Smooth borders between inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer predict fewer macular edema recurrences in branch retinal vein occlusion.
ABSTRACT: We hypothesized the smoothness of the border between the inner nuclear layer (INL) and outer plexiform layer (OPL) associates with the frequency of macular edema (ME) recurrences secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Thirty-seven consecutive eyes with BRVO treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections at 1-year follow-up were included. We manually traced the border between the INL and OPL within the 1.5-mm vertical line from the fovea on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images at the initial visit. The jagged ratio (JR), the border length divided by the spline curve length, was calculated. We performed univariate and multivariate regression analyses, including JR, patient characteristics, number of cystoid spaces in the INL, INL area, and outer retina area. Multivariate regression analysis showed JR significantly correlates with the total number of anti-VEGF injections (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the mean JR was significantly lower in the nine eyes receiving two or fewer injections than in the 28 eyes receiving three or more injections (1.02 ± 0.01 vs. 1.13 ± 0.06, P < 0.0001). A smooth border between the INL and the OPL on OCT images at the initial visit may be a biomarker for fewer ME recurrences in eyes with BRVO.
Project description:To assess the thickness of the photoreceptor layer in the macular region in glaucomatous eyes.Humphrey 10-2 visual field (VF) testing was carried out and mean threshold (mTH) was calculated in 118 eyes from 118 patients with open angle glaucoma. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements (RS 3000, Nidek Co.ltd., Aichi, Japan) were also carried out in all eyes. Thickness measurements were recorded in the outer segment and retinal pigment epithelium (OS+RPE), the nerve fiber layer (NFL), the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL), the inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer (INL+OPL) and the outer nuclear layer and inner segment (ONL+IS). The relationship between mTH and the thickness of these five different layers was investigated. Additionally, the influence of OS+RPE on mTH was investigated using partial correlation eliminating the effect of other variables of NFL, GCL+IPL, INL+OPL, ONL+IS, age, gender and axial length.The thickness of the OS+RPE layer was significantly decreased with the decrease of mTH (coefficient = 0.63 p <0.001). Partial correlation analysis suggested OS+RPE thickness is significantly (coefficient = 0.31, p <0.001) related to mTH, independent from NFL, GCL+IPL, INL+OPL, ONL+IS, age, gender and axial length.The thickness of the RPE+OS layer appears to be related to visual sensitivity in glaucoma.
Project description:To investigate the occurrence and progression of outer retinal tubulation (ORT) in Chinese patients after intravitreal ranibizumab injections, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with eye tracking function. 15 age related macular degeneration (AMD) and 6 polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) eyes of 21 patients were enrolled and assessed by SD-OCT. One patient received photodynamic therapy (PDT) previously, and all patients received intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. At baseline, only one AMD eye (4.8%) showed ORT, which appeared as round or ovoid hyporeflective spaces with hyperreflective borders. During the follow ups, ORT was identified in nine of 15 AMD eyes (60.0%) and one of six PCV eyes (16.7%). These new ORTs in 10 eyes were originated from the intraretinal fluid. Inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) were pulled down to form "cynapsis", separating each ORT. However, ORT in 3 eyes disappeared after intravitreal ranibizumab injections. This is the first observation on the occurrence and progression of ORT in Chinese AMD and PCV patients, in a point to point manner. The ORT could become stable or disappear after ranibizumab injections, and outer retina involved in the process of ORT formation.
Project description:To examine differences in individual retinal layer thicknesses measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis®) produced with age and according to sex.Cross-sectional, observational study.The study was conducted in 297 eyes of 297 healthy subjects aged 18 to 87 years. In one randomly selected eye of each participant the volume and mean thicknesses of the different macular layers were measured by SD-OCT using the instrument's macular segmentation software.Volume and mean thickness of macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor layer (PR).Retinal thickness was reduced by 0.24 ?m for every one year of age. Age adjusted linear regression analysis revealed mean GCL, IPL, ONL and PR thickness reductions and a mean OPL thickness increase with age. Women had significantly lower mean GCL, IPL, INL, ONL and PR thicknesses and volumes and a significantly greater mRNFL volume than men.The thickness of most retinal layers varies both with age and according to sex. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the rate of layer thinning produced with age.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated the topographic pattern of retinal edema in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) using a widefield retinal thickness map of optical coherence tomography and its association with ME recurrence. In 87 eyes with ME secondary to BRVO who were treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections and followed up for ≥ 1 years, 12 × 9 mm macular volume scans of swept-source optical coherence tomography (DRI-OCT Triton; Topcon Inc, Japan) were performed and retinal thickness maps were automatically generated at baseline and follow-up visits. Topographic patterns of retinal edema on the maps at baseline and 1 month after the first anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment were classified as extramacular (outside the ETDRS grid), macular (within the grid), and combined pattern and correlated with ME recurrences. Seventy-five of 87 (86.2%) eyes with BRVO ME showed combined edema at baseline. There were 4 topographic patterns of edema at 1 month following anti-VEGF injection as follows: no residual edema, extramacular only, macular only, and combined edema. In contrast to the baseline pattern, the pattern of retinal edema 1 month following anti-VEGF therapy showed significant association with 6-month recurrence, number of ME recurrences during a 1-year period, and time to first recurrence. (all P < 0.05) An automatically generated widefield retinal thickness map could be used to effectively visualize the topographic patterns of retinal edema in eyes with BRVO. The map can be used as a valuable tool for detection of retinal edema on widefield retinal areas and prediction of ME recurrence in eyes with BRVO.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate early changes in retinal layers using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes (DM1) receiving intensified insulin therapy. METHODS:In a cross-sectional case-control study 150 patients with DM1 and 150 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants underwent OCT imaging. Scans of both eyes were analysed for different layers (NFL, GCL (+IPL), INL, outer layer complex (OLC, including OPL, ONL and ELM) and photoreceptors (PR)) in all subfields of an ETDRS grid. All analyses were performed semi-automatically using custom software by certified graders of the Vienna Reading Center. ANOVA models were used to compare the mean thickness of the layers between patients and controls. RESULTS:Six hundred eyes with 512 datapoints in 49 b-scans in each OCT were analysed. Mean thickness in patients/controls was 31.35 ?m/30.65 ?m (NFL, p = 0.0347), 76.7 ?m/73.15 ?m (GCL, p ? 0.0001), 36.29 ?m/37.13 ?m (INL, p = 0.0116), 114.34 ?m/112.02 ?m (OLC, p < 0.0001) and 44.71 ?m/44.69 ?m (PR, p = 0.9401). When evaluating the ETDRS subfields separately for clinically meaningful hypotheses, a significant swelling of the GCL in patients could be found uniformly and a central swelling for the OLC, whereas the distribution of NFL and INL thickening suggests that their statistical significance was not clinically relevant. CONCLUSION:These preliminary results demonstrate that preclinical retinal changes in patients with long-standing DM1 can be found by retinal layer evaluation. However, the changes are layer-specific, with significant thickening of the GCL and less so of the OLC suggesting a role as an early sign for diffuse swelling and the evolution of DME even in well-controlled diabetes.
Project description:Comparing automated retinal layer segmentation using proprietary software (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT) and cross-platform Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) segmentation software (Orion). Image segmentations of normal and diseased (iAMD, DME) eyes were performed using both softwares and then compared to the ‘gold standard’ of manual segmentation. A qualitative assessment and quantitative (layer volume) comparison of segmentations were performed. Segmented images from the two softwares were graded by two masked graders and in cases with difference, a senior retina specialist made a final independent decisive grading. Cross-platform software was significantly better than the proprietary software in the segmentation of NFL and INL layers in Normal eyes. It generated significantly better segmentation only for NFL in iAMD and for INL and OPL layers in DME eyes. In normal eyes, all retinal layer volumes calculated by the two softwares were moderate-strongly correlated except OUTLY. In iAMD eyes, GCIPL, INL, ONL, INLY, TRV layer volumes were moderate-strongly correlated between softwares. In eyes with DME, all layer volume values were moderate-strongly correlated between softwares. Cross-platform software can be used reliably in research settings to study the retinal layers as it compares well against manual segmentation and the commonly used proprietary software for both normal and diseased eyes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To examine microcystic inner nuclear layer (INL) changes in glaucomatous eyes and to determine associated factors.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study.<h4>Methods</h4>Two hundred seventeen eyes of 133 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 41 eyes of 32 patients with preperimetric glaucoma and 181 normal eyes of 117 subjects were ultimately included. Microcystic INL lesions were examined with infrared fundus images and with 19 vertical spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in the macular area.<h4>Results</h4>Microcystic INL changes were observed in 6.0% of eyes with POAG, but none of the normal eyes or eyes with preperimetric glaucoma showed microcystic INL changes. The proportion of eyes with advanced glaucoma was significantly larger (P = 0.013) in eyes with microcystic lesions than without. The visual field mean deviation (MD) slope was also significantly worse (P = 0.027) in eyes with microcystic lesions. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, refraction, axial length, intraocular pressure, or MD value between eyes with and without microcystic INL lesions. In several cases, microcystic INL lesions occurred along with glaucomatous visual field progression. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (P = 0.013) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) + inner plexiform layer thickness (P = 0.023) were significantly lower in areas with microcystic lesions than without. The INL was also significantly thicker (P = 0.002) in areas with microcystic lesions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Microcystic INL lesions in glaucomatous eyes are closely associated with RNFL and GCL thinning and correlated with worse MD slope. These INL lesions may indicate focal and progressive damage in glaucoma.
Project description:Microcystic macular oedema (MMO) of the retinal inner nuclear layer (INL) has been identified in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by use of optical coherence tomography (OCT). We aimed to determine whether MMO of the INL, and increased thickness of the INL are associated with disease activity or disability progression.This retrospective study was done at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD, USA), between September, 2008, and March, 2012. Patients with MS and healthy controls underwent serial OCT scans and clinical assessments including visual function. OCT scanning, including automated intraretinal layer segmentation, yielded thicknesses of the retinal nerve fibre layer, the ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer, the INL plus outer plexiform layer (the combined thickness of these layers was used as a surrogate measure of INL thickness), and the outer nuclear layer. Patients with MS also underwent annual brain MRI scans. Disability scores were compared with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to compare OCT measures and letter-acuity scores. Logistic regression was used to examine the relations of baseline OCT thicknesses with clinical and radiological parameters.164 patients with MS and 60 healthy controls were assessed. Mean follow-up was 25·8 months (SD 9·1) for patients with MS and 22·4 months (11·4) for healthy controls. Ten (6%) patients with MS had MMO during at least one study visit; MMO was visible at baseline in four of these patients. Healthy controls did not have MMO. Patients with MS and MMO had higher baseline MS severity scores (median 5·93 [range 2·44-8·91]) than those who did not have MMO at any time during the study (151 patients; 3·81 [0·13-9·47]; p=0·032), although expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores were not significantly different (5·2 [1·0-6·5] for patients with MS and MMO vs 2·5 [0·0-8·0] for those without MMO; p=0·097). The eyes of patients with MS and MMO (12 eyes) versus those without MMO (302 eyes) had lower letter-acuity scores (100% contrast, p=0·017; 2·5% contrast, p=0·031; 1·25% contrast, p=0·014), and increased INL thicknesses (p=0·003) at baseline. Increased baseline INL thickness in patients with MS was associated with the development of contrast-enhancing lesions (p=0·007), new T2 lesions (p=0·015), EDSS progression (p=0·034), and relapses in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (p=0·008) during the study. MMO was not associated with disease activity during follow-up.Increased INL thickness on OCT is associated with disease activity in MS. If this finding is confirmed, INL thickness could be a useful predictor of disease progression in patients with MS.National Multiple Sclerosis Society, National Eye Institute, Braxton Debbie Angela Dillon and Skip Donor Advisor Fund.
Project description:PurposeTo evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) with single simultaneous posterior subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (STA) for treatment of macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).MethodsThis was a prospective, randomized, interventional comparative study conducted in 45 eyes with ME secondary to BRVO who were treated primarily with IVB 1.25?mg (23 eyes, IVB group) or combination therapy of IVB 1.25?mg with a single simultaneous STA 40?mg (18 eyes, IVB/STA group). Reinjections were performed with IVB if optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed recurrent ME associated with decreased visual acuity. The main outcome measurement was the number of additional IVB injections, and changes of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) during a 6-month follow-up period were compared.ResultsBCVA showed significant improvement in two groups at 6 months. In addition, CMT showed significant decrease in two groups at 6 months. No significant differences in the change of BCVA and CMT at 6 months after injection (P=0.973, P=0.639) were observed between the two groups. A statistically significant difference was found regarding the number of additional IVB injections (IVB group 0.96±0.83; IVB/STA group 0.44±0.70, P=0.034).ConclusionAlthough combination therapy of IVB with a single simultaneous STA for treatment of ME secondary to BRVO did not affect the visual outcomes compared with IVB monotherapy, it had a benefit of reducing the number of additional IVB injections.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate the 1-year efficacy and safety of low-frequency intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions (RVOs).The study comprised an interventional prospective study of patients with macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal vein occlusion, followed for 12 months. Treatment-naïve patients with reduced best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) of at least 250 μm received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. After 1 month, BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the macula were recorded. In patients with <30% improvement in BCVA and CMT, two more injections were applied at 1.5-month intervals. In all other patients, further injections were applied as needed. In cases with ischemic areas of retina, laser photocoagulation of the retina was performed.In total, 33 patients with CRVO and 55 with BRVO were treated. After 1 year, 65 eyes (73.86%) had clinically significant improvement of BCVA (>0.3 log of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) with average number of injections of 1.98. Improvement of mean BCVA in CRVO was significant (P=0.001) from baseline (1.2±0.95 logMAR units) to 1 year (0.75±0.6 logMAR units). Significant improvement of mean BCVA (P<0.001) was also found in BRVO, from 0.71±0.75 logMAR units at baseline to 0.28±0.5 logMAR units at 1 year. Baseline CMT was 852.21±298.20 μm for CRVO and 597.95±185.63 μm for BRVO. In both groups, there was significant decrease (P<0.001) in CMT after 1 year of treatment. Panretinal laser photocoagulation was done in 75.8% of all eyes with CRVO and sectoral photocoagulation in 49.1% of eyes with BRVO.In macular edema due to RVO, intravitreal bevacizumab provides improvement in visual acuity and reduction of macular edema in a high percentage of treated eyes after 1 year, even with low number of injections.