BackgroundThe fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21-adiponectin pathway is involved in the regulation of insulin resistance. However, the relationship between the FGF21-adiponectin pathway and type 2 diabetes in humans is unclear. Here, we investigated the association of FGF21/adiponectin ratio with deterioration in glycemia in a prospective cohort study.
MethodsWe studied 6361 subjects recruited from the prospective Shanghai Nicheng Cohort Study in China. The association between baseline FGF21/adiponectin ratio and new-onset diabetes and incident prediabetes was evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis.
ResultsAt baseline, FGF21/adiponectin ratio levels increased progressively with the deterioration in glycemic control from normal glucose tolerance to prediabetes and diabetes (p for trend < 0.001). Over a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 195 subjects developed new-onset diabetes and 351 subjects developed incident prediabetes. Elevated baseline FGF21/adiponectin ratio was a significant predictor of new-onset diabetes independent of traditional risk factors, especially in subjects with prediabetes (odds ratio, 1.367; p = 0.001). Moreover, FGF21/adiponectin ratio predicted incident prediabetes (odds ratio, 1.185; p = 0.021) while neither FGF21 nor adiponectin were independent predictors of incident prediabetes (both p > 0.05). Furthermore, net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement analyses showed that FGF21/adiponectin ratio provided a better performance in diabetes risk prediction than the use of FGF21 or adiponectin alone.
ConclusionsFGF21/adiponectin ratio independently predicted the onset of prediabetes and diabetes, with the potential to be a useful biomarker of deterioration in glycemia.