ABSTRACT: Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) possesses multiple biological activities such as virus restriction, innate immunity regulation, and autoimmunity. Our previous study demonstrated that SAMHD1 potently inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 (EV71). In this study, we observed that SAMHD1 also restricts multiple enteroviruses (EVs), including coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus D68 (EVD68), but not coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Mechanistically, SAMHD1 competitively interacted with the same domain in VP1 that binds to VP2 of EV71 and EVD68, thereby interfering with the interaction between VP1 and VP2 , and therefore viral assembly. Moreover, we showed that the SAMHD1 T592A mutant maintained the EV71 inhibitory effect by attenuating the interaction between VP1 and VP2, whereas the T592D mutant failed to. We also demonstrated that SAMHD1 could not inhibit CA6 because a different binding site is required for the SAMHD1 and VP1 interaction. Our findings reveal the mechanism of SAMHD1 inhibition of multiple EVs, and this could potentially be important for developing drugs against a broad range of EVs. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus causes a wide variety of diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a severe public problem threatening children under 5 years. Therefore, identifying essential genes which restrict EV infection and exploring the underlying mechanisms are necessary to develop an effective strategy to inhibit EV infection. In this study, we report that host restrictive factor SAMHD1 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against EV71, CA16, and EVD68 independent of its well-known deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) or RNase activity. Mechanistically, SAMHD1 restricts EVs by competitively interacting with the same domain in VP1 that binds to VP2 of EVs, thereby interfering with the interaction between VP1 and VP2, and therefore viral assembly. In contrast, we also demonstrated that SAMHD1 could not inhibit CA6 because a different binding site is required for the SAMHD1 and CA6 VP1 interaction. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for the SAMHD1 anti-EV replication activity.