, r8-oxo-GTP adopts an <i>anti</i> conformation opposite a templating cytosine and a <i>syn</i> conformation opposite adenine. However, unlike 8-oxo-dGTP, r8-oxo-GTP did not form a planar base pair with either templating base. These results suggest that r8-oxo-GTP is a potential mutagenic substrate for DNA polymerases and provide structural insights into how r8-oxo-GTP is processed by DNA polymerases.
Project description:8-Oxo-7,8,-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) is a major product of oxidative damage in the nucleotide pool. It is capable of mispairing with adenosine (dA), resulting in futile, mutagenic cycles of base excision repair. Therefore, it is critical that DNA polymerases discriminate against 8-oxo-dGTP at the insertion step. Because of its roles in oxidative DNA damage repair and non-homologous end joining, DNA polymerase lambda (Pol ?) may frequently encounter 8-oxo-dGTP. Here, we have studied the mechanisms of 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation and discrimination by Pol ?. We have solved high resolution crystal structures showing how Pol ? accommodates 8-oxo-dGTP in its active site. The structures indicate that when mispaired with dA, the oxidized nucleotide assumes the mutagenic syn-conformation, and is stabilized by multiple interactions. Steady-state kinetics reveal that two residues lining the dNTP binding pocket, Ala(510) and Asn(513), play differential roles in dNTP selectivity. Specifically, Ala(510) and Asn(513) facilitate incorporation of 8-oxo-dGMP opposite dA and dC, respectively. These residues also modulate the balance between purine and pyrimidine incorporation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms controlling 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation in Pol ? and on the importance of interactions with the incoming dNTP to determine selectivity in family X DNA polymerases.
Project description:Oxidative stress promotes genomic instability and human diseases. A common oxidized nucleoside is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, which is found both in DNA (8-oxo-G) and as a free nucleotide (8-oxo-dGTP). Nucleotide pools are especially vulnerable to oxidative damage. Therefore cells encode an enzyme (MutT/MTH1) that removes free oxidized nucleotides. This cleansing function is required for cancer cell survival and to modulate Escherichia coli antibiotic sensitivity in a DNA polymerase (pol)-dependent manner. How polymerases discriminate between damaged and non-damaged nucleotides is not well understood. This analysis is essential given the role of oxidized nucleotides in mutagenesis, cancer therapeutics, and bacterial antibiotics. Even with cellular sanitizing activities, nucleotide pools contain enough 8-oxo-dGTP to promote mutagenesis. This arises from the dual coding potential where 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) base pairs with cytosine and 8-oxo-dGTP(syn) uses its Hoogsteen edge to base pair with adenine. Here we use time-lapse crystallography to follow 8-oxo-dGTP insertion opposite adenine or cytosine with human pol ?, to reveal that insertion is accommodated in either the syn- or anti-conformation, respectively. For 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) insertion, a novel divalent metal relieves repulsive interactions between the adducted guanine base and the triphosphate of the oxidized nucleotide. With either templating base, hydrogen-bonding interactions between the bases are lost as the enzyme reopens after catalysis, leading to a cytotoxic nicked DNA repair intermediate. Combining structural snapshots with kinetic and computational analysis reveals how 8-oxo-dGTP uses charge modulation during insertion that can lead to a blocked DNA repair intermediate.