PPARs as Metabolic Sensors and Therapeutic Targets in Liver Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Carbohydrates and lipids are two components of the diet that provide the necessary energy to carry out various physiological processes to help maintain homeostasis in the body. However, when the metabolism of both biomolecules is altered, development of various liver diseases takes place; such as metabolic-associated fatty liver diseases (MAFLD), hepatitis B and C virus infections, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and in more severe cases, hepatocelular carcinoma (HCC). On the other hand, PPARs are a family of ligand-dependent transcription factors with an important role in the regulation of metabolic processes to hepatic level as well as in other organs. After interaction with specific ligands, PPARs are translocated to the nucleus, undergoing structural changes to regulate gene transcription involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, inflammation and metabolic homeostasis. This review aims to provide updated data about PPARs' critical role in liver metabolic regulation, and their involvement triggering the genesis of several liver diseases. Information is provided about their molecular characteristics, cell signal pathways, and the main pharmacological therapies that modulate their function, currently engaged in the clinic scenario, or in pharmacological development.
Project description:The PPARs are a subfamily of three ligand-inducible transcription factors, which belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. In mammals, the PPAR subfamily consists of three members: PPAR-?, PPAR-?/? and PPAR-?. PPARs control the expression of a large number of genes involved in metabolic homeostasis, lipid, glucose and energy metabolism, adipogenesis and inflammation. PPARs regulate a large number of metabolic pathways that are implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the biochemical and metabolic actions of PPAR-?/? and PPAR-?, the therapeutic potential of their agonists currently under clinical development and the cardiovascular disease outcome of clinical trials of PPAR-? agonists, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic derangements, including central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. The pathogenesis of MetS has been intensively studied, and now many factors are recognized to contribute to the development of MetS. Among these, trace elements influence the structure of proteins, enzymes, and complex carbohydrates, and thus an imbalance in trace elements is an independent risk factor for MetS. The molecular link between trace elements and metabolic homeostasis has been established, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have appeared as key regulators bridging these two elements. This is because on one hand, PPARs are actively involved in various metabolic processes, such as abdominal adiposity and insulin sensitivity, and on the other hand, PPARs sensitively respond to changes in trace elements. For example, an iron overload attenuates hepatic mRNA expression of Ppar-?; zinc supplementation is considered to recover the DNA-binding activity of PPAR-?, which is impaired in steatotic mouse liver; selenium administration downregulates mRNA expression of Ppar-?, thereby improving lipid metabolism and oxidative status in the liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. More importantly, PPARs' expression and activity are under the control of the circadian clock and show a robust 24 h rhythmicity, which might be the reasons for the side effects and the clinical limitations of trace elements targeting PPARs. Taken together, understanding the casual relationships among trace elements, PPARs' actions, and the pathogenesis of MetS is of great importance. Further studies are required to explore the chronopharmacological effects of trace elements on the diurnal oscillation of PPARs and the consequent development of MetS.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors. The PPAR family consists of three subtypes encoded by three separate genes: PPAR? (NR1C1), PPAR?/? (NR1C2), and PPAR? (NR1C3). PPARs are critical regulators of metabolism and exhibit tissue and cell type-specific expression patterns and functions. Specific PPAR ligands have been proposed as potential therapies for a variety of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, neurogenerative disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, endometriosis, and retinopathies. In this review, we focus on the knowledge of PPAR function in angiogenesis, a complex process that plays important roles in numerous pathological conditions for which therapeutic use of PPAR modulation has been suggested.
Project description:Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the most common liver disease affecting a quarter of the global population and is often associated with adverse health outcomes. The increasing prevalence of MAFLD occurs in parallel to that of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which in fact plays a major role in driving the perturbations of cardiometabolic homeostasis. However, the mechanisms underpinning the pathogenesis of MAFLD are incompletely understood. Compelling evidence from animal and human studies suggest that heightened activation of the sympathetic nervous system is a key contributor to the development of MAFLD. Indeed, common treatment strategies for metabolic diseases such as diet and exercise to induce weight loss have been shown to exert their beneficial effects at least in part through the associated sympathetic inhibition. Furthermore, pharmacological and device-based approaches to reduce sympathetic activation have been demonstrated to improve the metabolic alterations frequently present in patients with obesity, MetSand diabetes. Currently available evidence, while still limited, suggests that sympathetic activation is of specific relevance in the pathogenesis of MAFLD and consequentially may offer an attractive therapeutic target to attenuate the adverse outcomes associated with MAFLD.
Project description:Obesity is now a worldwide epidemic ensuing an increase in comorbidities' prevalence, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), autoimmune diseases, and some cancers, CVD being one of the main causes of death in the world. Several studies provide evidence for an association between MAFLD and atherosclerosis and cardio-metabolic disorders, including CVDs such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, the combination of MAFLD/NASH is associated with vascular risk and CVD progression, but the underlying mechanisms linking MAFLD/NASH and CVD are still under investigation. Several underlying mechanisms may probably be involved, including hepatic/systemic insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, as well as pro-atherogenic, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory mediators released from the steatotic/inflamed liver. MAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance, which is involved in its pathogenesis and progression to NASH. Insulin resistance is a major cardiovascular risk factor in subjects without diabetes. However, T2D has been considered the most common link between MAFLD/NASH and CVD. This review summarizes the evidence linking obesity with MAFLD, NASH, and CVD, considering the pathophysiological molecular mechanisms involved in these diseases. We also discuss the association of MAFLD and NASH with the development and progression of CVD, including structural and functional cardiac alterations, and pharmacological strategies to treat MAFLD/NASH and cardiovascular prevention.
Project description:Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and its interaction with many metabolic pathways raises global public health concerns. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, provided by PQQ.Na<sub>2</sub>) on MAFLD in a chick model and primary chicken hepatocytes with a focus on lipid metabolism, anti-oxidative capacity, and mitochondrial biogenesis. The MAFLD chick model was established on laying hens by feeding them a high-energy low-protein (HELP) diet. Primary hepatocytes isolated from the liver of laying hens were induced for steatosis by free fatty acids (FFA) and for oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). In the MAFLD chick model, the dietary supplementation of PQQ conspicuously ameliorated the negative effects of the HELP diet on liver biological functions, suppressed the progression of MAFLD mainly through enhanced lipid metabolism and protection of liver from oxidative injury. In the steatosis and oxidative stress cell models, PQQ functions in the improvement of the lipid metabolism and hepatocytes tolerance to fatty degradation and oxidative damage by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and then increasing the anti-oxidative activity and anti-apoptosis capacity. At both the cellular and individual levels, PQQ was demonstrated to exert protective effects of hepatocyte and liver from fat accumulation through the improvement of mitochondrial biogenesis and maintenance of redox homeostasis. The key findings of the present study provide an in-depth knowledge on the ameliorative effects of PQQ on the progression of fatty liver and its mechanism of action, thus providing a theoretical basis for the application of PQQ, as an effective nutrient, into the prevention of MAFLD.
Project description:Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a major health concern with no approved pharmacological therapies. Molecules developed to activate the bile acid-receptor TGR5 regulate pathways involved in MALFD pathogenesis, but the therapeutic value of TGR5 activation on the active form of MAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), still needs to be evaluated. As TGR5 agonism is low in MAFLD, we used strategies to promote the production of endogenous TGR5 ligands or administered pharmacological TGR5 agonists, INT-777 and RO5527239, to study the effect of TGR5 activation on liver and metabolic diseases in high-fat diet-fed <i>foz/foz</i> mice. Although described in the literature, treatment with fexaramine, an intestine-restricted FXR agonist, did not raise the concentrations of TGR5 ligands nor modulate TGR5 signaling and, accordingly, did not improve dysmetabolic status. INT-777 and RO5527239 directly activated TGR5. INT-777 only increased the TGR5 activation capacity of the portal blood; RO5527239 also amplified the TGR5 activation capacity of systemic blood. Both molecules improved glucose tolerance. In spite of the TGR5 activation capacity, INT-777, but not RO5527239, reduced liver disease severity. In conclusion, TGR5 activation in enterohepatic, rather than in peripheral, tissues has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and MAFLD.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that mediate the effects of several nutrients or drugs through transcriptional regulation of their target genes in obesogenic environments. This review consists of three parts. First, we summarize current knowledge regarding the role of PPARs in governing the development of white and brown/beige adipocytes from uncommitted progenitor cells. Next, we discuss the interactions of dietary bioactive molecules, such as fatty acids and phytochemicals, with PPARs for the modulation of PPAR-dependent transcriptional activities and metabolic consequences. Lastly, the effects of PPAR polymorphism on obesity and metabolic outcomes are discussed. In this review, we aim to highlight the critical role of PPARs in the modulation of adiposity and subsequent metabolic adaptation in response to dietary challenges and genetic modifications. Understanding the changes in obesogenic environments as a consequence of PPARs/nutrient interactions may help expand the field of individualized nutrition to prevent obesity and obesity-associated metabolic comorbidities.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently become the most common liver disease with a global prevalence of over 25% and is expected to increase. Recently, experts have reached a consensus that "fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction or MAFLD" may be a more appropriate and inclusive definition than NAFLD. Like the former name NAFLD, MAFLD, as a manifestation of multiple system metabolic disorders involving the liver, has certain heterogeneity in its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, pathological changes and natural outcomes. We found that there is a delicate dynamic balance among intestinal microflora, metabolites and host immune system to maintain a healthy intestinal environment and host health. On the contrary, this imbalance is related to diseases such as MAFLD. However, there are no clear studies on how dietary nutrients affect the intestinal environment and participate in the pathogenesis of MAFLD. This review summarizes the interactions among dietary nutrients, intestinal microbiota and MAFLD in an attempt to provide evidence for the use of dietary supplements to regulate liver function in patients with MAFLD. These dietary nutrients influence the development and progression of MAFLD mainly through the hepatic-intestinal axis by altering dietary energy absorption, regulating bile acid metabolism, changing intestinal permeability and producing ethanol. Meanwhile, the nutrients have the ability to combat MAFLD in terms of enriching abundance of intestinal microbiota, reducing <i>Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes</i> ratio and promoting abundance of beneficial gut microbes. Therefore, family therapy with MAFLD using a reasonable diet could be considered.
Project description:Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the most prevalent form of liver disease worldwide, accounting for a high liver-related mortality and morbidity with extensive multi-organ involvement. This entity has displaced viral hepatitis as the main cause of severe forms of hepatic diseases, although the onset and transition of MAFLD stages still remains unclear. Nevertheless, innate and adaptive immune responses seem to play an essential role in the establishment and further progression of this disease. The immune system is responsible of safeguard and preserves organs and systems function, and might be altered under different stimuli. Thus, the liver suffers from metabolic and immune changes leading to different injuries and loss of function. It has been stablished that cell-cell crosstalk is a key process in the hepatic homeostasis maintenance. There is mounting evidence suggesting that MAFLD pathogenesis is determined by a complex interaction of environmental, genetic and host factors that leads to a full plethora of outcomes. Therefore, herein we will revisit and discuss the interplay between immune mechanisms and MAFLD, highlighting the potential role of immunological markers in an attempt to clarify its relationship.