RETREG1/FAM134B mediated autophagosomal degradation of AMFR/GP78 and OPA1 -a dual organellar turnover mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Turnover of cellular organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, is orchestrated by an efficient cellular surveillance system. We have identified a mechanism for dual regulation of ER and mitochondria under stress. It is known that AMFR, an ER E3 ligase and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) regulator, degrades outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) proteins, MFNs (mitofusins), via the proteasome and triggers mitophagy. We show that destabilized mitochondria are almost devoid of the OMM and generate "mitoplasts". This brings the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) in the proximity of the ER. When AMFR levels are high and the mitochondria are stressed, the reticulophagy regulatory protein RETREG1 participates in the formation of the mitophagophore by interacting with OPA1. Interestingly, OPA1 and other IMM proteins exhibit similar RETREG1-dependent autophagosomal degradation as AMFR, unlike most of the OMM proteins. The "mitoplasts" generated are degraded by reticulo-mito-phagy - simultaneously affecting dual organelle turnover.Abbreviations: AMFR/GP78: autocrine motility factor receptor; BAPTA: 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; BFP: blue fluorescent protein; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone; CNBr: cyanogen bromide; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation; FL: fluorescence, GFP: green fluorescent protein; HA: hemagglutinin; HEPES: 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid; IMM: inner mitochondrial membrane; LIR: LC3-interacting region; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MFN: mitofusin, MGRN1: mahogunin ring finger 1; NA: numerical aperature; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; OPA1: OPA1 mitochondrial dynamin like GTPase; PRNP/PrP: prion protein; RER: rough endoplasmic reticulum; RETREG1/FAM134B: reticulophagy regulator 1; RFP: red fluorescent protein; RING: really interesting new gene; ROI: region of interest; RTN: reticulon; SEM: standard error of the mean; SER: smooth endoplasmic reticulum; SIM: structured illumination microscopy; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STED: stimulated emission depletion; STOML2: stomatin like 2; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; UPR: unfolded protein response.
Project description:Mitochondrial division requires division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM and OMM, respectively). Interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes OMM division by recruitment of the dynamin Drp1, but effects on IMM division are not well characterized. We previously showed that actin polymerization through ER-bound inverted formin 2 (INF2) stimulates Drp1 recruitment in mammalian cells. Here, we show that INF2-mediated actin polymerization stimulates a second mitochondrial response independent of Drp1: a rise in mitochondrial matrix calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. ER stores supply the increased mitochondrial calcium, and the role of actin is to increase ER-mitochondria contact. Myosin IIA is also required for this mitochondrial calcium increase. Elevated mitochondrial calcium in turn activates IMM constriction in a Drp1-independent manner. IMM constriction requires electron transport chain activity. IMM division precedes OMM division. These results demonstrate that actin polymerization independently stimulates the dynamics of both membranes during mitochondrial division: IMM through increased matrix calcium, and OMM through Drp1 recruitment.
Project description:Mitochondrial division is critical for the maintenance and regulation of mitochondrial function, quality and distribution. This process is controlled by cytosolic actin-based constriction machinery and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) on mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). Although mitochondrial physiology, including oxidative phosphorylation, is also important for efficient mitochondrial division, morphological alterations of the mitochondrial inner-membrane (IMM) have not been clearly elucidated. Here we report spontaneous and repetitive constriction of mitochondrial inner compartment (CoMIC) associated with subsequent division in neurons. Although CoMIC is potentiated by inhibition of Drp1 and occurs at the potential division spots contacting the endoplasmic reticulum, it appears on IMM independently of OMM. Intra-mitochondrial influx of Ca<sup>2+</sup> induces and potentiates CoMIC, and leads to K<sup>+</sup>-mediated mitochondrial bulging and depolarization. Synergistically, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) also regulates CoMIC via controlling Mic60-mediated OMM-IMM tethering. Therefore, we propose that CoMIC is a priming event for efficient mitochondrial division.
Project description:The autophagy receptor for selective reticulophagy, RETREG1/FAM134B is essential for ER maintenance, and its dysfunction is associated with neuronal disorders, vascular dementia, or viral infections. The protein consists of the reticulon-homology domain (RHD) that is flanked at the N- and C-termini by an intrinsically disordered protein region (IDPR), where the C terminal IDPR carries the indispensable LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif for the interaction with LC3. The RHD of RETREG1 is presumed to play a role in membrane remodeling, but the absence of a known 3D structure of this domain so far prevented researchers from gaining mechanistic insights into how the RETREG1 RHD curves membranes, and thereby facilities reticulophagy. The recent study by Bhaskara et al., which is described in this editor's corner article, used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to create a structural model of the RETREG1 RHD. MD simulations along with <i>in vitro</i> liposome remodeling experiments reveal how the RHD domain acts on the ER membrane and, in concert with the C terminal IDPR, executes the function of RETREG1 in selective reticulophagy.<b>Abbreviations:</b> ER, endoplasmic reticulum; IDPR, intrinsically disordered protein region; LIR, LC3-interacting region; MD, molecular dynamics; RHD, reticulon-homology domain; TM, transmembrane.
Project description:Flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), rely heavily on the availability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes throughout their life cycle, and degradation of ER membranes restricts flavivirus replication. Accordingly, DENV and ZIKV restrict ER turnover by protease-mediated cleavage of reticulophagy regulator 1 (RETREG1), also known as FAM134B, an autophagy receptor responsible for targeted ER sheet degradation. Given that the induction of autophagy may play an important role in flavivirus replication, the antiviral role of RETREG1 suggests that specialized autophagic pathways may have differential effects on the flavivirus life cycle. We previously identified BPI fold-containing family B member 3 (BPIFB3) as a regulator of autophagy that negatively controls enterovirus replication. Here, we show that in contrast to enteroviruses, BPIFB3 functions as a positive regulator of DENV and ZIKV infection and that its RNA interference-mediated silencing inhibits the formation of viral replication organelles. Mechanistically, we show that depletion of BPIFB3 enhances RETREG1-dependent reticulophagy, leading to enhanced ER turnover and the suppression of viral replication. Consistent with this, the antiviral effects of BPIFB3 depletion can be reversed by RETREG1 silencing, suggesting a specific role for BPIFB3 in regulating ER turnover. These studies define BPIFB3 as a required host factor for both DENV and ZIKV replication and further contribute to our understanding of the requirements for autophagy during flavivirus infection.IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses and other arthropod-transmitted viruses represent a widespread global health problem, with limited treatment options currently available. Thus, a better understanding of the cellular requirements for their infection is needed. Both DENV and ZIKV rely on expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the induction of autophagy to establish productive infections. However, little is known regarding the interplay between the requirements for autophagy initiation during infection and the mechanisms used by these viruses to avoid clearance through the autophagic pathway. Our study highlights the importance of the host factor BPIFB3 in regulating flavivirus replication and further confirms that the RETREG1-dependent reticulophagy pathway is antiviral to both DENV and ZIKV.
Project description:Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA), a disease that causes blindness and other neurological disorders, is linked to <i>OPA1</i> mutations. OPA1, dependent on its GTPase and GED domains, governs inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) fusion and cristae organization, which are central to oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics and IMM organization have also been implicated in Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis and signaling but the specific involvements of OPA1 in Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics remain to be established. Here we studied the possible outcomes of OPA1 and its ADOA-linked mutations in Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis using rescue and overexpression strategies in <i>Opa1</i>-deficient and <i>wild-type</i> murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), respectively and in human ADOA-derived fibroblasts. MEFs lacking <i>Opa1</i> required less Ca<sup>2+</sup> mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce a mitochondrial matrix [Ca<sup>2+</sup>] rise ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>mito</sub>). This was associated with closer ER-mitochondria contacts and no significant changes in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Patient cells carrying <i>OPA1</i> GTPase or GED domain mutations also exhibited altered Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis, and the mutations associated with lower OPA1 levels displayed closer ER-mitochondria gaps. Furthermore, in <i>Opa1</i> <sup><i>-/-</i></sup> MEF background, we found that acute expression of <i>OPA1</i> GTPase mutants but no GED mutants, partially restored cytosolic [Ca<sup>2+</sup>] ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>cyto</sub>) needed for a prompt [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>mito</sub> rise. Finally, <i>OPA1</i> mutants' overexpression in WT MEFs disrupted Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis, partially recapitulating the observations in ADOA patient cells. Thus, OPA1 modulates functional ER-mitochondria coupling likely through the OPA1 GED domain in <i>Opa1</i> <sup><i>-/-</i></sup> MEFs. However, the co-existence of WT and mutant forms of OPA1 in patients promotes an imbalance of Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis without a domain-specific effect, likely contributing to the overall ADOA progress.
Project description:Degradation of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) by selective autophagy (ER-phagy) is crucial for ER homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how ER scission is regulated for subsequent autophagosomal sequestration and lysosomal degradation. Here, we show that oligomerization of ER-phagy receptor FAM134B (also referred to as reticulophagy regulator 1 or RETREG1) through its reticulon-homology domain is required for membrane fragmentation in vitro and ER-phagy in vivo. Under ER-stress conditions, activated CAMK2B phosphorylates the reticulon-homology domain of FAM134B, which enhances FAM134B oligomerization and activity in membrane fragmentation to accommodate high demand for ER-phagy. Unexpectedly, FAM134B G216R, a variant derived from a type II hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) patient, exhibits gain-of-function defects, such as hyperactive self-association and membrane scission, which results in excessive ER-phagy and sensory neuron death. Therefore, this study reveals a mechanism of ER-membrane fragmentation in ER-phagy, along with a signalling pathway in regulating ER turnover, and suggests a potential implication of excessive selective autophagy in human diseases.
Project description:Degradation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by selective autophagy (ER-phagy) is crucial for ER homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how ER scission is regulated for subsequent autophagosomal sequestration and lysosomal degradation. Here, we show that oligomerization of ER-phagy receptor FAM134B (also referred to as reticulophagy regulator 1 or RETREG1) through its reticulon-homology domain is required for membrane fragmentation in vitro and ER-phagy in vivo. Under ER-stress conditions, activated CAMK2B phosphorylates the reticulon-homology domain of FAM134B, which enhances FAM134B oligomerization and activity in membrane fragmentation to accommodate high demand for ER-phagy. Unexpectedly, FAM134B G216R, a variant derived from a type II hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) patient, exhibits gain-of-function defects, such as hyperactive self-association and membrane scission, which results in excessive ER-phagy and sensory neuron death. Therefore, this study reveals a mechanism of ER membrane fragmentation in ER-phagy, along with a signaling pathway in regulating ER turnover, and suggests a potential implication of excessive selective autophagy in human diseases.
Project description:Cardiolipin, an essential mitochondrial physiological regulator, is synthesized from phosphatidic acid (PA) in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). PA is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to the IMM via the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) under mediation by the Ups1/Mdm35 protein family. Despite the availability of numerous crystal structures, the detailed mechanism underlying PA transfer between mitochondrial membranes remains unclear. Here, a model of Ups1/Mdm35-membrane interaction is established using combined crystallographic data, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, extensive structural comparisons, and biophysical assays. The ?2-loop, L2-loop, and ?3 helix of Ups1 mediate membrane interactions. Moreover, non-complexed Ups1 on membranes is found to be a key transition state for PA transfer. The membrane-bound non-complexed Ups1/ membrane-bound Ups1 ratio, which can be regulated by environmental pH, is inversely correlated with the PA transfer activity of Ups1/Mdm35. These results demonstrate a new model of the fine conformational changes of Ups1/Mdm35 during PA transfer.
Project description:Tail-anchored (TA) proteins insert post-translationally into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and peroxisomes. Whereas the GET pathway controls ER-targeting, no dedicated factors are known for OMM insertion, posing the question of how accuracy is achieved. The mitochondrial AAA-ATPase Msp1 removes mislocalized TA proteins from the OMM, but it is unclear, how Msp1 clients are targeted for degradation. Here we screened for factors involved in degradation of TA proteins mislocalized to mitochondria. We show that the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) E3 ubiquitin ligase Doa10 controls cytoplasmic level of Msp1 clients. Furthermore, we identified the uncharacterized OMM protein Fmp32 and the ectopically expressed subunit of the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex Gem1 as native clients for Msp1 and Doa10. We propose that productive localization of TA proteins to the OMM is ensured by complex assembly, while orphan subunits are extracted by Msp1 and eventually degraded by Doa10.
Project description:Here, we report that acute reduction in mitochondrial translation fidelity (MTF) causes ubiquitination of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) proteins, including TRAP1 and CPOX, which occurs selectively in mitochondria with a severed outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Ubiquitinated IMM recruits the autophagy machinery. Inhibiting autophagy leads to increased accumulation of mitochondria with severed OMM and ubiquitinated IMM. This process occurs downstream of the accumulation of cytochrome c/CPOX in a subset of mitochondria heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell ("mosaic distribution"). Formation of mosaic mitochondria, OMM severing, and IMM ubiquitination require active mitochondrial translation and mitochondrial fission, but not the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. In contrast, in Parkin-overexpressing cells, MTF reduction does not lead to the severing of the OMM or IMM ubiquitination, but it does induce Drp1-independent ubiquitination of the OMM. Furthermore, high-cytochrome c/CPOX mitochondria are preferentially targeted by Parkin, indicating that in the context of reduced MTF, they are mitophagy intermediates regardless of Parkin expression. In sum, Parkin-deficient cells adapt to mitochondrial proteotoxicity through a Drp1-mediated mechanism that involves the severing of the OMM and autophagy targeting ubiquitinated IMM proteins.