Salicylanilides Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Suppress Induction of Inflammatory Cytokines in a Rodent Model.
ABSTRACT: SARS-CoV-2 virus has recently given rise to the current COVID-19 pandemic where infected individuals can range from being asymptomatic, yet highly contagious, to dying from acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the world has mobilized to create antiviral vaccines and therapeutics to combat the scourge, their long-term efficacy remains in question especially with the emergence of new variants. In this work, we exploit a class of compounds that has previously shown success against various viruses. A salicylanilide library was first screened in a SARS-CoV-2 activity assay in Vero cells. The most efficacious derivative was further evaluated in a prophylactic mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection unveiling a salicylanilide that can reduce viral loads, modulate key cytokines, and mitigate severe weight loss involved in COVID-19 infections. The combination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, cytokine inhibitory activity, and a previously established favorable pharmacokinetic profile for the lead salicylanilide renders salicylanilides in general as promising therapeutics for COVID-19.
Project description:The superimposition of the X-ray complexes of cyclohexanediones (i.e., TUB015), described by our research group, and nocodazole, within the colchicine binding site of tubulin provided an almost perfect overlap of both ligands. This structural information led us to propose hybrids of TUB015 and nocodazole using a salicylanilide core structure. Interestingly, salicylanilides, such as niclosamide, are well-established signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3) inhibitors with anticancer properties. Thus, different compounds with this new scaffold have been synthesized with the aim to identify compounds inhibiting tubulin polymerization and/or STAT3 signaling. As a result, we have identified new salicylanilides (<b>6</b> and <b>16</b>) that showed significant antiproliferative activity against a panel of cancer cells. Both compounds were able to reduce the levels of p-STAT3<sup>Tyr705</sup> without affecting the total expression of STAT3. While compound <b>6</b> inhibited tubulin polymerization and arrested the cell cycle of DU145 cells at G2/M, similar to TUB015, compound <b>16</b> showed a more potent effect on inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and arrested the cell cycle at G1/G0, similar to niclosamide. In both cases, no toxicity towards PBMC cells was detected. Thus, the salicylanilides described here represent a new class of antiproliferative agents affecting tubulin polymerization and/or STAT3 phosphorylation.
Project description:A poorly exploited paradigm in the antimicrobial therapy field is to target virulence traits for drug development. In contrast to target-focused approaches, antivirulence phenotypic screens enable identification of bioactive molecules that induce a desirable biological readout without making a priori assumption about the cellular target. Here, we screened a chemical library of 678 small molecules against the invasive hyphal growth of the human opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. We found that a halogenated salicylanilide (N1-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzamide) and one of its analogs, Niclosamide, an FDA-approved anthelmintic in humans, exhibited both antifilamentation and antibiofilm activities against C. albicans and the multi-resistant yeast C. auris. The antivirulence activity of halogenated salicylanilides were also expanded to C. albicans resistant strains with different resistance mechanisms. We also found that Niclosamide protected the intestinal epithelial cells against invasion by C. albicans. Transcriptional profiling of C. albicans challenged with Niclosamide exhibited a signature that is characteristic of the mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde response. Our chemogenomic analysis showed that halogenated salicylanilides compromise the potential-dependant mitochondrial protein translocon machinery. Given the fact that the safety of Niclosamide is well established in humans, this molecule could represent the first clinically approved antivirulence agent against a pathogenic fungus.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to identify miRNAs that were dysregulated after the onset of COVID-19 and thus potentially be used for risk stratification (i.e., mortality). Therefore, we conducted a multi-center, retrospective longitudinal cohort study enrolling 142 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who presented to two Canadian hospitals from May 2020 – December 2020 along with a cohort of 27 SARS-CoV-2 patients with mild upper respiratory tract symptoms and 69 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients from the ICU. Blood was biobanked from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in the emergency department (mild), ward (moderate) or intensive care unit (severe). Assessment of miRNA expression and co-regulatory network generation revealed significant transcriptome dyregulation in pateints with severe COVID-19 that was largely different from SARS-CoV-2 negative patients in the ICU. Overall design: Platelet reduced plasma from either: (1) SARS-CoV-2 negative patients with mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, (2) patients with mild COVID-19, (3) patients with moderate COVID-19, (4) patients with severe COVID-19, and (5) SARS-CoV-2 negative patients from the ICU with upper respiratory tract illnesses was taken from a -80 freezer and thawed on ice. Sample Groups: (1) n=30 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients with mild upper respiratory tract symptoms (2) n=14 patients with mild COVID-19 (3) n=15 patients with moderate COVID-19 (4) n=45 patients with severe COVID-19 (5) n=31 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients from the ICU with upper respiratory tract symptoms. A total of 30uL of thawed plasma was co-incubated with 1:1 volumes of HTG Plasma Lysis buffer (pre-warmed to 50 degrees celsius) and 1/10th v/v proteinase K for three hours at 50 degrees celsius with shaking (200rpm).
Project description:The on-going COVID-19 pandemic requires a deeper understanding of the long-term antibody responses that persist following SARS-CoV-2 infection. To that end, we determined epitope-specific IgG antibody responses in COVID-19 convalescent sera collected at 5 months post-diagnosis and compared that to sera from naïve individuals. Each serum sample was reacted with a high-density peptide microarray representing the complete proteome of SARS-CoV-2 as 15 mer peptides with 11 amino acid overlap and homologs of spike glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, membrane protein, and envelope small membrane protein from related human coronaviruses. Binding signatures were compared between COVID-19 convalescent patients and naïve individuals using the web service tool EPIphany.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the lack of therapeutics hinders pandemic control. Although lung disease is the primary clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients, how SARS-CoV-2 induces tissue pathology in the lung remains elusive. Here we describe a high-throughput-based platform to generate tens of thousands of self-organizing, nearly identical, and genetically matched human lung buds derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) cultured on confined geometries on micropattern chips. Strikingly, in vitro-derived human lung buds resemble fetal human lung tissue and display in vivo-like proximo-distal coordination of alveolar and airway tissue differentiation whose 3D epithelial self-organization is directed by the levels of KGF. Single-cell transcriptomics unveiled the cell identities and ontogeny of airway and alveolar tissue and the specification of WNThi cycling alveolar stem cells from alveolar progenitors. These synthetic human lung buds are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can be used to track cell type-dependent susceptibilities to infection, intercellular transmission and cytopathology in airway and alveolar tissue in individual synthetic lung buds. We detected an increased susceptibility to infection in alveolar cells and identified cycling alveolar stem cells as targets of SARS-CoV-2. We used this platform to test neutralizing antibodies isolated from convalescent plasma that efficiently blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection and intercellular transmission. Our platform offers unlimited, rapid and scalable access to disease-relevant lung tissue that recapitulate human lung development and can be used to track SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify pre-clinical candidate therapeutics for COVID-19. Overall design: Examination of cell type composition and heterogeneity in synthetic human lungs.
Project description:The SARS-CoV-2 virus has already caused over a million COVID-19 cases and over fifty-thousand deaths globally. There is an urgent need to create novel models to study SARS-CoV-2 virus using human disease-relevant cells and tissues to understand key features of virus biology. We present a platform comprised of nine different cell and organoid derivatives from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) representing all three primary germ layers, including lung progenitors and alveolar type II (AT2) cells, pancreatic endocrine cells, liver organoids, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, macrophages, microglia, and both cortical and dopaminergic neurons. We systematically probed which cell types are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human pancreatic beta cells and hepatocytes were strikingly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, further validated using adult primary human islets and liver organoids. Both in vitro and in a humanized mouse model, human lung progenitors and AT2 cells express the ACE2 viral receptor and were highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Transcriptomic analysis following SARS-CoV-2 infection of hPSC-derived pancreatic and lung organoids revealed upregulation of chemokines but not type I/III interferon signaling, similar to what was seen in primary human COVID-19 pulmonary infection. Therefore, hPSC-derived cells phenocopy human COVID-19 disease and provide a valuable resource to understand SARS-CoV-2 biology and search for novel therapeutics. Overall design: Human islets were dissociated into single cells and analyzed using 10X scRNA-seq to determine the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in human islet alpha and beta cells.
Project description:Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) represent an emerging global crisis. However, quantifiable risk-factors for PASC and their biological associations are poorly resolved. We executed a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation of 309 COVID-19 patients from initial diagnosis to convalescence (2-3 months later), integrated with clinical data, and patient-reported symptoms. We resolved four PASC-anticipating risk factors at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis: type 2 diabetes, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, Epstein-Barr virus viremia, and specific autoantibodies. In patients with gastrointestinal PASC, SARS-CoV-2-specific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited unique dynamics during recovery from COVID-19. Analysis of symptom-associated immunological signatures revealed coordinated immunity polarization into four endotypes exhibiting divergent acute severity and PASC. We find that immunological associations between PASC factors diminish over time leading to distinct convalescent immune states. Detectability of most PASC factors at COVID-19 diagnosis emphasizes the importance of early disease measurements for understanding emergent chronic conditions and suggests PASC treatment strategies.
Project description:We utilize single-cell sequencing (scSeq) of lymphocyte immune repertoires and transcriptomes to quantitatively profile the adaptive immune response in COVID-19 patients of varying age. Our scSeq analysis defines the adaptive immune repertoire and transcriptome in convalescent COVID-19 patients and shows important age-related differences implicated in immunity against SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:Single-cell RNA-seq of iPSC derived human kidney organoids. Single-nuclei RNA-seq data of COVID-19 patient autopsy kidney tissue. The current data was used to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect kidney cells and induce cell injury as well as a pro-fibrotic environment which could explain acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients and also long-term effects potentially leading to the development of chronic kidney disease. Overall design: CTR, iPSC kidney organoids; COVID, SARS-CoV-2 infected kidney organoids; COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 infected kidney autopsy. >Submitter states that raw data are not available due to patient privacy concerns<
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. COVID-19 incidence, severity, and mortality rates differ greatly between populations, genders, ABO blood groups, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes, ethnic groups, and geographic backgrounds. This highly heterogeneous SARS-CoV-2 infection is multifactorial. Host genetic factors such as variants in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene (ACE2), the transmembrane protease serine 2 gene (TMPRSS2), along with HLA genotype, and ABO blood group help to explain individual susceptibility, severity, and outcomes of COVID-19. This review is focused on COVID-19 clinical and viral characteristics, pathogenesis, and genetic findings, with particular attention on genetic diversity and variants. The human genetic basis could provide scientific bases for disease prediction and targeted therapy to address the COVID-19 scourge.