Development and Optimisation of Solid-Phase Extraction of Extractable and Bound Phenolic Acids in Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) Seeds.
ABSTRACT: A solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique was developed and optimised for isolation and concentration of extractable and bound phenolic acids from germinated spelt seeds, for analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples initially underwent solvent extraction under different conditions to maximise the yield of phenolic antioxidants. Optimal extraction conditions for extractable phenolics were absolute methanol as solvent, sample-to-methanol ratio 1:9, and reconstitution in non-acidified water. The bound phenolics were extracted from sample pellets using hydrolysis with 2 M NaOH, acidification of the hydrolysate with formic acid, and simultaneous isolation and purification using Strata X polymeric RP tubes. Compared to liquid-liquid extraction, this direct SPE protocol has significant advantages in terms of higher extraction efficiencies of total and individual phenolics and their antioxidant activities. These data suggest that direct SPE represents a rapid and reliable method for quantitative analysis of both the extractable and the commonly overlooked bound phenolics in Triticum spelta seeds.
Project description:Total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity of free and bound extracts of Sargassum polycystum, obtained by different extraction solvents and hydrolysis methods, were investigated. Aqueous acetone afforded the highest free TPC and antioxidant ability, followed by aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol. Twelve free phenolic compounds were identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS), including two hydroxycinnamic acids, seven flavonoids, one stilbene, and two phlorotannins. Three to nine different free phenolic compounds were extracted by these solvents with different compositions, including nine by 70% acetone and eight by 70% methanol, 70% ethanol, and 50% ethanol. The highest total content of free phenolic compounds determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection was obtained from 70% ethanol. Alkaline hydrolysis afforded higher bound TPC (274.27 mg GAE/100 g DW) and antioxidant ability than acid hydrolysis. Five bound phenolic compounds were characterized by UHPLC-MS and five were released from alkaline hydrolysis, whereas two were released from acid hydrolysis. Total content of bound phenolic compounds released by alkaline hydrolysis was 14.68-fold higher than that by acid hydrolysis. The free and bound TPC, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities depended on the extraction solvent used. These results indicate that S. polycystum is a potentially useful antioxidant source and contribute to the development of seaweed-based functional foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Phenolics are usually divided into free and bound forms based on their extractability and interaction with cell wall components. The nutritional effects of bound phenolics in algae have long been neglected. These topics contribute to the development of seaweed-based functional foods.
Project description:A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries. All berry extracts showed higher inhibition against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase than the anti-diabetic agent acarbose. Total phenolic content and phenolic profiles in addition to antioxidant activities, were also investigated. The berries were extracted with 80% methanol on an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE) and then purified by C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Among the ASE methanol extracts, black chokeberry, crowberry and elderberry extracts showed high stimulation of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and also considerable inhibitory effect towards carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. SPE extracts with higher concentrations of phenolics, resulted in increased glucose uptake and enhanced inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase compared to the ASE extracts. Crowberry and cloudberry were the most potent 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors, while bog whortleberry and lingonberry were the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitors. These results increase the value of these berries as a component of a healthy Nordic diet and have a potential benefit against diabetes.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the extractable and non-extractable phenolics of Terminalia. Sericea Burch. Ex DC. Free, ester bound, ether or glycoside bound and insoluble phenolics were extracted from the fruit, leaves, stem, and root samples. Follin Ciocalteu was used to estimate the phenolic content while DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity. The data obtained were subjected to multivariate analysis for relationships. The result indicated that the highest average total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities were found in the free (14.8 mgGAE/g; IC50 6.8 ?g/mL) and ester bound (15.1 mgGAE/g; IC50 6.4 ?g/mL) extractable phenolics. There was a strong negative correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.828). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed three clusters. Cluster one contained the insoluble and glycoside phenolics while cluster 2 contained only free phenolic acid of the root. The third cluster was predominantly free and ester bound phenolic extracts. The principal component analysis score plot indicated two major clusters with factor 1 (F1) explaining 61% of the variation. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra indicated that gallic acid and resveratrol are the major phenolic compounds present in the root. This study has demonstrated that extractable phenolics contributed more to the antioxidant activities compared to the non-extractables.
Project description:Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = -0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = -0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements.
Project description:This study was designed to optimize three microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) parameters (ethanol concentration, microwave power, and extraction time) of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of avocado seeds using response surface methodology (RSM). The predicted quadratic models were highly significant (p < 0.001) for the responses studied. The extraction of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by both microwave power and extraction time. The optimal conditions for simultaneous extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were ethanol concentration of 58.3% (v/v), microwave power of 400?W, and extraction time of 4.8?min. Under these conditions, the experimental results agreed with the predicted values. MAE revealed clear advantages over the conventional solvent extraction (CSE) in terms of high extraction efficiency and antioxidant activity within the shortest extraction time. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of optimized extract revealed the presence of 10 phenolic compounds, with rutin, catechin, and syringic acid being the dominant compounds. Consequently, this optimized MAE method has demonstrated a potential application for efficient extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants from avocado seeds in the nutraceutical industries.
Project description:Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound that causes endothelial dysfunction and plays important roles in the development of diabetic complications. Peanuts are rich in energy, minerals, and antioxidants. Here, we report the potential beneficial effects of peanuts, and particularly the phenolic contents, against MGO-mediated cytotoxicity. Firstly, we optimized the extraction conditions for maximum yield of phenolics from peanuts by examining different processing methods and extraction solvents. To estimate the phenolic contents of peanut extracts, a simultaneous analysis method was developed and validated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that roasted peanuts and their 80% methanol extracts showed the highest amount of total phenolics. Secondly, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of phenolics and peanut extracts against MGO-mediated cytotoxicity. Phenolics and peanut extracts were observed to inhibit advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation as well as to break preformed AGEs. Furthermore, pretreatment with peanut extracts significantly inhibited MGO-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Peanut extracts prevented MGO-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 expression and decreasing Bax expression, and MGO-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In conclusion, the constituents of peanuts may prevent endothelial dysfunction and diabetic complications.
Project description:The aim was to investigate the effects of the cold dehulling of buckwheat seeds on their germination, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) and phenolics composition. Cold dehulling had no negative effects on germination rate and resulted in faster rootlet growth compared to hulled seeds. Although the dehulling of the seeds significantly decreased TPC and AA, the germination of dehulled seeds resulted in 1.8-fold and 1.9-fold higher TPC and AA compared to hulled seeds. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry identified several phenolic compounds in free and bound forms. Rutin was the major compound in hulled seeds (98 µg/g dry weight), orientin and vitexin in 96-h germinated dehulled seeds (2205, 1869 µg/g dry weight, respectively). During germination, the increases in the major phenolic compounds were around two orders of magnitude, which were greater than the increases for TPC and AA. As well as orientin and vitexin, high levels of other phenolic compounds were detected for dehulled germinated seeds (e.g., isoorientin, rutin; 1402, 967 µg/g dry weight, respectively). These data show that dehulled germinated seeds of buckwheat have great potential for use in functional foods as a dietary source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.
Project description:Unlike quantitative changes, the compositional changes of plant phenolics and changes in their tissue association as influenced by the nutrient supply are less well understood. We evaluated the quantity, composition, and tissue association of phenolics in leaves of two <i>Fragaria ananassa</i> cultivars in response to different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization using global metabolomic approaches. Influence of N supply on phenolic content in both cultivars was similar, but the magnitude of this response was compound specific. Ellagitannins, the most abundant class of phenolic oligomers, were less responsive to the applied N treatments, whereas proanthocyanidins, the less abundant class of phenolic oligomers, exhibited higher fold change. Within mono-phenolics, the hydroxycinnamates were more abundant but showed lower fold change than the hydroxybenzoates. Among flavonoids, the hydroxylated flavonols showed higher abundances than the flavones, with a preferential accumulation of dihydroxylated flavonol at lower N levels. Furthermore, glycosylated flavonols were higher than the acylated forms. The extractable fraction of phenolics was more influenced by the N treatment than the fiber-bound fraction. The extensive compositional modification of phenolics and a greater response of non-bound fractions in response to N rates highlight the potential to use precise management of N supply as an effective strategy to enhance the bioactive compounds in crops.
Project description:Scientific research has focused on the characterization of bioactive polyphenols from grape seeds and skins, and the pulp has often been overlooked. However, since the beneficial properties of grapes are associated with the consumption of whole fruit, a full extraction and posterior characterization of the phenolic compounds in whole grapes is required to identify the involved bioactive compounds. Such methodologies are not currently available for the whole edible parts of red grapes. This study aimed to determine the best polyphenol extraction conditions of whole red grapes, and apply the method to characterize and quantify the polyphenol composition of three different grapes. The optimized conditions were 80 mL/g, 65% methanol (1% formic acid), 72 °C, and 100 min under agitation of 500 rpm. Also, methanol and ethanol were compared as extraction solvents, and methanol achieved statistically higher extraction rates for anthocyanins. The results of this work suggest a higher quantification of phenolic compounds when red grapes are analyzed whole, including the seeds, pulp, and skin.
Project description:Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds, peels from <i>Opuntia engelmannii</i> cultivar (cv.) Valencia were optimized by response surface methodology. Randomized extraction runs were performed for each of the technologies employed in order to build effective models with maximum (bioactive molecules content and yield) and minimum (antioxidant activity) responses. A 5-level, 4-factor central composite design was used to obtain target responses as a function of extraction time (<i>t</i>), solid to liquid ratio (S/L), methanol concentration (<i>metOH</i>), and temperature (<i>T</i>). Specific response optimization for each technology was analyzed, discussed, and general optimization from all the responses together was also gather. The optimum values for each factor were: <i>t</i> = 2.5 and 1.4 min, S/L = 5 and 5 g/L, <i>metOH</i> = 34.6 and 0% of methanol and <i>T</i> = 30 and 36.6 °C, achieving maximum responses of 201.6 and 132.9 mg of betalains/g, 13.9 and 8.0 mg of phenolic acids/g, 2.4 and 1.5 mg of flavonoids/g, 71.8% and 79.1% of extractable solid and IC<sub>50</sub> values for the antioxidant activity of 2.9 and 3.6, for UAE and MAE, respectively. The present study suggested UAE as the best extraction system, in order to maximize recovery of bioactive compounds with a high antioxidant activity.