Phylogeny and Mycotoxin Profile of Pathogenic Fusarium Species Isolated from Sudden Decline Syndrome and Leaf Wilt Symptoms on Date Palms (Phoenix dactylifera) in Tunisia.
ABSTRACT: In 2017-2018, extensive symptoms of sudden decline and fruit rot were observed on date palms in southern Tunisia. Samples of diseased plants were randomly collected in six localities. Based on morphological identification, Fusarium was the most frequent fungal genus detected. A sequencing of translation elongation factor, calmodulin, and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II genes was used to identify 63 representative Fusarium strains at species level and investigate their phylogenetic relationships. The main species detected was Fusariumproliferatum, and at a much lesser extent, Fusariumbrachygibbosum, Fusariumcaatingaense, Fusariumclavum, Fusariumincarnatum, and Fusariumsolani. Pathogenicity on the DegletNour variety plantlets and the capability to produce mycotoxins were also assessed. All Fusarium species were pathogenic complying Koch's postulates. Fusariumproliferatum strains produced mainly fumonisins (FBs), beauvericin (BEA), and, to a lesser extent, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON). All F.brachygibbosum strains produced low levels of BEA, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol; two strains produced also T-2 toxin, and a single strain produced HT-2 toxin. Fusariumcaatingaense, F.clavum, F.incarnatum produced only BEA. Fusariumsolani strains produced MON, BEA, and ENNs. This work reports for the first time a comprehensive multidisciplinary study of Fusarium species on date palms, concerning both phytopathological and food safety issues.
Project description:Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is an important perennial crop in tropical and subtropical areas. It may be infected by various Fusarium species, contaminating the plant material with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate Fusarium species variability among the genotypes isolated from pineapple fruits displaying fungal infection symptoms and to evaluate their mycotoxigenic abilities. Forty-four isolates of ten Fusarium species were obtained from pineapple fruit samples: F. ananatum, F. concentricum, F. fujikuroi, F. guttiforme, F. incarnatum, F. oxysporum, F. polyphialidicum, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Fumonisins B1-B3, beauvericin (BEA) and moniliformin (MON) contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in pineapple fruit tissue. Fumonisins are likely the most dangerous metabolites present in fruit samples (the maximum FB1 content was 250 μg g(-1) in pineapple skin and 20 μg ml(-1) in juice fraction). In both fractions, BEA and MON were of minor significance. FUM1 and FUM8 genes were identified in F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Cyclic peptide synthase gene (esyn1 homologue) from the BEA biosynthetic pathway was identified in 40 isolates of eight species. Based on the gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, none of the isolates tested were found to be able to produce trichothecenes or zearalenone.
Project description:Fungi from the Hypocreales order synthesize a range of toxic non-ribosomal cyclic peptides with antimicrobial, insecticidal and cytotoxic activities. Entomopathogenic Beauveria, Isaria and Cordyceps as well as phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. are known producers of beauvericins (BEAs), beauvenniatins (BEAEs) or enniatins (ENNs). The compounds are synthesized by beauvericin/enniatin synthase (BEAS/ESYN1), which shows significant sequence divergence among Hypocreales members. We investigated ENN, BEA and BEAE production among entomopathogenic (Beauveria, Cordyceps, Isaria) and phytopathogenic (Fusarium) fungi; BEA and ENNs were quantified using an LC-MS/MS method. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of putative BEAS/ESYN1 amplicons was also made. Nineteen fungal strains were identified based on sequence analysis of amplified ITS and tef-1? regions. BEA was produced by all investigated fungi, with F. proliferatum and F. concentricum being the most efficient producers. ENNs were synthesized mostly by F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum and C. confragosa. The phylogeny reconstruction suggests that ancestral BEA biosynthesis independently diverged into biosynthesis of other compounds. The divergent positioning of three Fusarium isolates raises the possibility of parallel acquisition of cyclic depsipeptide synthases in ancient complexes within Fusarium genus. Different fungi have independently evolved NRPS genes involved in depsipeptide biosynthesis, with functional adaptation towards biosynthesis of overlapping yet diversified metabolite profiles.
Project description:Beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs) are cyclic peptide mycotoxins produced by a wide range of fungal species, including pathogenic Fusaria. Amounts of BEA and ENNs were quantified in individual rice cultures of 58 Fusarium strains belonging to 20 species, originating from different host plant species and different geographical localities. The species identification of all strains was done on the basis of the tef-1? gene sequence. The main aim of this study was to analyze the variability of the esyn1 gene encoding the enniatin synthase, the essential enzyme of this metabolic pathway, among the BEA- and ENNs-producing genotypes. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of the esyn1 gene clearly discriminates species producing exclusively BEA from those synthesizing mainly enniatin analogues.
Project description:Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase activities. Several Fusarium species can produce ENNs, BEA or both, but the mechanism(s) enabling these differential metabolic profiles is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing esyn1 transcripts from different Fusarium species. We measured ENNs and BEA production by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and Acquity QDa mass detector (UPLC-PDA-QDa) analyses. We predicted protein structures, compared the predictions by multivariate analysis methods and found a striking correlation between BEA/ENN-producing profiles and ESYN1 three-dimensional structures. Structural differences in the ? strand's Asn789-Ala793 and His797-Asp802 portions of the amino acid adenylation domain can be used to distinguish BEA/ENN-producing Fusarium isolates from those that produce only ENN.
Project description:<i>Fusarium</i> species are among the most important fungal pathogens of maize, where they cause severe reduction of yield and accumulation of a wide range of harmful mycotoxins in the kernels. In order to identify the <i>Fusarium</i> species and their mycotoxin profiles associated to maize ear rot and kernel contamination in Iran, a wide sampling was carried out from field in ten major maize-producing provinces in Iran, during 2015 and 2016. From 182 samples of maize kernels, 551 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to <i>Fusarium</i> genus. Among the 234 representative strains identified at species level by translation elongation factor (<i>EF-1α</i>) sequences, the main <i>Fusarium</i> species were <i>F. verticillioides</i> and <i>F. proliferatum</i>, together representing 90% of the Iranian <i>Fusarium</i> population, and, to a lesser extent, <i>F. incarnatum equiseti</i> species complex (FIESC)<i>, F. thapsinum</i> and <i>F. redolens</i>. Fumonisin (FBs) production by <i>F. verticillioides</i> and <i>F. proliferatum</i> representative strains was analysed, showing that all strains produced FB<sub>1</sub>. None of <i>F. verticillioides</i> strains produced FB<sub>2</sub> nor FB<sub>3</sub>, while both FB<sub>2</sub> and FB<sub>3</sub> were produced only by <i>F. proliferatum</i>. Total mean of FBs production by <i>F. verticillioides</i> was higher than <i>F. proliferatum</i>. The occurrence of different <i>Fusarium</i> species on Iranian maize is reason of great concern because of the toxigenic risk associated to these species. Moreover, the diversity of the species identified increases the toxigenic risk associated to <i>Fusarium</i> contaminated maize kernels, because of the high possibility that a multi-toxin contamination can occur with harmful consequences on human and animal health.
Project description:Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclodepsipeptide mycotoxin, showing insecticidal, antibiotic and antimicrobial activities, as well as inducing apoptosis of cancer cell lines. BEA can be produced by multiple fungal species, including saprotrophs, plant, insect and human pathogens, particularly belonging to <i>Fusarium</i>, <i>Beauveria</i> and <i>Isaria</i> genera. The ability of <i>Trichoderma</i> species to produce BEA was until now uncertain. Biosynthesis of BEA is governed by a non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS), known as beauvericin synthase (BEAS), which appears to present considerable divergence among different fungal species. In the present study we compared the production of beauvericin among <i>Fusarium</i> and <i>Trichoderma</i> strains using UPLC methods. <i>BEAS</i> fragments were sequenced and analyzed to examine the level of the gene's divergence between these two genera and confirm the presence of active <i>BEAS</i> copy in <i>Trichoderma</i>. Seventeen strains of twelve species were studied and phylogenetic analysis showed distinctive grouping of <i>Fusarium</i> and <i>Trichoderma</i> strains. The highest producers of beauvericin were <i>F. proliferatum</i> and <i>F. nygamai</i>. <i>Trichoderma</i> strains of three species (<i>T. atroviride</i>, <i>T. viride</i>, <i>T. koningiopsis</i>) were minor BEA producers. The study showed beauvericin production by <i>Fusarium</i> and <i>Trichoderma</i> species and high variance of the non-ribosomal peptide synthase gene among fungal species from the <i>Hypocreales</i> order.
Project description:Emerging mycotoxins such as moniliformin (MON), enniatins (ENs), beauvericin (BEA), and fusaproliferin (FUS) may contaminate maize and negatively influence the yield and quality of grain. The aim of this study was to determine the content of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins in Serbian maize from the 2016, 2017, and 2018 harvests. A total of 190 samples from commercial maize production operations in Serbia were analyzed for the presence of MON, ENs, BEA, and FUS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The obtained results were interpreted together with weather data from each year. MON, BEA, and FUS were major contaminants, while other emerging mycotoxins were not detected or were found in fewer samples (<20%). Overall contamination was highest in 2016 when MON and BEA were found in 50-80% of samples. In 2017 and 2018, high levels of MON, FUS, and BEA were detected in regions with high precipitation and warm weather during the silking phase of maize (July and the beginning of August), when the plants are most susceptible to Fusarium infections. Since environmental conditions in Serbia are favorable for the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi, monitoring Fusarium toxins is essential for the production of safe food and feed.
Project description:The identity of the fungi responsible for fruitlet core rot (FCR) disease in pineapple has been the subject of investigation for some time. This study describes the diversity and toxigenic potential of fungal species causing FCR in La Reunion, an island in the Indian Ocean. One-hundred-and-fifty fungal isolates were obtained from infected and healthy fruitlets on Reunion Island and exclusively correspond to two genera of fungi: Fusarium and Talaromyces. The genus Fusarium made up 79% of the isolates, including 108 <i>F. ananatum</i>, 10 <i>F. oxysporum</i>, and one <i>F. proliferatum</i>. The genus Talaromyces accounted for 21% of the isolated fungi, which were all <i>Talaromyces stollii</i>. As the isolated fungal strains are potentially mycotoxigenic, identification and quantification of mycotoxins were carried out on naturally or artificially infected diseased fruits and under in vitro cultures of potential toxigenic isolates. Fumonisins B<sub>1</sub> and B<sub>2</sub> (FB<sub>1</sub>-FB<sub>2</sub>) and beauvericin (BEA) were found in infected fruitlets of pineapple and in the culture media of Fusarium species. Regarding the induction of mycotoxin in vitro, <i>F.</i> <i>proliferatum</i> produced 182 mg kg⁻<sup>1</sup> of FB<sub>1</sub> and <i>F. oxysporum</i> produced 192 mg kg⁻<sup>1</sup> of BEA. These results provide a better understanding of the causal agents of FCR and their potential risk to pineapple consumers.
Project description:Maize stalk rot caused by Fusarium species is one of the most important fungal diseases of maize throughout the world. The disease is responsible for considerable yield losses and has also been associated with mycotoxin contamination of the crop. In this study, a survey of maize stalk rot was performed in seven locations of Yunnan Province in China during the cropping season of 2015 and 2016. Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, 204 isolates belonging to 12 Fusarium spp. from symptomatic stalks of maize were identified. Among the isolated strains, 83 were identified as Fusarium meridionale (40.5%), 46 as Fusarium boothii (22.5%), 34 as Fusarium temperatum (16.5%), 12 as Fusarium equiseti (5.9%), 10 as Fusarium asiaticum (4.9%), six as Fusarium proliferatum (3.0%), four as Fusarium verticillioides (2.0%), four as Fusarium incarnatum (2.0%), two as Fusarium avenaceum (1.0%), one as Fusarium cerealis (0.5%), one as Fusarium graminearum (0.5%), and one as Fusarium cortaderiae (0.5%). Fusarium cortaderiae was the first report on the causal agent of maize stalk rot disease in China. These isolates were divided into five chemotypes: nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), beauvericin (BEA), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin (FUM). Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1-α) showed a high degree of interspecific polymorphisms among the isolates. Pathogenicity analysis on maize stalks indicated that all the 12 species of Fusarium were able to cause the disease symptoms with different aggressiveness. This study on population, pathogenicity, and toxigenic chemotypes of Fusarium species associated with maize stalk rot in Yunnan Province of southwest China, will help design an effective integrated control strategy for this disease.
Project description:Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate the mycotoxin risk in southeastern American wine, grape samples were collected from vineyards during harvest in 2013 and potentially mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium and Aspergillus) were isolated from the samples. Numerous Fusarium isolates were recovered and identified to the species level by comparison of translation elongation factor 1-? gene sequences to verified strains. Fusarium fujikuroi was the most abundant species recovered (239 isolates), followed by F. proliferatum (52), F. incarnatum-equiseti (14), F. oxysporum (7), F. concentricum (1), and F. solani (1). In vitro assays quantified fumonisin production for representative isolates via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, nearly all F. fujikuroi isolates produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 at levels comparable to both the F. proliferatum isolates and the positive control, Fusarium verticillioides. Such capacity for fumonisin production refutes the generally accepted notion that F. fujikuroi produces undetectable or low levels of fumonisins and provides evidence to reconsider this species as a mycotoxigenic threat to economically significant crops.