Characterization, Identification and Evaluation of Wheat-Aegilops sharonensis Chromosome Derivatives.
ABSTRACT: Aegilops sharonensis, a wild relative of wheat, harbors diverse disease and insect resistance genes, making it a potentially excellent gene source for wheat improvement. In this study, we characterized and evaluated six wheat-A. sharonensis derivatives, which included three disomic additions, one disomic substitution + monotelosomic addition and two disomic substitution + disomic additions. A total of 51 PLUG markers were developed and used to allocate the A. sharonensis chromosomes in each of the six derivatives to Triticeae homoeologous groups. A set of cytogenetic markers specific for A. sharonensis chromosomes was established based on FISH using oligonucleotides as probes. Molecular cytogenetic marker analysis confirmed that these lines were a CS-A. sharonensis 2Ssh disomic addition, a 4Ssh disomic addition, a 4Ssh (4D) substitution + 5SshL monotelosomic addition, a 6Ssh disomic addition, a 4Ssh (4D) substitution + 6Ssh disomic addition and a 4Ssh (4D) substitution + 7Ssh disomic addition line, respectively. Disease resistance investigations showed that chromosome 7Ssh of A. sharonensis might harbor a new powdery mildew resistance gene, and therefore it has potential for use as resistance source for wheat breeding.
Project description:<h4>Key message</h4>The 'breaker' element ( GcB ) of the gametocidal locus derived from Aegilops sharonensis has been mapped to a region proximal to a block of sub-telomeric heterochromatin on chromosome 4S (sh) L. The production of alien chromosome addition lines allows the transfer of useful genetic variation into elite wheat varieties from related wild species. However, some wild relatives of wheat, particularly those within the Sitopsis section of the genus Aegilops, possess chromosomes that are transmitted preferentially to the offspring when addition lines are generated. Species within the Sitopsis group possess the S genome, and among these species, Aegilops sharonensis (2n = 14, S(sh)S(sh)) carries the S(sh) genome which is closely related to the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Some S genome chromosomes carry gametocidal loci, which induce severe chromosome breakage in gametes lacking the gametocidal chromosome, and hence, result in gamete abortion. The preferential transmission of gametocidal loci could be exploited in wheat breeding, because linking gametocidal loci with important agronomic traits in elite wheat varieties would ensure retention of these traits through successive generations. In this study, we have mapped the breaker element of the gametocidal locus derived from Ae. sharonensis to the region immediately proximal to a block of sub-telomeric heterochromatin on the long arm of chromosome 4S(sh).
Project description:Durum wheat is one of the important food and cash crops. The main goals in current breeding programs are improving its low yield potential, kernel characteristics, and lack of resistance or tolerance to some biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a nascent synthesized hexaploid wheat Lanmai/AT23 is used as the female parent in crosses with its AB genome donor Lanmai. A tetraploid line YL-443 with supernumerary spikelets and high resistance to stripe rust was selected out from the pentaploid F7 progeny. Somatic analysis using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) revealed that this line is a disomic substitution line with the 4B chromosome pair of Lanmai replaced by the 4D chromosome pair of Aegilops tauschii AT23. Comparing with Lanmai, YL-443 shows an increase in the number of spikelets and florets per spike by 36.3 and 75.9%, respectively. The stripe rust resistance gene Yr28 carried on the 4D chromosome was fully expressed in the tetraploid background. The present 4D(4B) disomic substitution line YL-443 was distinguished from the previously reported 4D(4B) lines with the 4D chromosomes from Chinese Spring (CS). Our study demonstrated that YL-443 can be used as elite germplasm for durum wheat breeding targeting high yield potential and stripe rust resistance. The Yr28-specific PCR marker and the 4D chromosome-specific KASP markers together with its unique features of pubescent leaf sheath and auricles can be utilized for assisting selection in breeding.
Project description:Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable genes for wheat breeding. To transfer these genes into wheat, a series of wheat-A. cristatum derivatives have been obtained in our laboratory. In this study, a wheat-A. cristatum derivative II-3-1 was obtained, which was proven to contain a 1P (1A) disomic substitution and 2P disomic addition line with 40 wheat chromosomes and two pairs of A. cristatum chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers analysis. By further backcrossing with the wheat parent Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho) and self-fertilization, three different lines were separated from II-3-1, including wheat-A. cristatum 1P disomic addition line II-3-1a, 2P disomic addition line II-3-1b and 1P (1A) disomic substitution line II-3-1c. Because 2P addition line had been reported before, we aimed to investigate 1P disomic addition line II-3-1a and wheat-A. cristatum 1P (1A) disomic substitution line II-3-1c. Analysis of different genetic populations demonstrated that 1P chromosome harbored multiple agronomic traits, such as elevated spike length, increased tillering ability, reduced plant height and spikelet density. Besides, bristles on the glume ridges as an important morphological marker was located on 1P chromosome. Therefore, the novel 1P addition and substitution lines will be used as important genetic materials to widen the genetic resources of wheat.
Project description:Agronomic characteristics and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in hexaploid wheat can be drastically improved through wheat-alien introgression. However, the transcriptional level interactions of introduced alien genes in the wheat genetic background is rarely investigated. In this study, we report the genome-wide impacts of introgressed chromosomes derived from Ae. longissima on gene transcriptions of the wheat landrace Chinese Spring. RNA-seq analyses demonstrated 5.37% and 4.30% of the genes were significantly differentially expressed (DEGs) in CS-Ae. longissima disomic 3S<sup>l</sup>#2(3B) substitution line TA3575 and disomic 6S<sup>l</sup>#3 addition line TA7548, respectively when compared to CS. In addition, 561 DEGs, including 413 up-regulated and 148 down-regulated or not transcribed genes, were simultaneously impacted by introgressed chromosomes 3S<sup>l</sup>#2 and 6S<sup>l</sup>#3, which accounts for 41.25% of the DEGs in TA3575 and 38.79% in TA7548. Seventeen DEGs, annotated as R genes, were shared by both introgression lines carrying chromosomes 3S<sup>l</sup>#2 and 6S<sup>l</sup>#3, which confer resistance to powdery mildew. This study will benefit the understanding of the wheat gene responses as result of alien gene(s) or chromosome intogression and the plant defense response initiated by powdery mildew resistance genes in chromosomes 3S<sup>l</sup>#2 and 6S<sup>l</sup>#3.
Project description:Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-? irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement.
Project description:A bread wheat line (N11) and a disomic 2D(2R) substitution triticale line were crossed and backrossed four times. At each step electrophoretic selection for the seeds that possessed, simultaneously, the complete set of high molecular weight glutenin subunits of N11 and the two high molecular weight secalins of rye, present in the 2D(2R) line, was carried out. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of the BC<sub>4</sub>F<sub>8</sub> generation revealed that the selection carried out produced a disomic addition line (2n = 44). The pair of additional chromosomes consisted of the long arm of chromosome 1R (1RL) from rye fused with the satellite body of the wheat chromosome 6B. Rheological analyses revealed that the dough obtained by the new addition line had higher quality characteristics when compared with the two parents. The role of the two additional high molecular weight secalins, present in the disomic addition line, in influencing improved dough characteristics is discussed.
Project description:<i>Aegilops tauschii</i>, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat, provides a source of genetic variation that could be used for tetraploid (durum) wheat improvement. In addition to the genes for wheat quality on the D-genome, which differentiate between bread and durum wheats in terms of end-use properties, genes coding for resistances to biotic and abiotic stresses are also present on the D-genome which would be useful in durum wheat. The introgression of <i>Ae. tauschii</i> into durum wheat, however, requires cytogenetic manipulation to induce homoeologous chromosome pairing to promote recombination. For this purpose, the introgression of <i>Ae. tauschii</i> into durum wheat was performed through a bridge cross of the wild species to the Langdon 5D(5B) disomic substitution line that lacks the <i>Ph1</i> locus present on chromosome 5B, followed by a cross of the F<sub>1</sub> to the durum wheat cultivar Om Rabi 5. Subsequent generations were self-fertilized, and these were screened for D-genome introgressions using (i) D-genome-specific Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) markers and (ii) KASP markers polymorphic between the 5D chromosomes of wheat, present in the Langdon 5D(5B) substitution line, and of <i>Ae. tauschii</i>. Homozygous introgression lines were confirmed using genomic and fluorescence <i>in situ</i> hybridization. The results showed that the use of the Langdon 5D(5B) disomic substitution line did not promote D-genome introgression across all linkage groups with only a limited success in the introgression of <i>Ae. tauschii</i> 5D segments into durum wheat.
Project description:The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b) mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hch? and 7Hch? chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hch??7AL and 7AS?7Hch? disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hch??7AL and 7AS?7Hch? disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1) gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hch? chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB) causes significant grain yield and quality reductions in wheat and barley. Most wheat varieties are incapable of preventing FHB spread through the rachis, but disease is typically limited to individually infected spikelets in barley. We point-inoculated wheat lines possessing barley chromosome introgressions to test whether FHB resistance could be observed in a wheat genetic background. The most striking differential was between 4H(4D) substitution and 4H addition lines. The 4H addition line was similarly susceptible to the wheat parent, but the 4H(4D) substitution line was highly resistant, which suggests that there is an FHB susceptibility factor on wheat chromosome 4D. Point inoculation of Chinese Spring 4D ditelosomic lines demonstrated that removing 4DS results in high FHB resistance. We genotyped four Chinese Spring 4DS terminal deletion lines to better characterize the deletions in each line. FHB phenotyping indicated that lines del4DS-2 and del4DS-4, containing smaller deletions, were susceptible and had retained the susceptibility factor. Lines del4DS-3 and del4DS-1 contain larger deletions and were both significantly more resistant, and hence had presumably lost the susceptibility factor. Combining the genotyping and phenotyping results allowed us to refine the susceptibility factor to a 31.7 Mbp interval on 4DS.
Project description:Take-all is a devastating soil-borne disease that affects wheat production. The continuous generation of disease-resistance germplasm is an important aspect of the management of this pathogen. In this study, we characterized the wheat-Psathyrostachys huashania Keng (P. huashania)-derived progeny H139 that exhibits significantly improved resistance to wheat take-all disease compared with its susceptible parent 7182. Sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) analyses revealed that H139 is a stable wheat-P. huashania disomic substitution line lacking wheat chromosome 2D. Expressed sequence tag-sequence tagged site (EST-STS) marker and Wheat Axiom 660K Genotyping Array analysis further revealed that H139 was a novel wheat-P. huashania 2Ns/2D substitution line. In addition, the H139 line was shown to be cytologically stable with a dwarf phenotype and increased spikelet number. These results indicate that H139, with its enhanced wheat take-all disease resistance and desirable agronomic traits, provides valuable genetic resources for wheat chromosome engineering breeding.