Transcriptome wide analysis of long non-coding RNA-associated ceRNA regulatory circuits in psoriasis.
ABSTRACT: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in regulating immune-associated diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders. Here, we found that lncRNAs involve in the pathogenesis of psoriasis through integrative analysis of RNA-seq data sets from a psoriasis cohort. Then, lncRNA-protein-coding genes (PCGs) co-expression network analysis demonstrated that lncRNAs extensively interact with IFN-γ signalling pathway-associated genes. Further, we validated 3 lncRNAs associate with IFN-γ signalling pathway activation upon IFN-γ stimulated in HaCaT cells, and loss of function experiments indicate their functional roles in the activation of inflammatory cytokine genes. Additionally, microRNA target screening analysis showed that lncRNAs may regulate JAK/STAT pathway activity through complete endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. Further experimental validation of PRKCQ-AS1/STAT1/miR-545-5p regulatory circuitry showed that lncRNAs regulate the expression of JAK/STAT signalling pathway genes through competing for miR-545-5p. In summary, our results demonstrated that dysregulation of lncRNA-JAK/STAT pathway axis promotes the inflammation level in psoriasis and thus provide potential therapeutic targets for psoriasis treatments.
Project description:The SOCS family of proteins are negative-feedback inhibitors of signalling induced by cytokines that act via the JAK/STAT pathway. SOCS proteins can act as ubiquitin ligases by recruiting Cullin5 to ubiquitinate signalling components; however, SOCS1, the most potent member of the family, can also inhibit JAK directly. Here we determine the structural basis of both these modes of inhibition. Due to alterations within the SOCS box domain, SOCS1 has a compromised ability to recruit Cullin5; however, it is a direct, potent and selective inhibitor of JAK catalytic activity. The kinase inhibitory region of SOCS1 targets the substrate binding groove of JAK with high specificity and thereby blocks any subsequent phosphorylation. SOCS1 is a potent inhibitor of the interferon gamma (IFN?) pathway, however, it does not bind the IFN? receptor, making its mode-of-action distinct from SOCS3. These findings reveal the mechanism used by SOCS1 to inhibit signalling by inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:Immunotherapies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), dramatically improve the survival of melanoma patients. However, only ∼40% of treated patients demonstrate a clinical response to single-agent anti-PD-1 therapy. An intact tumor response to type-II interferon (i.e. IFN-γ) correlates with response to anti-PD-1, and patients with <i>de novo</i> or acquired resistance may harbor loss-of-function alterations in the JAK/STAT pathway, which lies downstream of the interferon gamma receptor (IFNGR1/2). In this study, we dissected the specific roles of individual JAK/STAT pathway members on the IFN-γ response, and identified JAK1 as the primary mediator of JAK/STAT signaling associated with IFN-γ-induced expression of antigen-presenting molecules MHC-I and MHC-II, as well as PD-L1 and the cytostatic response to IFN-γ. In contrast to the crucial role of JAK1, JAK2 was largely dispensable in mediating most IFN-γ effects. In a mouse melanoma model, inhibition of JAK1/2 in combination with anti-PD-L1 therapy partially blocked anti-tumor immunologic responses, while selective JAK2 inhibition appeared to augment therapy. Amplification of JAK/STAT signaling in tumor cells through genetic inhibition of the negative regulator <i>PTPN2</i> potentiated IFN-γ response <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>, and may be a target to enhance immunotherapy efficacy.
Project description:Current data is scarce regarding the function of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the interferon- (IFN-) mediated immune response. This is a comprehensive study that analyzes the lncRNA and miRNA expression profiles of the type I IFN and type II IFN in porcine alveolar macrophages using RNA sequencing. There was a total of 152 overexpressed differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 21 DE miRNAs across type I IFN and type II IFN in porcine alveolar macrophages. Subsequent lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network construction revealed the involvement of 36 DE lncRNAs and 12 DE miRNAs. LncRNAs such as the XLOC_211306, XLOC_100516, XLOC_00695, XLOC_149196, and XLOC_014459 were expressed at a higher degree in the type I IFN group, while XLOC_222640, XLOC_047290, XLOC_147777, XLOC_162298, XLOC_220210, and XLOC_165237 were expressed at a higher degree in the type II IFN group. These lncRNAs were found to act as "sponges" for miRNAs such as miR-34a, miR-328, miR-885-3p, miR-149, miR-30c-3p, miR-30b-5p, miR-708-5p, miR-193a-5p, miR-365-5p, and miR-7. Their target genes FADS2, RPS6KA1, PIM1, and NOD1 were found to be associated with several immune-related signaling pathways including the NOD-like receptor, Jak-STAT, mTOR, and PPAR signaling pathways. These experiments provide a comprehensive profile of overexpressed noncoding RNAs in porcine alveolar macrophages, providing new insights regarding the IFN-mediated immune response.
Project description:Introduction:Searching for new therapeutic possibilities constitutes a challenge for modern medicine and an answer to better understanding of molecular mechanisms of pro-inflammatory diseases. The JAK-STAT pathway plays an important role in the inflammatory processes, which is supported by the fact that its inhibitors are used to treat, for instance, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Aim:To determine whether the epigenetic mechanisms - methylation of gene promotion regions and miRNAs may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for JAK-STAT pathway inhibition. Material and methods:Basing on MethPrimer (plus CpG Island Prediction) program and microrna.org database of the said mechanism in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, the gene expression was performed, indicating or excluding the possibility of their use as new potential therapeutic strategies. Results:A different number of CpG islands (CGI) for each gene (JAK1-4 CGI; JAK2-2 CGI; JAK3-5 CGI, TYK2-6 CGI; STAT1-2 CGI; STAT2-1 CGI; STAT3-3 CGI; STAT5A-4 CGI; STAT5B-3 CGI) might be a new therapeutic goal. What is more, our results show that genes associated with JAK-STAT signalling pathways can be regulated by miRNAs (JAK1-42 miRNAs; JAK2-47 miRNAs; JAK3-15 miRNAs, TYK2-4 miRNAs; STAT1-17 miRNAs; STAT2-30 miRNAs, STAT3-36 miRNAs, STAT4-15 miRNAs; STAT5A-10 miRNAs; STAT5B-23 miRNAs). Conclusions:The epigenetic mechanisms of the regulation of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway gene expression constitute a promising new therapeutic strategy for treatment of those diseases, during which disorders are observed in gene expression models of the analysed signalling pathway.
Project description:The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and recently JAK/STAT inhibitors have shown promising results in psoriasis treatment. The present study aimed to characterize the role of STAT2 in psoriasis. We demonstrated an increased expression of STAT2 and an increased level of phosphorylated/activated STAT2 in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin. Gene silencing of STAT2 by siRNA in human keratinocytes revealed that upon IFN? stimulation CXCL11 and CCL5 were the only two cytokines, among 102 analyzed, found to be regulated through a STAT2-dependent mechanism. Moreover, the regulation of CXCL11 and CCL5 depended on IRF9, but not on STAT1 and STAT6. The CXCL11 and CCL5 expression was increased in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin, and analysis demonstrated positive correlation between the expression of CXCL11 and IFN? and between the expression of CCL5 and IFN? in lesional psoriatic skin. In contrast, no correlation between the expression of CXCL11 and IL-17A and the expression of CCL5 and IL-17A in lesional psoriatic skin was found. Our data suggest that STAT2 plays a role in the psoriasis pathogenesis by regulating the expression of CXCL11 and CCL5, and thereby attracting IFN?-producing immune cells to the skin.
Project description:Vitiligo is a multifactorial reversible skin disorder characterized by distinct white patches that result from melanocyte destruction. Activated CXCR3<sup>+</sup> CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells promote melanocyte detachment and apoptosis through interferon-gamma (IFN-γ secretion and chemokines secreted by keratinocytes through the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 signaling pathway results in further recruitment of CXCR3<sup>+</sup> CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells and the formation of a positive-feedback loop. JAK inhibitors target the JAK/STAT pathway and are now approved to treat many immune-related diseases. In the treatment of vitiligo, JAK inhibitors, including ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and tofacitinib, are effective, supporting the implication of the IFN-γ-chemokine signaling axis in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, more studies are required to determine the ideal dosage of JAK inhibitors for the treatment of vitiligo, and to identify other inflammatory pathways that may be implicated in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Project description:Host immune responses during acute HIV-1 infection can influence the viral setpoint, which is a predictor of disease progression. Interferon (IFN)-lambdas are newly classified type III interferons, which use JAK-STAT pathway. Currently, the dynamics of IFN-lambdas related genes and proteins expression in the signaling pathway have not been well elaborated, especially in acute HIV-1-infected patients.To evaluate the dynamic changes of IFN-lambdas related genes and proteins in JAK/STAT pathway in acute HIV-1-infected patients, and analyze their correlation with CD4 T cell counts and HIV-1 viral loads.Real-time PCR and flow cytometry methods were used to evaluate the dynamic changes of IFN-lambdas related genes and proteins in JAK/STAT pathway in both acute and chronic HIV-1-infected patients.The IFN-alpha receptors (R), IFN-gamma R, IFN-lambdas R and STAT1 mRNA and protein levels increased in acute HIV-1-infected patients (p < 0.01), in addition, Mx1 mRNA levels in acute HIV-1-infected patients are higher than those in HIV-negative subjects. IFN-lambdas R and IFN-alpha R mRNA levels are inversely correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts, but are positively correlated with viral loads.The dynamic changes of IFNs related genes in JAK-STAT pathway in acute HIV-1 infection will deepen our understanding of the roles of IFN-lambdas in HIV pathogenesis.
Project description:Interferons (IFNs) have been used in the treatment of viral hepatitis. However, their effectiveness is much reduced (<10%) in alcoholics. The mechanism underlying this resistance remains unknown. Here, we report that IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma rapidly activate the JAK-STAT1 (Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator transcription factor 1) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Treatment of hepatocytes with 25-100 mM ethanol for 30 min inhibited IFN-beta- or IFN-gamma-induced STAT1 activation and tyrosine phosphorylation. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was not reversed by pretreatment with either sodium vanadate, a non-selective tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, or with MG132, a specific proteasome inhibitor. This suggests that protein tyrosine phosphatases or the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are not involved in the inhibitory action of ethanol. In contrast with the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, acute ethanol exposure significantly potentiated IFN-beta or IFN-gamma-induced activation of p42/44 MAPK, and caused marked activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Inhibition of PKC partially antagonized ethanol attenuation of IFN-induced STAT1 activation, suggesting that PKC may be involved. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ability of biologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (less than 100 mM) to markedly inhibit IFN-activated STAT1 is one of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the observed resistance of IFN therapy in alcoholics.
Project description:Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are classic inhibitors of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Many cytokines and pathogenic mediators induce expression of SOCS, which act in a negative feedback loop to inhibit further signal transduction. SOCS mRNA expression is regulated by DNA binding of STAT proteins, however, their post-transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that bind to complementary sequences on target mRNAs, often silencing gene expression. miR-19a has been shown to regulate SOCS1 expression during mutiple myeloma and be induced by the anti-viral cytokine interferon-(IFN)-?, suggesting a role in the regulation of the JAK-STAT pathway. This study aimed to identify targets of miR-19a in the JAK-STAT pathway and elucidate the functional consequences. Bioinformatic analysis identified highly conserved 3'UTR miR-19a target sequences in several JAK-STAT associated genes, including SOCS1, SOCS3, SOCS5 and Cullin (Cul) 5. Functional studies revealed that miR-19a significantly decreased SOCS3 mRNA and protein, while a miR-19a antagomir specifically reversed its inhibitory effect. Furthermore, miR-19a-mediated reduction of SOCS3 enhanced IFN-? and interleukin (IL)-6 signal transduction through STAT3. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which miR-19a may augment JAK-STAT signal transduction via control of SOCS3 expression and are fundamental to the understanding of inflammatory regulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously reported that JAK-STAT-pathway mediated regulation of IFN-regulatory factor genes could play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (TOFA) for controlling IFN signalling via the JAK-STAT pathway and as a therapeutic for SLE. RESULTS:We treated NZB/NZW F1 mice with TOFA and assessed alterations in their disease, pathological, and immunological conditions. Gene-expression results obtained from CD4+ T cells (SLE mice) and CD3+ T cells (human SLE patients) were measured by DNA microarray and qRT-PCR. TOFA treatment resulted in reduced levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies, decreased proteinuria, and amelioration of nephritis as compared with those observed in control animals. Moreover, we observed the rebalance in the populations of naïve CD4+ T cells and effector/memory cells in TOFA-treated mice; however, treatment with a combination of TOFA and dexamethasone (DEXA) elicited a stronger inhibitory effect toward the effector/memory cells than did TOFA or DEXA monotherapy. We also detected decreased expression of several IFN-signature genes Ifit3 and Isg15 in CD4+ from SLE-prone mice following TOFA and DEXA treatment, and IFIT3 in CD3+ T cells from human patients following immunosuppressant therapy including steroid, respectively. CONCLUSION:Modulation of type I IFN signalling via JAK-STAT inhibition may exert a beneficial effect in SLE patients, and our results suggest that TOFA could be utilised for the development of new SLE-specific therapeutic strategies.