Infection of a Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Caused by Mycolicibacterium litorale.
ABSTRACT: We report the first case of Mycolicibacterium litorale infection identified as a pacemaker infection. The patient was successfully treated by device extraction and combined antibiotic therapy. This case indicates the importance of the pathogenicity of rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients with cardiac implantable electronic device infections. (Level of Difficulty: Beginner.).
Project description:Mycolicibacterium litorale is a rapidly growing mycobacterial organism with unknown pathogenic features. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Mycolicibacterium sp. strain NIID-NTM18, which was isolated from a cardiac implantable electronic device infection and which is most similar to M. litorale This sequence will provide essential information for future studies of the pathogenicity of these mycobacteria.
Project description:Web-based survey was conducted for experiences of cardiac implantable electrical device (CIED) infection and migration in Japan. A total of 155 cardiologists' answer was collected in January, 2018. CIED includes pacemaker (PM), implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker (CRT-P), and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICD (CRT-D) and total of 10,499 CIEDs' experiences of within previous twelve months were reported. CIED includes pacemaker (PM), implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker (CRT-P), and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICD (CRT-D.). The infection rate of PM, ICD, CRT-P, and CRT-D was 0.79%, 0.81%, 0.45%, and 2.0%, respectively, and the device migration rate was 0.68%, 0.64%, 0.45%, and 0.93%, respectively. The overall infection rate was 0.85% and migration rate was 0.68%.
Project description:Animal models have become a popular platform for the investigation of the molecular and systemic mechanisms of pathological cardiovascular physiology. Chronic pacing studies with implantable pacemakers in large animals have led to useful models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, molecular and genetic studies in these large animal models are often prohibitively expensive or not available. Conversely, the mouse is an excellent species for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease through genetic engineering. However, the large size of available pacemakers does not lend itself to chronic pacing in mice. Here, we present the design for a novel, fully implantable wireless-powered pacemaker for mice capable of long-term (>30 days) pacing. This design is compared to a traditional battery-powered pacemaker to demonstrate critical advantages achieved through wireless inductive power transfer and control. Battery-powered and wireless-powered pacemakers were fabricated from standard electronic components in our laboratory. Mice (n = 24) were implanted with endocardial, battery-powered devices (n = 14) and epicardial, wireless-powered devices (n = 10). Wireless-powered devices were associated with reduced implant mortality and more reliable device function compared to battery-powered devices. Eight of 14 (57.1%) mice implanted with battery-powered pacemakers died following device implantation compared to 1 of 10 (10%) mice implanted with wireless-powered pacemakers. Moreover, device function was achieved for 30 days with the wireless-powered device compared to 6 days with the battery-powered device. The wireless-powered pacemaker system presented herein will allow electrophysiology studies in numerous genetically engineered mouse models as well as rapid pacing-induced heart failure and atrial arrhythmia in mice.
Project description:Candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) receive either a biventricular pacemaker or a biventricular pacemaker with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D). Optimal device selection remains challenging because the benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy may not be uniform, particularly in patients at competing risk of nonsudden death.In this serial cross-sectional study using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified 311,086 admissions associated with CRT implant between 2006 to 2012. CRT-D was the most common device type (86.1%), including in patients ? 75 years of age with ? 5 Elixhauser comorbidities (75.5%). Multivariate predictors of CRT-D implant included demographic, clinical, and geographic factors: prior ventricular arrhythmia (rate ratio [RR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.13-1.14), ischemic heart disease (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.10-1.11), male sex (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09-1.10), black race (RR, 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04-1.07), and Northeast geographic region (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09). There was significant interhospital variation in the use of CRT-D (10-90 percentile range, 72.9%-98.0% CRT-D).The majority of patients in this contemporary US cohort underwent implantation of CRT-D. Predictors of CRT-D implant included demographic, clinical, and geographic factors. In patient subgroups predicted to have an attenuated benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy (older adults with multiple comorbidities), CRT-D remained the dominant device type. An improved understanding of the determinants of device selection may aid in decision making and ultimately better align patient risk with device benefit at the time of CRT implantation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Inadvertent damage to leads for transvenous pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators is an important complication associated with generator-replacement procedures. We sought to estimate the incidence and costs associated with transvenous lead damage following cardiac implantable electronic device replacement.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Using the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Research Database, we identified health care claims between 2009 and 2013 for lead damage following generator replacement. Patients were identified by claims with a procedure code for cardiac implantable electronic device replacement and then evaluated for 1 year. All follow-up visits for lead damage were identified, and incidence, risk factors, and hospitalization costs were determined. A total of 22 557 patients with pacemakers, 20 632 with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, and 2063 with cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators met selection criteria. Incidence of lead damage was 0.46% for pacemaker replacement, 1.27% for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator replacement, and 1.94% for cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator replacement procedures (P<0.001). After adjusting for patient characteristics, patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators demonstrated risk of lead damage that was, respectively, double (hazard ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.57-2.55) and >2.5 times (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 1.73-3.83) that of patients with pacemakers. Lead revision or repair procedures were associated with increased inpatient hospitalization costs (mean $19 959 for pacemaker, $24 885 for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and $46 229 for cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator; P=0.048, Kruskal-Wallis test).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings establish the first objective assessment of the incidence, risk factors, and economic burden of lead damage following cardiac implantable electronic device replacement in the United States. New care algorithms are warranted to avoid these events, which impose substantial burdens on patients, physicians, and payors.
Project description:Background:Subclavian vein obstruction may occur in patients with pacemaker leads, which may make the implantation of new pacemaker leads difficult. Case summary:We report two cases in which upgrading to cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker was challenging due to total central vein occlusion. In the first case, a 78-year-old woman with permanent pacemaker implantation, 5 years ago, was successfully treated by balloon venoplasty. In the second case, balloon venoplasty was unsuccessful in a 46-year-old woman who has received twice single-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, 12 years and 5 years ago, due to vessel crowding, so a contralateral side puncture, along with a tunnel technique, was performed to solve this problem. Discussion:Cardiac implantable electronic device-related subclavian vein stenosis can present a challenge to common cardiac resynchronization therapy device upgrades in the absence of appropriate techniques.
Project description:Background:The ANZACS-QI Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (ANZACS-QI DEVICE) collects nationwide data on cardiac implantable electronic devices in New Zealand (NZ). We used the registry to describe contemporary NZ use of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods:All ICD and CRT Pacemaker implants recorded in ANZACS-QI DEVICE between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2017 were analyzed. Results:Of 1579 ICD implants, 1152 (73.0%) were new implants, including 49.0% for primary prevention and 51.0% for secondary prevention. In both groups, median age was 62 years and patients were predominantly male (81.4% and 79.2%, respectively). Most patients receiving a primary prevention ICD had a history of clinical heart failure (80.4%), NYHA class II-III symptoms (77.1%) and LVEF ?35% (96.9%). In the secondary prevention ICD cohort, 88.4% were for sustained ventricular tachycardia or survived cardiac arrest from ventricular arrhythmia. Compared to primary prevention CRT Defibrillators (n = 155), those receiving CRT Pacemakers (n = 175) were older (median age 74 vs 66 years) and more likely to be female (38.3% vs 19.4%). Of the 427 (27.0%) ICD replacements (mean duration 6.3 years), 46.6% had received appropriate device therapy while 17.8% received inappropriate therapy. The ICD implant rate was 119 per million population with regional variation in implant rates, ratio of primary prevention ICD implants, and selection of CRT modality. Conclusion:In contemporary NZ practice three-quarters of ICD implants were new implants, of which half were for primary prevention. The majority met current guideline indications. Patients receiving CRT pacemaker were older and more likely to be female.
Project description:The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema litorale was isolated from Çamkoru Nature Park located in Ankara, Turkey, in September 2018. Steinernema litorale was recovered in 1 of 67 soil samples from a natural forest area; the soil was characterised as sandy loam. The isolated nematode S. litorale was identified based on morphological and molecular parameters. The symbiotic bacterium of S. litorale was determined as Xenorhabdus bovienii. Steinernema litorale was found for the first time in Turkey and the Middle East. The virulence of the isolate was tested on Galleria mellonella larvae. Different concentrations of the nematode (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 infective juveniles (IJs/larvae) were used. While the LC50 values at 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h were 153.419, 51.005, and 15.439 IJs, respectively, and the LT50 values at 75 IJs and 100 IJs showed that this isolate is capable to control insect larvae within 50.083 and 36.266 h, respectively.