New Insights on the Regulation of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis via COP1 and DELLA Proteins in Arabidopsis Thaliana.
ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of defensive secondary metabolites, such as glucosinolates (GSLs), is a costly process, which requires nutrients, ATP, and reduction equivalents, and, therefore, needs well-orchestrated machinery while coordinating defense and growth. We discovered that the key repressor of light signaling, the CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 (COP1/SPA) complex, is a crucial component of GSL biosynthesis regulation. Various mutants in this COP1/SPA complex exhibited a strongly reduced level of GSL and a low expression of jasmonate (JA)-dependent genes. Furthermore, cop1, which is known to accumulate DELLA proteins in the dark, shows reduced gibberellin (GA) and JA signaling, thereby phenocopying other DELLA-accumulating mutants. This phenotype can be complemented by a dominant gain-of-function allele of MYC3 and by crossing with a mutant having low DELLA protein levels. Hence, SPA1 interacts with DELLA proteins in a yeast two-hybrid screen, whereas high levels of DELLA inhibit MYC function and suppress JA signaling. DELLA accumulation leads to reduced synthesis of GSL and inhibited growth. Thus, the COP1/SPA-mediated degradation of DELLA not only affects growth but also regulates the biosynthesis of GSLs.
Project description:DELLA transcriptional regulators are central components in the control of plant growth responses to the environment. This control is considered to be mediated by changes in the metabolism of the hormones gibberellins (GAs), which promote the degradation of DELLAs. However, here we show that warm temperature or shade reduced the stability of a GA-insensitive DELLA allele in Arabidopsis thaliana Furthermore, the degradation of DELLA induced by the warmth preceded changes in GA levels and depended on the E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). COP1 enhanced the degradation of normal and GA-insensitive DELLA alleles when coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. DELLA proteins physically interacted with COP1 in yeast, mammalian, and plant cells. This interaction was enhanced by the COP1 complex partner SUPRESSOR OF phyA-105 1 (SPA1). The level of ubiquitination of DELLA was enhanced by COP1 and COP1 ubiquitinated DELLA proteins in vitro. We propose that DELLAs are destabilized not only by the canonical GA-dependent pathway but also by COP1 and that this control is relevant for growth responses to shade and warm temperature.
Project description:Plants constantly adjust their growth, development and metabolism to the ambient light environment. Blue light is sensed by the Arabidopsis photoreceptors CRY1 and CRY2 which subsequently initiate light signal transduction by repressing the COP1/SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase. While the interaction between cryptochromes and SPA is blue light-dependent, it was proposed that CRY1 interacts with COP1 constitutively, i.e. also in darkness. Here, our in vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that CRY1 and CRY2 form a complex with COP1 only after seedlings were exposed to blue light. No association between COP1 and CRY1 or CRY2 was observed in dark-grown seedlings. Thus, our results suggest that cryptochromes bind the COP1/SPA complex after photoactivation by blue light. In a spa quadruple mutant that is devoid of all four SPA proteins, CRY1 and COP1 did not interact in vivo, neither in dark-grown nor in blue light-grown seedlings. Hence, SPA proteins are required for the high-affinity interaction between CRY1 and COP1 in blue light. Yeast three-hybrid experiments also show that SPA1 enhances the CRY1-COP1 interaction. The coiled-coil domain of SPA1 which is responsible for COP1-binding was necessary to mediate a CRY1-SPA1 interaction in vivo, implying that-in turn-COP1 may be necessary for a CRY1-SPA1 complex formation. Hence, SPA1 and COP1 may act cooperatively in recognizing and binding photoactivated CRY1. In contrast, the blue light-induced association between CRY2 and COP1 was not dependent on SPA proteins in vivo. Similarly, ?CC-SPA1 interacted with CRY2, though with a much lower affinity than wild-type SPA1. In total, our results demonstrate that CRY1 and CRY2 strongly differ in their blue light-induced interaction with the COP1/SPA complex.
Project description:CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase from plants to animals and acts as a central repressor of photomorphogenesis in plants. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 1 family members (SPA1-SPA4) directly interact with COP1 and enhance COP1 activity. Despite the presence of a kinase domain at the N-terminus, no COP1-independent role of SPA proteins has been reported. Here we show that SPA1 acts as a serine/threonine kinase and directly phosphorylates PIF1 in vitro and in vivo. SPAs are necessary for the light-induced phosphorylation, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of PIF1. Moreover, the red/far-red light photoreceptor phyB interacts with SPA1 through its C-terminus and enhances the recruitment of PIF1 for phosphorylation. These data provide a mechanistic view on how the COP1-SPA complexes serve as an example of a cognate kinase-E3 ligase complex that selectively triggers rapid phosphorylation and removal of its substrates, and how phyB modulates this process to promote photomorphogenesis.
Project description:Fine tuning of light signaling is crucial to plant development. Following light-triggered nuclear translocation, the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) regulates gene expression under continuous far-red light and is rapidly destabilized upon red light irradiation by E3 ubiquitin ligases, including COP1. Here we provide evidence that the light signaling repressors SPA proteins contribute to COP1-mediated phyA degradation and that a COP1/SPA1 protein complex is tightly associated with phyA ubiquitination activity. Furthermore, a phosphorylated phyA form accumulates in the nucleus and preferentially associates with the COP1/SPA1 complex. In contrast, underphosphorylated phyA predominantly associates with the phyA-signaling intermediates FHY3 and FHY1. However, COP1 associates with underphosphorylated phyA in the absence of FHY3 or FHY1, suggesting that phyA associations with FHY3 and FHY1 protect underphosphorylated phyA from being recognized by the COP1/SPA complex. We propose that light-induced phyA phosphorylation acts as a switch controlling differential interactions of the photoreceptor with signal propagation or attenuation machineries.
Project description:The Arabidopsis COP1/SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase is a key negative regulator that represses light signaling in darkness by targeting transcription factors involved in the light response for degradation. The COP1/SPA complex consists of COP1 and members of the four-member SPA protein family (SPA1-SPA4). Genetic analysis indicated that COP1/SPA2 function is particularly strongly repressed by light when compared to complexes carrying the other three SPAs, thereby promoting a light response after exposure of plants to extremely low light. Here, we show that the SPA2 protein is degraded within 5-15 min after exposure of dark-grown seedlings to a pulse of light. Phytochrome photoreceptors are required for the rapid degradation of SPA2 in red, far-red and also in blue light, whereas cryptochromes are not involved in the rapid, blue light-induced reduction in SPA2 protein levels. These results uncover a photoreceptor-specific mechanism of light-induced inhibition of COP1/SPA2 function. Phytochrome A (phyA) is required for the severe blue light responsiveness of spa triple mutants expressing only SPA2, thus confirming the important role of phyA in downregulating SPA2 function in blue light. In blue light, SPA2 forms a complex with cryptochrome 1 (cry1), but not with cryptochrome 2 (cry2) in vivo, indicating that the lack of a rapid blue light response of the SPA2 protein is only in part caused by a failure to interact with cryptochromes. Since SPA1 interacts with both cry1 and cry2, these results provide first molecular evidence that the light-regulation of different SPA proteins diverged during evolution. SPA2 degradation in the light requires COP1 and the COP1-interacting coiled-coil domain of SPA2, supporting that SPA2 is ubiquitinated by COP1. We propose that light perceived by phytochromes causes a switch in the ubiquitination activity of COP1/SPA2 from ubiquitinating downstream substrates to ubiquitinating SPA2, which subsequently causes a repression of COP1/SPA2 function.
Project description:In plants, the cryptochrome photoreceptors suppress the activity of the COP1/SPA ubiquitin ligase to initiate photomorphogenesis in blue light. Both CRY1 and CRY2 interact with the COP1/SPA complex in a blue light-dependent manner. The mechanisms underlying the inhibition of COP1 activity through direct interactions with photoactivated CRYs are not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that CRY2 inhibits COP1 by displacing the degradation substrates from COP1. To this end, we analyzed the role of a conserved valine-proline (VP) motif in the C-terminal domain of CRY2 (CCT2), which resembles the core COP1-WD40-binding sequences present in the substrates of COP1. We show that the VP motif in CRY2 is essential for the interaction of CRY2 with COP1 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in planta Mutations in the VP motif of CRY2 abolished the CRY2 activity in photomorphogenesis, indicating the importance of VP. The interaction between COP1 and its VP-containing substrate PAP2 was prevented in the presence of coexpressed CRY2, but not in the presence of CRY2 carrying a VP mutation. Thus, since both PAP2 and CRY2 engage VP motifs to bind to COP1, these results demonstrate that CRY2 outcompetes PAP2 for binding to COP1. We further found that the previously unknown interaction between SPA1-WD and CCT2 occurs via the VP motif in CRY2, suggesting structural similarities in the VP-binding pockets of COP1-WD40 and SPA1-WD40 domains. A VP motif present in CRY1 is also essential for binding to COP1. Thus, CRY1 and CRY2 might share this mechanism of COP1 inactivation.
Project description:Glucosinolate (GSL) is associated with clubroot disease, which is caused by the obligate biotrophic protist <i>Plasmodiophora brassicae</i>. Due to the complicated composition of GSLs, their exact role in clubroot disease development remains unclear. By investigating clubroot disease resistance in cruciferous plants and characterizing the GSL content in seeds, we can determine if clubroot disease development is related to the components of GSLs. The difference in the infection process between <i>Matthiola incana</i> L. (resistant) and <i>Brassica napus</i> L. (susceptible) was determined. Root hair infection was definitely observed in both resistant and susceptible hosts, but no infection was observed during the cortical infection stage in resistant roots; this finding was verified by molecular detection of <i>P. brassicae</i> via PCR amplification at various times after inoculation. Based on the time course detection of the contents and compositions of GSLs after <i>P. brassicae</i> inoculation, susceptible roots exhibited increased accumulation of aliphatic, indolic, and aromatic GSLs in <i>B. napus</i>, but only aromatic GSLs were significantly increased in <i>M. incana</i>. Gluconapin, which was the main aliphatic GSL in <i>B. napus</i> and present only in <i>B. napus</i>, was significantly increased during the secondary infection stage. Quantification of the internal jasmonic acid (JA) concentration showed that both resistant and susceptible plants exhibited an enhanced level of JA, particularly in susceptible roots. The exogenous JA treatment induced aliphatic GSLs in <i>B. napus</i> and aromatic GSLs in <i>M. incana</i>. JA-induced aromatic GSLs may be involved in the defense against <i>P. brassicae</i>, whereas aliphatic GSLs induced by JA in <i>B. napus</i> likely play a role during the secondary infection stage. Three candidate <i>MYB28</i> genes regulate the content of aliphatic GSLs identified in <i>B. napus</i>; one such gene was <i>BnMYB28.1</i>, which was significantly increased following both the treatment with exogenous JA and <i>P. brassicae</i> inoculation. In summary, the increased content of JA during the secondary infection stage may induce the expression of <i>BnMYB28.1</i>, which caused the accumulation of aliphatic GSLs in clubroot disease development.
Project description:COP1/SPA1 complex in <i>Arabidopsis</i> inhibits photomorphogenesis through the ubiquitination of multiple photo-responsive transcription factors in darkness, but such inhibiting function of COP1/SPA1 complex would be suppressed by cryptochromes in blue light. Extensive studies have been conducted on these mechanisms in <i>Arabidopsis</i> whereas little attention has been focused on whether another branch of land plants bryophyte utilizes this blue-light regulatory pathway. To study this problem, we conducted a study in the liverwort <i>Marchantia polymorpha</i> and obtained a MpSPA knock-out mutant, in which Mp<i>spa</i> exhibits the phenotype of an increased percentage of individuals with asymmetrical thallus growth, similar to MpCRY knock-out mutant. We also verified interactions of MpSPA with MpCRY (in a blue light-independent way) and with MpCOP1. Concomitantly, both MpSPA and MpCOP1 could interact with MpHY5, and MpSPA can promote MpCOP1 to ubiquitinate MpHY5 but MpCRY does not regulate the ubiquitination of MpHY5 by MpCOP1/MpSPA complex. These data suggest that COP1/SPA ubiquitinating HY5 is conserved in <i>Marchantia polymorpha</i>, but dissimilar to CRY in <i>Arabidopsis</i>, MpCRY is not an inhibitor of this process under blue light.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plants have evolved light sensing mechanisms to optimally adapt their growth and development to the ambient light environment. The COP1/SPA complex is a key negative regulator of light signaling in the well-studied dicot Arabidopsis thaliana. COP1 and members of the four SPA proteins are part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts in darkness to ubiquitinate several transcription factors involved in light responses, thereby targeting them for degradation by the proteasome. While COP1 is also found in humans, SPA proteins appear specific to plants. Here, we have functionally addressed evolutionary conservation of COP1 and SPA orthologs from the moss Physcomitrella, the monocot rice and the dicot Arabidopsis. RESULTS: To this end, we analyzed the activities of COP1- and SPA-like proteins from Physcomitrella patens and rice when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of rice COP1 and Physcomitrella COP1 protein sequences predominantly complemented all phenotypic aspects of the viable, hypomorphic cop1-4 mutant and the null, seedling-lethal cop1-5 mutant of Arabidopsis: rice COP1 fully rescued the constitutive-photomorphogenesis phenotype in darkness and the leaf expansion defect of cop1 mutants, while it partially restored normal photoperiodic flowering in cop1. Physcomitrella COP1 partially restored normal seedling growth and flowering time, while it fully restored normal leaf expansion in the cop1 mutants. In contrast, expression of a SPA ortholog from Physcomitrella (PpSPAb) in Arabidopsis spa mutants did not rescue any facet of the spa mutant phenotype, suggesting that the PpSPAb protein is not functionally conserved or that the Arabidopsis function evolved after the split of mosses and seed plants. The SPA1 ortholog from rice (OsSPA1) rescued the spa mutant phenotype in dark-grown seedlings, but did not complement any spa mutant phenotype in light-grown seedlings or in adult plants. CONCLUSION: Our results show that COP1 protein sequences from Physcomitrella, rice and Arabidopsis have been functionally conserved during evolution, while the SPA proteins showed considerable functional divergence. This may - at least in part - reflect the fact that COP1 is a single copy gene in seed plants, while SPA proteins are encoded by a small gene family of two to four members with possibly sub- or neofunctionalized tasks.
Project description:Photomorphogenesis is repressed in the dark mainly by an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex comprising CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) and four homologous proteins called SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA1-SPA4) in Arabidopsis. This complex induces the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of positively acting transcription factors (TFs; e.g. ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (HY5), LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED 1 (HFR1), PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 (PAP1) and others] in the dark to repress photomorphogenesis. Genomic evidence showed a large number of genes regulated by COP1 in the dark, of which many are direct targets of HY5. However, the genomic basis for the constitute photomorphogenic phenotype of spaQ remains unknown. Here, we show that >7200 genes are differentially expressed in the spaQ background compared to wild-type in the dark. Comparison of the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data between cop1 and spaQ revealed a large overlapping set of genes regulated by the COP1-SPA complex. In addition, many of the genes coordinately regulated by the COP1-SPA complex are also regulated by HY5 directly and indirectly. Taken together, our data reveal that SPA proteins repress photomorphogenesis by controlling gene expression in concert with COP1, likely through regulating the abundance of downstream TFs in light signaling pathways. Moreover, SPA proteins may function both in a COP1-dependent and -independent manner in regulating many biological processes and developmental pathways in Arabidopsis.