BackgroundVarious clinical patterns based on routes of sensitization and sensitized allergens are reported in adult-onset IgE-mediated wheat allergy. There is still a paucity of data on IgE-bound wheat allergen profiles in wheat challenge-proven adult-onset wheat allergic cases. Therefore, we aim to identify the major sensitized allergens in Thai adult-onset wheat allergic patients whose first symptom occurred after the age of 18 years despite previous tolerance.
MethodsThis cross-sectional pilot study recruited patients from the Thai Adult-onset IgE-mediated Wheat Allergy Cohort (TAWAC). The sera of patients with mostly challenge-proven cases were selected for allergen study, including ImmunoCAP and IgE-bound gliadins along with glutenins profiles. The IgE-bound proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Direct binding of IgE to recombinant gliadin and glutenin was performed to confirm the results of immunoblot and LC-MS/MS.
ResultsEleven wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) and 4 typical wheat allergy (WA) patients were enrolled. Serum IgE from >50% of bound proteins had a molecular weight ranging from 35 to 55 kDa in both gliadin and glutenin extracts. Further, ELISA demonstrated that γ-gliadin and ω5-gliadin were the most important major allergens. Other major allergens include α/β-gliadin, HMW glutenin, and possibly α-amylase inhibitor or LWM glutenin. Gamma-gliadin sensitization was found in all WA patients (4/4), while ω-5 gliadin was found in all WDEIA patients (11/11) from ELISA.
ConclusionWheat γ-gliadin and ω-5 gliadin are major wheat allergens among adult-onset wheat allergy patients in Thailand. Component-resolved diagnosis using γ-gliadin might be helpful in high suspicion of wheat allergy.