Screening and Isolation of a Novel Polyene-Producing Streptomyces Strain Inhibiting Phytopathogenic Fungi in the Soil Environment.
ABSTRACT: Microbial-based eco-friendly biological substances are needed to protect crops from phytopathogenic fungi and replace toxic chemical fungicides that cause serious environmental issues. This study screened for soil antifungal Streptomyces strains, which produce rich, diverse, and valuable bioactive metabolites in the soil environment. Bioassay-based antifungal screening of approximately 2,400 Streptomyces strains led to the isolation of 149 strains as tentative antifungal producers. One Streptomyces strain showing the most potent antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum was identified as a putative anti-phytopathogenic soil isolate that is highly homologous to Streptomyces rubrisoli (named S. rubrisoli Inha 501). An in vitro antifungal assay, pot-test, and field-test against various phytopathogenic fungi confirmed that S. rubrisoli Inha 501 is a potential novel phytopathogenic fungicide producer to protect various crops in the soil environment. Whole-genome sequencing of S. rubrisoli Inha 501 and an anti-SMASH genome mining approach revealed an approximately 150-kb polyene biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) in the chromosome. The target compound isolation and its BGC analysis confirmed that the giant linear polyene compound exhibiting the anti-phytopathogenic activity in S. rubrisoli Inha 501 was highly homologous to the previously reported compound, neotetrafibricin A. These results suggest that a bioassay-based screening of a novel antifungal Streptomyces strain followed by its genome mining for target compound BGC characterization would be an efficient approach to isolating a novel candidate phytopathogenic fungicide that can protect crops in the soil environment.
Project description:Strain JAU4234, identified as Streptomyces padanus, was isolated from soil collected in Jiangxi Province, China. It produced actinomycin X2, fungichromin, and a new polyene macrolide compound with antifungal activity, antifungalmycin 702. Antifungalmycin 702 had good general antifungal activity and may have potential future agricultural and/or clinical applications.
Project description:Phytopathogenic fungi infect crops, presenting a worldwide threat to agriculture. Polyene macrolides are one of the most effective antifungal agents applied in human therapy and crop protection. In this study, we found a cryptic polyene biosynthetic gene cluster in <i>Actinokineospora spheciospongiae</i> by genome mining. Then, this gene cluster was activated via varying fermentation conditions, leading to the discovery of new polyene actinospene (<b>1</b>), which was subsequently isolated and its structure determined through spectroscopic techniques including UV, HR-MS, and NMR. The absolute configuration was confirmed by comparing the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Unlike known polyene macrolides, actinospene (<b>1</b>) demonstrated more versatile post-assembling decorations including two epoxide groups and an unusual isobutenyl side chain. In bioassays, actinospene (<b>1</b>) showed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity against several plant fungal pathogens as well as pathogenic yeasts with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 2 and 10 μg/mL.
Project description:Streptomyces are a genus of Actinobacteria capable of producing structurally diverse natural products. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a biosynthetically talented Streptomyces (Streptomyces sp. SD85) from tropical mangrove sediments. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that Streptomyces sp. SD85 harbors at least 52 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which constitute 21.2% of the 8.6-Mb genome. When cultivated under lab conditions, Streptomyces sp. SD85 produces sceliphrolactam, a 26-membered polyene macrolactam with unknown biosynthetic origin. Genome mining yielded a putative sceliphrolactam BGC (sce) that encodes a type I modular polyketide synthase (PKS) system, several ?-amino acid starter biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and transcriptional regulators. Using the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout method, we demonstrated that the sce BGC is essential for sceliphrolactam biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, the PKS system encoded by sce is short of one module required for assembling the 26-membered macrolactam skeleton according to the collinearity rule. With experimental data disfavoring the involvement of a trans-PKS module, the biosynthesis of sceliphrolactam seems to be best rationalized by invoking a mechanism whereby the PKS system employs an iterative module to catalyze two successive chain extensions with different outcomes. The potential violation of the collinearity rule makes the mechanism distinct from those of other polyene macrolactams.
Project description:Diseases caused by soilborne fungal pathogens result in significant crop yield losses and quality reduction. <i>Streptomyces albidoflavus</i> strain W68 is effective in controlling several soilborne fungal diseases. To identify antifungal substances critical for biocontrol activity of W68, the genome of W68 was sequenced and a linear chromosome of 6.80 Mb was assembled. A total of 21 secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs), accounting for 12.27% of the genome, were identified. Core gene deletion mutants for each of all 8 BGCs for nonribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases were created. Among them, only the mutant lacking <i>ctg1-5755</i> (the gene was renamed as <i>fscD</i> <sub>W68</sub>) in BGC 19, which shares 100% sequence similarity with the BGC for candicidin synthesis, showed obvious reduction in antifungal activity. A pot experiment revealed that biocontrol effects of the Δ<i>fscD</i> <sub>W68</sub> mutant in <i>Rhizoctonia</i> rot of cucumber were also significantly compromised relative to W68. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis revealed that W68 but not the Δ<i>fscD</i> <sub>W68</sub> mutant can produce candicidin isomers, indicating that the production of candicidin isomers is key for antifungal activity and biocontrol activity of <i>S. albidoflavus</i> W68.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> This study reports that candicidin-like secondary metabolites produced by microbial cells in natural soil environments can effectively control soilborne fungal diseases, revealing a novel mechanism of microbial biocontrol agents. We demonstrated that the main antifungal activity and biocontrol activity of <i>Streptomyces albidoflavus</i> strain W68 are attributable to the production of candicidin isomers, suggesting that gene clusters for candicidin-like compound biosynthesis might be used as molecular markers to screen and breed microbial strains for biocontrol agent development.
Project description:The search for novel bioactive compounds from the natural environment has rapidly been gaining momentum with the increase in multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. In the present study, the antimicrobial potential of novel actinomycetes has been evaluated by initial screening of six soil samples. Primary and secondary screening was performed against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Trichophyton rubrum, and other MDR bacterial and fungal test strains, thirteen active isolates were selected for further study. Microbial strains were identified on the basis of growth conditions and other biochemical characters. Five most active microbial strains were identified using 16S rRNA sequence homology and designated as Streptomyces xanthophaeus MTCC 11938, Streptomyces variabilis MTCC 12266, Streptomyces xanthochromogenes MTCC 11937, Streptomyces levis EU 124569, and Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500. Four antibacterial and three antifungal compounds isolated from the above five isolates were purified and partially characterized using UV absorption and IR spectra. Two antibacterial metabolites, belong to chromone and peptide antibiotic, respectively. The antifungal compounds were found to be of non-polyene nature. In conclusion, we study the isolation of novel bacterial strains of actinomycetes for producing novel compounds having antibacterial and antifungal activities from the unexplored agro-ecological niches of India. Also, this study paves the way for further characterization of these isolates of Streptomyces sp. for their optimum utilization for antimicrobial purposes.
Project description:Antifungal HSAF (heat-stable antifungal factor, dihydromaltophilin) is a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam from the biocontrol agent Lysobacter enzymogenes. Its biosynthetic gene cluster contains only a single-module polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS), although two separate hexaketide chains are required to assemble the skeleton. To address the unusual biosynthetic mechanism, we expressed the biosynthetic genes in two "clean" strains of Streptomyces and showed the production of HSAF analogues and a polyene tetramate intermediate. We then expressed the PKS module in Escherichia coli and purified the enzyme. Upon incubation of the enzyme with acyl-coenzyme?A and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a polyene was detected in the tryptic acyl carrier protein (ACP). Finally, we incubated the polyene-PKS with the NRPS module in the presence of ornithine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and we detected the same polyene tetramate as that in Streptomyces transformed with the PKS-NRPS alone. Together, our results provide evidence for an unusual iterative biosynthetic mechanism for bacterial polyketide-peptide natural products.
Project description:Polyketides (PKs) and nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are two microbial secondary metabolite (SM) families known for their variety of functions, including antimicrobials, siderophores, and others. Despite their involvement in bacterium-bacterium and bacterium-plant interactions, root-associated SMs are largely unexplored due to the limited cultivability of bacteria. Here, we analyzed the diversity and expression of SM-encoding biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in root microbiomes by culture-independent amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Roots (tomato and lettuce) harbored distinct compositions of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) relative to the adjacent bulk soil, and specific BGC markers were both enriched and highly expressed in the root microbiomes. While several of the highly abundant and expressed sequences were remotely associated with known BGCs, the low similarity to characterized genes suggests their potential novelty. Low-similarity genes were screened against a large set of soil-derived cosmid libraries, from which five whole BGCs of unknown function were retrieved. Three clusters were taxonomically affiliated with <i>Actinobacteria</i>, while the remaining were not associated with known bacteria. One <i>Streptomyces</i>-derived BGC was predicted to encode a polyene with potential antifungal activity, while the others were too novel to predict chemical structure. Screening against a suite of metagenomic data sets revealed higher abundances of retrieved clusters in roots and soil samples. In contrast, they were almost completely absent in aquatic and gut environments, supporting the notion that they might play an important role in root ecosystems. Overall, our results indicate that root microbiomes harbor a specific assemblage of undiscovered SMs.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> We identified distinct secondary-metabolite-encoding genes that are enriched (relative to adjacent bulk soil) and expressed in root ecosystems yet almost completely absent in human gut and aquatic environments. Several of the genes were distantly related to genes encoding antimicrobials and siderophores, and their high sequence variability relative to known sequences suggests that they may encode novel metabolites and may have unique ecological functions. This study demonstrates that plant roots harbor a diverse array of unique secondary-metabolite-encoding genes that are highly enriched and expressed in the root ecosystem. The secondary metabolites encoded by these genes might assist the bacteria that produce them in colonization and persistence in the root environment. To explore this hypothesis, future investigations should assess their potential role in interbacterial and bacterium-plant interactions.
Project description:Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503%) was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with U V, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases.
Project description:Information on microbial genome sequences is a powerful resource for accessing natural products with significant activities. We herein report the unveiling of lucensomycin production by <i>Streptomyces achromogenes</i> subsp. <i>streptozoticus</i> NBRC14001 based on the genome sequence of the strain. The genome sequence of strain NBRC14001 revealed the presence of a type I polyketide synthase gene cluster with similarities to a biosynthetic gene cluster for natamycin, which is a polyene macrolide antibiotic that exhibits antifungal activity. Therefore, we investigated whether strain NBRC14001 produces antifungal compound(s) and revealed that an extract from the strain inhibited the growth of <i>Candida albicans</i>. A HPLC analysis of a purified compound exhibiting antifungal activity against <i>C. albicans</i> showed that the compound differed from natamycin. Based on HR-ESI-MS spectrometry and a PubChem database search, the compound was predicted to be lucensomycin, which is a tetraene macrolide antibiotic, and this prediction was supported by the results of a MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, the type I polyketide synthase gene cluster in strain NBRC14001 corresponded well to lucesomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (<i>lcm</i>) in <i>S. cyanogenus</i>, which was very recently reported. Therefore, we concluded that the antifungal compound produced by strain NBRC14001 is lucensomycin.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants.