A Prospective Real-World Multi-Center Study to Evaluate Progression-Free and Overall Survival of Radiotherapy with Cetuximab and Platinum-Based Chemotherapy with Cetuximab in Locally Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Treatment options of locoregional recurrent head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) include both local strategies as surgery or re-radiotherapy and systemic therapy. In this prospective, multi-center, non-interventional study, patients were treated either with platinum-based chemotherapy and cetuximab (CT + Cet) or re-radiotherapy and cetuximab (RT + Cet). In the current analysis, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared in patients with locoregional recurrence. Four hundred seventy patients were registered in 97 German centers. After exclusion of patients with distant metastases, a cohort of 192 patients was analyzed (129 CT + Cet, 63 RT + Cet). Radiotherapy was delivered as re-irradiation to 70% of the patients. The mean radiation dose was 51.8 Gy, whereas a radiation dose of ≥60 Gy was delivered in 33% of the patients. Chemotherapy mainly consisted of cisplatin/5-flurouracil (40%) or carboplatin/5-flurouracil (29%). The median PFS was 9.2 months in the RT + Cet group versus 5.1 months in the CT + Cet group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.40, 95% CI, 0.27-0.57, p < 0.0001). Median OS was 12.8 months in the RT + Cet group versus 7.9 months in the CT + Cet group (hazard ratio for death, 0.50, 95% CI, 0.33-0.75, p = 0.0008). In conclusion, radiotherapy combined with cetuximab improved survival compared to chemotherapy combined with cetuximab in locally recurrent HNSCC.
Project description:Compare functional outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) concurrent with cetuximab (cet-RT) or with chemotherapy (chemo-RT) for comparable, good prognosis patients with human papillomavirus related (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC).Outcomes of patients with stage III/IV HPV+ OPC patients with minimal smoking history and non-T4/N3/N2C, treated on prospective protocol of RT concurrent with cetuximab (cet-RT), were compared to similar patients on prospective chemo-RT protocols. In both groups, videofluoroscopy (VF), observer rated dysphagia (ORD), and validated QOL questionnaires: xerostomia questionnaire (XQ), head and neck QOL, and University of Washington QOL, were performed periodically and compared to pretreatment. Mixed effects models with adjustment for baseline assessed differences between groups.26 cet-RT patients were compared to 27 chemo-RT patients with similar baseline characteristics. In the chemo-RT group, no recurrences occurred. In the cet-RT group, 1 patient had persistent microscopic disease on salvage neck dissection and 1 distant failure. Both groups had mild VF-based swallowing dysfunction pre-treatment, worsened at 3 months (P<0.02) and persisted at 12 months, not differing between groups (P>0.11). For both groups ORD was very low pretreatment, worsened at 3 months and improved at 12 months, without differences between treatment groups (P=0.26). QOL Summary and domain scores for eating were good pretreatment, worse at 3 mo, and then improved to near baseline at 12 months, without differences between the groups in any QOL domains (P>0.10).Both groups had excellent clinical outcomes without significant differences in objective or subjective functions. These data question using cetuximab instead of chemotherapy for treatment de-intensification for HPV+ OPC.
Project description:The ITACa trial was designed to define the role of cetuximab (Cet) and bevacizumab (Bev) in combination with standard chemotherapy (CT, FOLFIRI or FOLFOX4) as first- and second-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer. All patients with WT KRAS tumors who had been enrolled in the first-line trial were randomized onto two independent second-line trials: CT or CT?+?Cet (study 2A) and CT?+?Bev or CT?+?Bev?+?Cet (study 2B). Patients with mutated KRAS were not eligible for randomization and were treated with CT alone (study 2A) or CT?+?Bev (study 2B). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). 48 and 56 KRAS WT patients were randomized while 31 and 40 KRAS mutated patients were treated without randomization. Study 2A: median PFS was 3.4 (95%CI 2.3-4.6) and 6.2 (95%CI 4.3-7.8) months for the CT and CT?+?Cet arms, respectively, with a hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.64 (95%CI 0.35-1.16, p?=?0.144). Study 2B: median PFS was 7.7 (95%CI 4.1-10.1) and 4.9 (95%CI 3.2-7.0) months for CT?+?Bev and CT?+?Cet?+?Bev arms, respectively, with a HR?=?1.31 (95%CI 0.76-2.26, p?=?0.330). Notwithstanding limitations due to the small sample size, among patients with WT KRAS the addition of Cet to second-line CT increased PFS, whereas the addition of Cet to CT?+?Bev was associated with worse PFS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) followed by radiotherapy (RT) and surgery showed a median survival of 28.7 months in resectable stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (pts). Here, we evaluate the impact of concomitant cetuximab to the same neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in selected patients (pts) with NSCLC, stage IIIB.<h4>Methods</h4>Resectable stage IIIB NSCLC received three cycles of CT (cisplatin 100 mg/m<sup>2</sup> and docetaxel 85 mg/m<sup>2</sup> d1, q3w) followed by RT (44 Gy in 22 fractions) with concomitant cetuximab (250 mg/m<sup>2</sup>, q1w) and subsequent surgery. The primary endpoint was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS).<h4>Results</h4>Sixty-nine pts were included in the trial. Fifty-seven (83%) pts underwent surgery, with complete resection (R0) in 42 (74%) and postoperative 30 day mortality of 3.5%. Responses were: 57% after CT-cetuximab and 64% after CRT-cetuximab. One-year PFS was 50%. Median PFS was 12.0 months (95% CI: 9.0-15.6), median OS was 21.3 months, with a 2- and 3-yr survival of 41% and 30%, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is one of the largest prospective phase 2 trial to investigate the role of induction CRT and surgery in resectable stage IIIB disease, and the first adding cetuximab to the neoadjuvant strategy. This trial treatment is feasible with promising response and OS rates, supporting an aggressive approach in selected pts.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We performed an open-label randomized controlled phase III study comparing treatment outcome and toxicity between radiotherapy (RT) with concomitant cisplatin versus concomitant cetuximab in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC; stage III-IV according to the Union for International Cancer Control TNM classification, 7th edition).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Eligible patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either intravenous cetuximab 400 mg/m<sup>2</sup> 1 week before start of RT followed by 250 mg/m<sup>2</sup>/wk, or weekly intravenous cisplatin 40 mg/m<sup>2</sup>, during RT. RT was conventionally fractionated. Patients with T3-T4 tumors underwent a second random assignment 1:1 between standard RT dose 68.0 Gy to the primary tumor or dose escalation to 73.1 Gy. Primary end point was overall survival (OS) evaluated using adjusted Cox regression analysis. Secondary end points were locoregional control, local control with dose-escalated RT, pattern of failure, and adverse effects.<h4>Results</h4>Study inclusion was prematurely closed after an unplanned interim analysis when 298 patients had been randomly assigned. At 3 years, OS was 88% (95% CI, 83% to 94%) and 78% (95% CI, 71% to 85%) in the cisplatin and cetuximab groups, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.93 to 2.86; <i>P</i> = .086). The cumulative incidence of locoregional failures at 3 years was 23% (95% CI, 16% to 31%) compared with 9% (95% CI, 4% to 14%) in the cetuximab versus the cisplatin group (Gray's test <i>P</i> = .0036). The cumulative incidence of distant failures did not differ between the treatment groups. Dose escalation in T3-T4 tumors did not increase local control.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Cetuximab is inferior to cisplatin regarding locoregional control for concomitant treatment with RT in patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC. Additional studies are needed to identify possible subgroups that still may benefit from concomitant cetuximab treatment.
Project description:We incorporated cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), into the induction therapy and subsequent chemoradiotherapy of head and neck cancer (HNC).Patients with locally advanced HNC, including squamous and undifferentiated histologies, were treated with docetaxel 75 mg/m2 day 1, cisplatin 75 mg/m2 day 1, and cetuximab 250 mg/m2 days 1, 8, and 15 (after an initial loading dose of 400 mg/m2), termed TPE, repeated every 21 days for three cycles, followed by radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin 30 mg/m2 and cetuximab weekly (XPE), and maintenance cetuximab for 6 months. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck. In situ hybridization (ISH) for human papillomavirus (HPV), immunohistochemistry for p16, and fluorescence ISH for EGFR gene copy number were performed on tissue microarrays.Of 39 enrolled patients, 36 had stage IV disease and 23 an oropharyngeal primary. Acute toxicities during TPE included neutropenic fever (10%) and during XPE, grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis (54%) and hypomagnesemia (39%). With a median follow-up of 36 months, 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 70% and 74%, respectively. Eight patients progressed in locoregional sites, three in distant, and one in both. HPV positivity was not associated with treatment efficacy. No progression-free patient remained G-tube dependent. The H&N subscale QOL scores showed a significant decrement at 3 months after XPE, which normalized at 1 year.This cetuximab-containing regimen resulted in excellent long-term survival and safety, and warrants further evaluation in both HPV-positive and -negative HNC.
Project description:We have developed a theranostic nanoparticle, ie, cet-PEG-dexSPIONs, by conjugation of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, to dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) via periodate oxidation. Approximately 31 antibody molecules were conjugated to each nanoparticle. Cet-PEG-dexSPIONs specifically bind to EGFR-expressing tumor cells and enhance image contrast on magnetic resonance imaging. Cet-PEG-dexSPION-treated A431 cells showed significant inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced EGFR phosphorylation and enhancement of EGFR internalization and degradation. In addition, a significant increase in apoptosis was detected in EGFR-overexpressing cell lines, A431 and 32D/EGFR, after 24 hours of incubation at 37°C with cet-PEG-dexSPIONs compared with cetuximab alone. The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of cetuximab was observed in cet-PEG-dexSPIONs. The results demonstrated that cet-PEG-dexSPIONs retained the therapeutic effect of cetuximab in addition to having the ability to target and image EGFR-expressing tumors. Cet-PEG-dexSPIONs represent a promising targeted magnetic probe for early detection and treatment of EGFR-expressing tumor cells.
Project description:PURPOSE:One-third of patients with RAS wild-type mCRC do not benefit from anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. This might be a result of variable pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor targeting. We evaluated cetuximab tumor accumulation on [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab PET/CT as a potential predictive biomarker and determinant for an escalating dosing strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:PET/CT imaging of [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab (37 MBq/10 mg) after a therapeutic pre-dose (500 mg/m2 ? 2 h) cetuximab was performed at the start of treatment. Patients without visual tumor uptake underwent dose escalation and a subsequent [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab PET/CT. Treatment benefit was defined as stable disease or response on CT scan evaluation after 8 weeks. RESULTS:Visual tumor uptake on [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab PET/CT was observed in 66% of 35 patients. There was no relationship between PET positivity and treatment benefit (52% versus 80% for PET-negative, P = 0.16), progression-free survival (3.6 versus 5.7 months, P = 0.15), or overall survival (7.1 versus 9.4 months, P = 0.29). However, in 67% of PET-negative patients, cetuximab dose escalation (750-1250 mg/m2) was applied, potentially influencing outcome in this group. None of the second [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab PET/CT was positive. Eighty percent of patients without visual tumor uptake had treatment benefit, making [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab PET/CT unsuitable as a predictive biomarker. Tumor SUVpeak did not correlate to changes in tumor size on CT (P = 0.23), treatment benefit, nor progression-free survival. Cetuximab pharmacokinetics were not related to treatment benefit. BRAF mutations, right-sidedness, and low sEGFR were correlated with intrinsic resistance to cetuximab. CONCLUSION:Tumor uptake on [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab PET/CT failed to predict treatment benefit in patients with RAS wild-type mCRC receiving cetuximab monotherapy. BRAF mutations, right-sidedness, and low sEGFR correlated with intrinsic resistance to cetuximab.
Project description:Long-term locoregional control in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) remains challenging. While recent years have seen various approaches to improve outcome by intensification of treatment schedules through introduction of novel induction and combination chemotherapy regimen and altered fractionation regimen, patient tolerance to higher treatment intensities is limited by accompanying side-effects. Combined radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as well as modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and carbon ion therapy (C12) are able to limit toxicity while maintaining treatment effects. In order to achieve maximum efficacy with yet acceptable toxicity, this sequential phase II trial combines induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF) followed by radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. We expect this approach to result in increased cure rates with yet manageable accompanying toxicity.The TPF-C-HIT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, open-label, non-randomized phase II trial evaluating efficacy and toxicity of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 50 patients with histologically proven locally advanced SCCHN following TPF induction chemotherapy. Patients receive 24 GyE carbon ions (8 fractions) and 50 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction) in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. Primary endpoint is locoregional control at 12 months, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, acute and late radiation effects as well as any adverse events of the treatment as well as quality of life (QoL) analyses.The primary objective of TPF-C-HIT is to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of cetuximab in combination with combined IMRT/carbon ion therapy following TPF induction in locally advanced SCCHN.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chemotherapy with biologics followed by liver surgery improves the resection rate and survival of patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). However, no prospective study has compared the outcomes of chemotherapy with bevacizumab (BEV) versus cetuximab (CET).<h4>Methods</h4>The ATOM study is the first randomised trial comparing BEV and CET for initially unresectable CRLM. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive mFOLFOX6 plus either BEV or CET. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).<h4>Results</h4>Between May 2013 and April 2016, 122 patients were enrolled. Median PFS was 11.5 months (95% CI 9.2-13.3 months) in the BEV group and 14.8 months (95% CI 9.7-17.3 months) in the CET group (hazard ratio 0.803; P = 0.33). Patients with a smaller-number but larger-sized metastases did better in the CET group. In the BEV and CET groups, the response rates were 68.4% and 84.7% and the resection rates were 56.1% and 49.2%, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Although CET achieved a better response rate than BEV for patients with a small number of large liver metastases, both biologics had similar efficacy regarding liver resection and acceptable safety profiles. To achieve optimal PFS, biologics should be selected in accordance with patient conditions.<h4>Trial registration</h4>This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01836653), and UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000010209).
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer associated with high mortality (accounting for 3.1/100,000 deaths per year in Brazil in 2013) and a high frequency of amplification in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab leads to drug resistance in patients with OSCC due to unknown mechanisms. Galectin‑3 (Gal‑3) is a β‑galactoside binding lectin that regulates multiple signaling pathways in cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Gal‑3 in cetuximab‑resistant (cet‑R) OSCC. The OSCC HSC3 cell line was selected to establish a mouse xenograft model, which was treated with cetuximab to induce resistance. Subsequently, a Gal‑3 inhibitor was used to treat cet‑R tumors, and the tumor volume was monitored. The expression of Gal‑3, phosphorylated (p)‑ERK1/2 and p‑Akt was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The combined effect of cetuximab and the Gal‑3 inhibitor on HSC3 tumor xenografts was also investigated. HSC3 cells were cultured <i>in vitro</i> to investigate the regulatory effects of Gal‑3 on ERK1/2 and Akt via western blotting. In addition, the effects of the Gal‑3 inhibitor on the proliferation, colony formation, invasion and apoptosis of HSC3 cells were investigated by performing Cell Counting Kit‑8, colony formation, Transwell and apoptosis assays, respectively. In cet‑R OSCC tumors, increased expression of Gal‑3, p‑ERK1/2 and p‑Akt was observed. Further research demonstrated that Gal‑3 regulated the expression of both ERK1/2 and Akt in HSC3 cells by promoting phosphorylation. Moreover, the Gal‑3 inhibitor decreased the proliferation and invasion, but increased the apoptosis of cet‑R HSC3 cells. In addition, the Gal‑3 inhibitor suppressed the growth of cet‑R tumors. Collectively, the results indicated that the Gal‑3 inhibitor and cetuximab displayed a synergistic inhibitory effect on OSCC tumors. In summary, the present study demonstrated that Gal‑3 may serve an important role in cet‑R OSCC. The combination of cetuximab and the Gal‑3 inhibitor may display a synergistic antitumor effect, thereby inhibiting the development of cetuximab resistance in OSCC.