Interhemispheric co-alteration of brain homotopic regions.
ABSTRACT: Asymmetries in gray matter alterations raise important issues regarding the pathological co-alteration between hemispheres. Since homotopic areas are the most functionally connected sites between hemispheres and gray matter co-alterations depend on connectivity patterns, it is likely that this relationship might be mirrored in homologous interhemispheric co-altered areas. To explore this issue, we analyzed data of patients with Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depressive disorder from the BrainMap voxel-based morphometry database. We calculated a map showing the pathological homotopic anatomical co-alteration between homologous brain areas. This map was compared with the meta-analytic homotopic connectivity map obtained from the BrainMap functional database, so as to have a meta-analytic connectivity modeling map between homologous areas. We applied an empirical Bayesian technique so as to determine a directional pathological co-alteration on the basis of the possible tendencies in the conditional probability of being co-altered of homologous brain areas. Our analysis provides evidence that: the hemispheric homologous areas appear to be anatomically co-altered; this pathological co-alteration is similar to the pattern of connectivity exhibited by the couples of homologues; the probability to find alterations in the areas of the left hemisphere seems to be greater when their right homologues are also altered than vice versa, an intriguing asymmetry that deserves to be further investigated and explained.
Project description:Homotopic connectivity (HC) is the connectivity between mirror areas of the brain hemispheres. It can exhibit a marked and functionally relevant spatial variability, and can be perturbed by several pathological conditions. The voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) is a technique devised to enquire this pattern of brain organization, based on resting state functional connectivity. Since functional connectivity can be revealed also in a meta-analytical fashion using co-activations, here we propose to calculate the meta-analytic homotopic connectivity (MHC) as the meta-analytic counterpart of the VMHC. The comparison between the two techniques reveals their general similarity, but also highlights regional differences associated with how HC varies from task to rest. Two main differences were found from rest to task: (i) regions known to be characterized by global hubness are more similar than regions displaying local hubness; and (ii) medial areas are characterized by a higher degree of homotopic connectivity, while lateral areas appear to decrease their degree of homotopic connectivity during task performance. These findings show that MHC can be an insightful tool to study how the hemispheres functionally interact during task and rest conditions.
Project description:The pathological brain is characterized by distributed morphological or structural alterations in the grey matter, which tend to follow identifiable network-like patterns. We analysed the patterns formed by these alterations (increased and decreased grey matter values detected with the voxel-based morphometry technique) conducting an extensive transdiagnostic search of voxel-based morphometry studies in a large variety of brain disorders. We devised an innovative method to construct the networks formed by the structurally co-altered brain areas, which can be considered as pathological structural co-alteration patterns, and to compare these patterns with three associated types of connectivity profiles (functional, anatomical, and genetic). Our study provides transdiagnostical evidence that structural co-alterations are influenced by connectivity constraints rather than being randomly distributed. Analyses show that although all the three types of connectivity taken together can account for and predict with good statistical accuracy, the shape and temporal development of the co-alteration patterns, functional connectivity offers the better account of the structural co-alteration, followed by anatomic and genetic connectivity. These results shed new light on the possible mechanisms at the root of neuropathological processes and open exciting prospects in the quest for a better understanding of brain disorders.
Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The alteration landscape of the cerebral cortex" (Cauda et al., 2018). Here, we applied a metric called alteration negentropy (A-negentropy) on a large human neuroimaging dataset, in order to denote the "low structural alteration variety" of the altered brain areas. Furthermore, we reported the overview of the selection strategy, as well as the description and distribution of the selected studies from the voxel-based morphometry database of BrainMap (Vanasse et al., 2018). For all of the analyzed brain areas, we reported the number of pathologies affecting them (both local maxima and mean value), as well as the peak and average values of A-negentropy. Regions altered by a small number of brain disorders exhibit high values of A-negentropy.
Project description:Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogenous syndrome considered as a risk factor for developing dementia. Previous work examining morphological brain changes in MCI has identified a temporo-parietal atrophy pattern that suggests a common neuroanatomical denominator of cognitive impairment. Using functional connectivity analyses of structurally affected regions in MCI, we aimed to investigate and characterize functional networks formed by these regions that appear to be particularly vulnerable to disease-related disruptions. Methods: Areas of convergent atrophy in MCI were derived from a quantitative meta-analysis and encompassed left and right medial temporal (i.e., hippocampus, amygdala), as well as parietal regions (precuneus), which were defined as seed regions for connectivity analyses. Both task-based meta-analytical connectivity modeling (MACM) based on the BrainMap database and task-free resting-state functional MRI in a large cohort of older adults from the 1000BRAINS study were applied. We additionally assessed behavioral characteristics associated with the seed regions using BrainMap meta-data and investigated correlations of resting-state connectivity with age. Results: The left temporal seed showed stronger associations with a fronto-temporal network, whereas the right temporal atrophy cluster was more linked to cortico-striatal regions. In accordance with this, behavioral analysis indicated an emphasis of the left temporal seed on language generation, and the right temporal seed was associated with the domains of emotion and attention. Task-independent co-activation was more pronounced in the parietal seed, which demonstrated stronger connectivity with a frontoparietal network and associations with introspection and social cognition. Correlation analysis revealed both decreasing and increasing functional connectivity with higher age that may add to pathological processes but also indicates compensatory mechanisms of functional reorganization with increasing age. Conclusion: Our findings provide an important pathophysiological link between morphological changes and the clinical relevance of major structural damage in MCI. Multimodal analysis of functional networks related to areas of MCI-typical atrophy may help to explain cognitive decline and behavioral alterations not tractable by a mere anatomical interpretation and therefore contribute to prognostic evaluations.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Aim of the present study was to investigate potential impairment of non-motor areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In particular, we evaluated whether homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of non-motor associated cortical areas correlates with clinical parameters and disease-specific degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) in ALS.<h4>Material and methods</h4>Interhemispheric homotopic rs-FC was assessed in 31 patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) for 8 cortical sites, from prefrontal to occipital cortex, using NIRS. DTI was performed in a subgroup of 21 patients. All patients were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction in the executive, memory, and visuospatial domains.<h4>Results</h4>ALS patients displayed an altered spatial pattern of correlation between homotopic rs-FC values when compared to HCs (<i>p</i> = 0.000013). In patients without executive dysfunction a strong correlation existed between the rate of motor decline and homotopic rs-FC of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) (? = - 0.85, <i>p</i> = 0.0004). Furthermore, antero-temporal homotopic rs-FC correlated with fractional anisotropy in the central corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tracts (CSTs), and forceps minor as determined by DTI (<i>p</i> < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study further supports involvement of non-motor areas in ALS. Our results render homotopic rs-FC as assessed by NIRS a potential clinical marker for disease progression rate in ALS patients without executive dysfunction and a potential anatomical marker for ALS-specific degeneration of the CC and CSTs.
Project description:By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration. Second, the clusters of co-altered areas form a net of alterations that can be defined as morphometric co-alteration network or co-atrophy network (in the case of gray matter decreases). Third, within this network certain cerebral areas can be identified as pathoconnectivity hubs, the alteration of which is supposed to enhance the development of neuronal abnormalities. Fourth, within the morphometric co-atrophy network of SCZD, ASD, and OCSD, a subnetwork composed of eleven highly connected nodes can be distinguished. This subnetwork encompasses the anterior insulae, inferior frontal areas, left superior temporal areas, left parahippocampal regions, left thalamus and right precentral gyri. Fifth, the co-altered areas also exhibit a normal structural covariance pattern which overlaps, for some of these areas (like the insulae), the co-alteration pattern. These findings reveal that, similarly to neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric disorders are characterized by anatomical alterations that distribute according to connectivity constraints so as to form identifiable morphometric co-atrophy patterns.
Project description:The dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) is a key region for motor learning and sensorimotor integration, yet we have limited understanding of its functional interactions with other regions. Previous work has started to examine functional connectivity in several brain areas using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and meta-analytical connectivity modelling (MACM). More recently, structural covariance (SC) has been proposed as a technique that may also allow delineation of functional connectivity. Here, we applied these three approaches to provide a comprehensive characterization of functional connectivity with a seed in the left dPMC that a previous meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies has identified as playing a key role in motor learning. Using data from two sources (the Rockland sample, containing resting state data and anatomical scans from 132 participants, and the BrainMap database, which contains peak activation foci from over 10,000 experiments), we conducted independent whole-brain functional connectivity mapping analyses of a dPMC seed. RSFC and MACM revealed similar connectivity maps spanning prefrontal, premotor, and parietal regions, while the SC map identified more widespread frontal regions. Analyses indicated a relatively consistent pattern of functional connectivity between RSFC and MACM that was distinct from that identified by SC. Notably, results indicate that the seed is functionally connected to areas involved in visuomotor control and executive functions, suggesting that the dPMC acts as an interface between motor control and cognition.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>In the event of neural injury, the homologous contralateral brain areas may play a compensatory role to avoid or limit the functional loss. However, this dynamic strategy of functional redistribution is not clearly established, especially in the pathophysiological context of diffuse low-grade glioma. Our aim here was to assess the extent to which unilateral tumor infiltration of the insula dynamically modulates the functional connectivity of the contralesional one.<h4>Methods</h4>Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI, a seed-to-ROI approach was employed in 52 insula-centered glioma patients (n = 30 left and 22 right) compared with 19 age-matched healthy controls.<h4>Results</h4>Unsurprisingly, a significant decrease of the inter-insular connectivity was observed in both patient groups. More importantly, the analyses revealed a significant increase of the contralesional insular connectivity towards both cerebral hemispheres, especially in cortical areas forming the visual and the sensorimotor networks. This functional redistribution was not identified when the analyses were performed on three control regions for which the homologous area was not impaired by the tumor. This overall pattern of results indicates that massive infiltration of the insular cortex causes a significant redeployment of the contralesional functional connectivity.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This general finding suggests that the undamaged insula plays a role in the functional compensation usually observed in this patient population, and thus provides compelling support for the concept of homotopic functional plasticity in brain-damaged patients.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to explore interhemispheric intrinsic connectivity in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).<h4>Methods</h4>We obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 right-handed PHN patients (11 males, 7 females; mean age, 59.67±8.41 years) and 18 well-matched healthy controls (11 males, 7 females; mean age, 38.50±7.51 years). Interhemispheric connectivity was examined using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), and seed-based functional connectivity analysis was performed.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with PHN showed abnormally decreased homotopic connectivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCUN/PCC). The decreased VMHC in the PCUN/PCC was positively correlated with the visual analog scale of PHN in the PHN patient group (<i>?</i>=0.651; <i>P</i>=0.006). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that the areas under the curves for the two brain regions were 0.898 for the prefrontal cortex and 0.923 for the PCUN/PCC, which indicated that the VMHC could be used to discriminate PHN patients from healthy controls. A subsequent seed-based functional connectivity analysis revealed widely disrupted intrinsic connectivity between the regions that showed local homotopic connectivity deficits and the areas subserving the default-mode network.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results indicated reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with PHN, which seems to be an important new avenue to investigate to better understand the nature of disconnection of the functional architecture in patients with PHN.