Fluorimetric Analysis of Five Amino Acids in Chocolate: Development and Validation
ABSTRACT: Amino acids present ergogenic action, helping to increase, protect, and restore the muscular system of young athletes. Moreover, the encapsulation of five relevant amino acids in chocolate pellet form will appeal to them, facilitating their daily consumption. A reliable HPLC fluorimetric method was developed to detect and quantitatively determine L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Histidine, L-Valine, and β-Alanine in chocolate using aniline as an internal standard. Experimental design methodology was used to investigate and optimize the clean-up procedure of the samples. Therefore, three extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction (by two different SPE cartridges) and liquid–solid extraction (LSE)) were compared and evaluated. The LOQ values in chocolate varied from 24 to 118 ng/g (recovery 89.7–95.6%, %RSD < 2.5). Amino acids were pre-column derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), while derivatization parameters were thoroughly investigated by experimental design methodology. The analysis was performed by HPLC-fluorescence (emission: λ = 455 nm, excitation: λ = 340 nm) method using a C18 column and a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH = 2.8; 20 mM)-methanol as a mobile phase in gradient elution. The method was validated (r2 > 0.999, %RSD < 2, LOD: 10 ng mL−1 for histidine and leucine, 2 ng mL−1 for alanine and valine, and 4 ng mL−1 for Isoleucine) according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.
Project description:1. Aminoacyl-transfer-RNA synthetase activity in extracts prepared from tobacco leaf was increased 3-5-fold when sodium thioglycollate (30mm) and magnesium chloride (16mm) were included in the extraction medium. Omitting sucrose (0.45m) from the extraction medium did not alter the activity. 2. Activity was a linear function of enzyme concentration up to 1 disk (30mg. fresh wt.)/ml. and was not affected by dialysis at any concentration. 3. Activity increased about 13-fold above control values when a mixture of 21 amino acids and amides (1mm) was added to the reaction mixture. 4. Under the conditions used in the standard assay for aminoacyl-transfer-RNA synthetase activity K(m) (ATP) was 0.65mm and K(m) (l-amino acids) was 70mum. 5. Activity above the control value was found with all amino acids and amides tested except alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, glutamine and hydroxyproline. Activity was highest with leucine, isoleucine, valine, cysteine and histidine. Total activity with a mixture of 21 amino acids and amides was 20% lower than the total activity of the enzymes assayed separately.
Project description:Three Lactococcus lactis strains with the ability to secrete various amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, methionine, valine, glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. Amino acids contribute to flavor formation; therefore, bacterial strains with this ability are relevant for the food industry.
Project description:A simple, rapid and eco-friendly approach based on matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction (MSPDM) followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (UHPLC-ECD) was presented for the microextraction and determination of six phenolic acids in a plant preparation (Danshen tablets). The parameters that influenced the extraction performance of phenolic acids were investigated and optimized. The optimal MSPDM conditions were determined as follows: sorbent, using graphene nanoplatelets with sample/sorbent ratio of 1:1, grinding time set at 60?s, and 0.2?mL of water as elution solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the validation experiments indicated that the proposed method exhibited good linearity (r<sup>2</sup>???0.9991), excellent precision (RSD???4.57%), and satisfactory recoveries (82.34-98.34%). The limits of detection were from 1.19 to 4.62 ng/mL for six phenolic acids. Compared with other reported methods, this proposal required less sample, solvent and extraction time. Consequently, the proposed method was successfully used to the extraction and determination of phenolic acids in Danshen tablets.
Project description:A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure on the newly synthesized magnetic ?-cyclodextrin functionalized with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) as a linker and further modified with bio-polymeric spores of sporopollenin (MSp-TDI-?CD), was developed for the extraction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), namely, indoprofen (INP), ketoprofen (KTP), ibuprofen (IBP) and fenoprofen (FNP) from water samples prior to their HPLC-DAD determination. The newly synthesized MSp-TDI-?CD was comprehensibly characterized using FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDX, BET and VSM analyses. The separation of selected NSAIDs on MSp-TDI-?CD from aqueous solution was simply achieved by applying an external magnetic field via a permanent magnet. The MSPE parameters affecting extraction performance, i.e. sorbent dosage, sample volume, extraction and desorption time, type of organic eluent and volume and solution pH were investigated and optimized. The proposed method showed linear range between 0.5 and 500?ng?ml-1, low limit of detection at S/N?=?3 (0.16-0.37?ng?ml-1) and limit of quantification at S/N?=?10 (0.53-1.22?ng?ml-1). The inter-day (n?=?15) and intra-day (n?=?5) precision for the proposed methods given by relative standard deviation (RSD%) was in the range of 2.5-4.0 and 2.1-5.5, respectively. The extraction recoveries of NSAIDs from environmental samples (tap, drinking and river water) ranged from 92.5% to 123.6%, with satisfactory precision (RSD% less than 12.4%).
Project description:Amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases, derivatives of salicylaldehyde and various amino acids (L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-histidine) have been investigated by means of various spectroscopic techniques (NMR, UV-Vis, IR, MS) and deuterium isotope effects on ¹³C-NMR chemical shifts. The results have shown that in all studied amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases (except the L-histidine derivative) a proton transfer equilibrium exists and the presence of the COO? group stabilizes the proton transferred NH-form.
Project description:Multiresidual pesticide determination in a biological sample is essential for an immediate decision and response related to various pesticide intoxications. A rapid and simultaneous analytical method for 260 pesticides in human urine was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). High speed positive/negative switching electrospray ionization (ESI) mode was used, and scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was optimized. Three versions of scaled-down QuEChERS procedures were evaluated, and the procedure using non-buffer reagents (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) and excluding cleanup steps was selected for optimum pesticide extraction. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) in this methodology was 10 ng/mL for each target pesticide, and correlation coefficient (r²) values of calibration curves were ≥0.988 (linearity range; 10-250 ng/mL). In accuracy and precision tests, the relative error ranges were -18.4% to 19.5%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.1%-19.9% at an LOQ level (10 ng/mL), and -14.7% to 14.9% (RSD; 0.6%-14.9%) at higher concentrations (50, 150, and 250 ng/mL). Recovery range was 54.2%-113.9% (RSD; 0.3%-20.0%), and the soft matrix effect (range; -20% to 20%) was observed in 75.4% of target pesticides. The established bioanalytical methods are sufficient for application to biomonitoring in agricultural exposures and applicable in the forensic and clinic.
Project description:This work describes the direct coupling of the in-tube solid-phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) technique to a tandem mass spectrometry system (MS/MS) to determine amino acids (AA) and neurotransmitters (NT) (alanine, serine, isoleucine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. An innovative organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary with bifunctional groups (amino and cyano) was developed and evaluated as an extraction device for in-tube SPME. The morphological and structural aspects of the monolithic phase were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen sorption experiments, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and adsorption experiments. In-tube SPME-MS/MS conditions were established to remove matrix, enrich analytes (monolithic capillary) and improve the sensitivity of the MS/MS system. The proposed method was linear from 45 to 360 ng mL-1 for alanine, from 15 to 300 ng mL-1 for leucine and isoleucine, from 12 to 102 ng mL-1 for methionine, from 10 to 102 ng mL-1 for tyrosine, from 9 to 96 ng mL-1 for tryptophan, from 12 to 210 ng mL-1 for serine, from 12 to 90 ng mL-1 for glutamic acid, from 12 to 102 ng mL-1 for lysine, and from 6 to 36 ng mL-1 for aspartic acid. The precision of intra-assays and inter-assays presented CV values ranged from 1.6% to 14.0%. The accuracy of intra-assays and inter-assays presented RSE values from -11.0% to 13.8%, with the exception of the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) values. The in-tube SPME-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine the target AA and NT in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients.
Project description:An automated dried blood spot (DBS) elution coupled with solid phase extraction and tandem mass spectrometric analysis for multiple fentanyl analogs was developed and assessed. This method confirms human exposures to fentanyl, sufentanil, carfentanil, alfentanil, lofentanil, ?-methyl fentanyl, and 3-methyl fentanyl in blood with minimal sample volume and reduced shipping and storage costs. Seven fentanyl analogs were detected and quantitated from DBS made from venous blood. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 1.0 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.98 for all compounds. The limit of detection varied from 0.15 ng/mL to 0.66 ng/mL depending on target analyte. Analysis of the entire DBS minimized the effects of hematocrit on quantitation. All quality control materials evaluated resulted in <15% error; analytes with isotopically labeled internal standards had <15% RSD, while analytes without matching standards had 15-24% RSD. This method provides an automated means to detect seven fentanyl analogs, and quantitate four fentanyl analogs with the benefits of DBS at levels anticipated from an overdose of these potent opioids.
Project description:Bee pollen is a natural product that has valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics and has recently garnered increasing attention in the food industry due to its nutritive value. Here, we harvested pollen loads from the Al-Ahsa oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia during spring, summer, autumn, and winter in 2018/2019 to compare the nutritional value of bee pollen protein with the amino acid requirements of honeybees and adult humans. Based on the nutritional value of bee pollen protein, the optimal season for harvesting bee pollen was determined. The composition of the bee pollen showed the highest contents of crude protein, total amino acids, leucine, glutamic acid, valine, isoleucine, threonine, and glycine in samples collected in spring. The highest contents of lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, tyrosine, and cysteine were observed in samples collected in winter. The highest contents of histidine, methionine, and serine were in samples collected in autumn. Moreover, the highest levels of aspartic acid, proline, and alanine were in samples collected in summer. Leucine, valine, lysine, histidine, threonine, and phenylalanine (except in autumn bee pollen) contents in pollen from all four seasons were above the requirements of honeybees. Leucine, valine, histidine, isoleucine (except in autumn bee pollen), lysine (except in spring and summer bee pollen), and threonine (except in winter and spring bee pollen) in all tested samples were above the requirements of adult humans. In comparison with the minimal amino acid requirements of adult humans and honeybees, the 1st limiting amino acid in bee pollen collected during the different seasons was methionine. Bee pollen collected during spring (March-May) and winter (December-February) can be considered a nutritive food source for adult humans and honeybees.
Project description:Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.