Exposure to Vicarious Social Defeat Stress and Western-Style Diets During Adolescence Leads to Physiological Dysregulation, Decreases in Reward Sensitivity, and Reduced Antidepressant Efficacy in Adulthood.
ABSTRACT: A dramatic increase in the prevalence of major depression and diet-related disorders in adolescents has been observed over several decades, yet the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity have only recently begun to be elucidated. Exposure to western-style diet (WSD), high in both fats (45% kcal) and carbohydrates (35% kcal): e.g., high fat diet (HFD), has been linked to the development of metabolic syndrome-like symptoms and behavioral dysregulation in rodents, as similarly observed in the human condition. Because adolescence is a developmental period highlighted by vulnerability to both stress and poor diet, understanding the mechanism(s) underlying the combined negative effects of WSDs and stress on mood and reward regulation is critical. To this end, adolescent male C57 mice were exposed to vicarious social defeat stress (VSDS), a stress paradigm capable of separating physical (PS) versus psychological/emotional (ES) stress, followed by normal chow (NC), HFD, or a separate control diet high in carbohydrates (same sucrose content as HFD) and low in fat (LFD), while measuring body weight and food intake. Non-stressed control mice exposed to 5 weeks of NC or HFD showed no significant differences in body weight or social interaction. Mice exposed to VSDS (both ES and PS) gain weight rapidly 1 week after initiation of HFD, with the ES-exposed mice showing significantly higher weight gain as compared to the HFD-exposed control mice. These mice also exhibited a reduction in saccharin preference, indicative of anhedonic-like behavior. To further delineate whether high fat was the major contributing factor to these deficits, LFD was introduced. The mice in the VSDS + HFD gained weight more rapidly than the VSDS + LFD group, and though the LFD-exposed mice did not gain weight as rapidly as the HFD-exposed mice, both the VSDS + LFD- and VSDS + HFD-exposed mice exhibited attenuated response to the antidepressant fluoxetine. These data show that diets high in both fats and carbohydrates are responsible for rapid weight gain and reduced reward sensitivity; and that while consumption of diet high in carbohydrate and low in fat does not lead to rapid weight gain, both HFD and LFD exposure after stress leads to reduced responsiveness to antidepressant treatment.
Project description:Both obesity and arsenic exposure are global public health problems that are associated with increased risk of renal disease. The effect of whole-life exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic within dietary high fat diet on renal pathogenesis were examined. In this study, C57BL/6?J mice were parentally exposed to 100?ppb arsenic before conception. After weaning, both male and female offspring were maintained on 100?ppb arsenic and fed either a normal (LFD) or high fat diet (HFD). At 10 and 24 weeks of age, the offspring were sacrificed and kidneys collected. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase body-weight in LFD diet-fed female but not male mice. This response was not observed in HFD-fed female mice; however male mice showed significant increases in body weight in both As- and non-treated animals. Histological analysis shows that arsenic exposure significantly increases HFD-induced glomerular area expansion, mesangial matrix accumulation and fibrosis compared to LFD control animals. HFD alone increases renal inflammation and fibrosis; reflected by increases in IL-1?, ICAM-1 and fibronectin levels. Arsenic exposure significantly increases HFD-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. In general, male mice have more severe responses than female mice to HFD or arsenic treatment. These results demonstrate that arsenic exposure causes sex-dependent alterations in HFD-induced kidney damage.
Project description:Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared to control treatment, both LFD and HPMC reduced weight gain (11.8 and 5.7 g, respectively), plasma cholesterol (23.1 and 19.6%), and liver triglycerides (73.1 and 44.6%), and, as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA gene, decreased microbial ?-diversity and differentially altered intestinal microbiota. Both LFD and HPMC increased intestinal Erysipelotrichaceae (7.3- and 12.4-fold) and decreased Lachnospiraceae (2.0- and 2.7-fold), while only HPMC increased Peptostreptococcaceae (3.4-fold) and decreased Ruminococcaceae (2.7-fold). Specific microorganisms were directly linked with weight change and metabolic parameters in HPMC and HFD mice, but not in LFD mice, indicating that the intestinal microbiota may play differing roles during the two dietary modulations. This work indicates that HPMC is a potential prebiotic fiber that influences intestinal microbiota and improves host metabolism.
Project description:<h4>Scope</h4>Diet-induced obesity is associated with changes in the gut microbiota and low-grade inflammation. Oligofructose was reported to ameliorate high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice by restoring the number of intestinal bifidobacteria. However, this has not been experimentally demonstrated.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We fed conventional mice, germfree mice, mice associated with a simplified human gut microbiota composed of eight bacterial species including Bifidobacterium longum (SIHUMI), and mice associated with SIHUMI without B. longum a low fat diet (LFD), a high fat diet (HFD), or a HFD containing 10% oligofructose (HFD + OFS) for five weeks. We assessed body composition, bacterial cell numbers and metabolites, markers of inflammation, and gut permeability. Conventional mice fed HFD or HFD + OFS did not differ in body weight gain and glucose tolerance. The gnotobiotic mouse groups fed LFD or HFD + OFS gained less body weight and body fat, and displayed an improved glucose tolerance compared with mice fed HFD. These differences were not affected by the presence of B. longum. Mice fed HFD showed no signs of inflammation or increased intestinal permeability.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The ability of oligofructose to reduce obesity and to improve glucose tolerance in gnotobiotic mice fed HFD was independent of the presence of B. longum.
Project description:The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD). Treatment of mice with the acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) inhibitor amitriptyline significantly attenuated the HFD-induced plasma ceramide levels. Corresponding to increase in plasma ceramide, the HFD significantly increased the body weight gain, plasma leptin concentration, urinary total protein and albumin excretion, glomerular damage index, and adipose tissue ASMase activity compared with the LFD-fed mice. These HFD-induced changes were also significantly attenuated by treatment of mice with amitriptyline. In addition, the decline of plasma glucose concentration after an intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.15 U/kg b.wt.) was more sustained in mice on the HFD with amitriptyline than on the HFD alone. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose (3 g/kg b.wt.) resulted in a slow increase followed by a rapid decrease in the plasma glucose concentration in LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice, but such blood glucose response was not observed in HFD-fed mice. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated a decrease in the podocin and an increase in the desmin in the glomeruli of HFD-fed mice compared with the LFD and HFD plus amitriptyline-treated mice. In conclusion, our results reveal a pivotal role for ceramide biosynthesis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and associated kidney damage.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmental contaminant associated with adverse metabolic outcomes in developmentally exposed human populations and mouse models. Hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA, commonly called GenX) has replaced PFOA in many industrial applications in the U.S. and Europe and has been measured in global water systems from <1 to 9350 ng/L HFPO-DA. Health effects data for GenX are lacking.<h4>Objective</h4>Determine the effects of gestational exposure to GenX on offspring weight gain trajectory, adult metabolic health, liver pathology and key adipose gene pathways in male and female CD-1 mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Daily oral doses of GenX (0.2, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg), PFOA (0.1, 1.0 mg/kg), or vehicle control were administered to pregnant mice (gestation days 1.5-17.5). Offspring were fed a high- or low-fat diet (HFD or LFD) at weaning until necropsy at 6 or 18 weeks, and metabolic endpoints were measured over time. PFOA and GenX serum and urine concentrations, weight gain, serum lipid parameters, body mass composition, glucose tolerance, white adipose tissue gene expression, and liver histopathology were evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>Prenatal exposure to GenX led to its accumulation in the serum and urine of 5-day old pups (P = 0.007, P < 0.001), which was undetectable by weaning. By 18 weeks of age, male mice fed LFD in the 2.0 mg/kg GenX group displayed increased weight gain (P < 0.05), fat mass (P = 0.016), hepatocellular microvesicular fatty change (P = 0.015), and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.014) in comparison to control males fed LFD. Female mice fed HFD had a significant increase in hepatocyte single cell necrosis in 1.0 mg/kg GenX group (P = 0.022) and 1.0 mg/kg PFOA group (P = 0.003) compared to control HFD females. Both sexes were affected by gestational GenX exposure; however, the observed phenotype varied between sex with males displaying more characteristics of metabolic disease and females exhibiting liver damage in response to the gestational exposure.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Prenatal exposure to 1 mg/kg GenX and 1 mg/kg PFOA induces adverse metabolic outcomes in adult mice that are diet- and sex-dependent. GenX also accumulated in pup serum, suggesting that placental and potentially lactational transfer are important exposure routes for GenX.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clinical studies suggest that short-term insulin treatment in new-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can promote prolonged glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model to examine such a "legacy" effect of early insulin therapy (EIT) in long-term glycemic control in new-onset T2DM. The objective of the study was to investigate the role of diet following onset of diabetes in the favorable outcomes of EIT.<h4>Methodology</h4>As such, C57BL6/J male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 21 weeks to induce diabetes and then received 4 weeks of daily insulin glargine or sham subcutaneous injections. Subsequently, mice were either kept on the HFD or switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 additional weeks.<h4>Principal findings</h4>Mice fed a HFD gained significant fat mass and displayed increased leptin levels, increasing insulin resistance (poor HOMA-IR) and worse glucose tolerance test (GTT) performance in comparison to mice fed a LFD, as expected. Insulin-treated diabetic mice but maintained on the HFD demonstrated even greater weight gain and insulin resistance compared to sham-treated mice. However, insulin-treated mice switched to the LFD exhibited a better HOMA-IR compared to those mice left on a HFD. Further, between the insulin-treated and sham control mice, in spite of similar HOMA-IR values, the insulin-treated mice switched to a LFD following insulin therapy did demonstrate significantly better HOMA-B% values than sham control and insulin-treated HFD mice.<h4>Conclusion/interpretation</h4>Early insulin treatment in HFD-induced T2DM in C57BL6/J mice was only beneficial in animals that were switched to a LFD after insulin treatment which may explain why a similar legacy effect in humans is achieved clinically in only a portion of cases studied, emphasizing a vital role for diet adherence in diabetes control.
Project description:Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (?13%) and IMF-LFD (?18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (?40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (?12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (?50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (?22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (?55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (?19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (?65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.
Project description:Studies suggest that time-restricted feeding (TRF) may prevent obesity and its commodities. At present, little is known about how TRF impacts immune cells, and whether such an effect is linked to altered metabolic parameters under condition of a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. To address these issues, we conducted a study in which we determined whether TRF has therapeutic efficacy against weight gain, adiposity, as well as associated immune cell disturbance found in obese mice. Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD ad libitum for six weeks, after which time a subgroup of HFD mice was switched to the 10 h TRF paradigm (HFD-TRF) for additional eight weeks. We found that TRF intervention reduced HFD-induced weight gain. Even with comparable fat mass and mean adipocyte area, the HFD-TRF group had lower mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokine <i>Tnfα</i> and chemokine <i>Ccl8</i>, along with reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM), CD11c<sup>+</sup> ATM, and CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell compared to the HFD group, while maintaining CD8<sup>+</sup> to CD4<sup>+</sup> ratio at levels similar to those in the LFD group. Furthermore, TRF intervention was effective in improving glucose tolerance and reducing HOMA-IR. Taken together, our findings suggest that TRF restores the obesity-induced alteration in immune cell composition, and this effect may in part contribute to health benefits (including insulin sensitivity) of practicing TRF.
Project description:Increased animal fat consumption is associated with increased premenopausal breast cancer risk in normal weight, but not overweight, women. This agrees with our previous findings in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice, in which exposure to a high saturated animal fat diet (HFD) from peripuberty through adulthood promoted mammary tumorigenesis. Epidemiologic and animal studies support the importance of puberty as a life stage when diet and environmental exposures affect adult breast cancer risk. In this study, we identified the effects of peripubertal exposure to HFD and investigated its mechanism of enhancing tumorigenesis.Three-week-old BALB/c mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD were subjected to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis. At 9 weeks of age, half the mice on LFD were switched to HFD (LFD-HFD group) and half the mice on HFD were switched to LFD (HFD-LFD group). Tumor gene expression was evaluated in association with diet and tumor latency.The peripubertal HFD reduced the latency of DMBA-induced mammary tumors and was associated with tumor characteristics similar to those in mice fed a continuous HFD. Notably, short-latency tumors in both groups shared gene expression characteristics and were more likely to have adenosquamous histology. Both HFD-LFD and continuous HFD tumors showed similar gene expression patterns and early latency. Adult switch from HFD to LFD did not reverse peripubertal HFD tumor promotion. Increased proliferation, hyperplasia, and macrophages were present in mammary glands before tumor development, implicating these as possible effectors of tumor promotion. Despite a significant interaction between pubertal diet and carcinogens in tumor promotion, peripubertal HFD by itself produced persistent macrophage recruitment to mammary glands.In obesity-resistant mice, peripubertal HFD is sufficient to irreversibly promote carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Increased macrophage recruitment is likely a contributing factor. These results underscore the importance of early life exposures to increased adult cancer risk and are consistent with findings that an HFD in normal weight premenopausal women leads to increased breast cancer risk. Notably, short-latency tumors occurring after peripubertal HFD had characteristics similar to human basal-like breast cancers that predominantly develop in younger women.
Project description:<b>Purpose: </b>High calorie intake leads to obesity, a global socio-economic and health problem, reaching epidemic proportion in children and adolescents. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids from animal (lard) fat are major components of the western-pattern diet and its regular consumption leads to obesity, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, no clear evidence exists whether consumption of diet rich in saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated (MUFAs) fatty acids has detrimental effects on cardiac structure and energetics primarily due to excessive calories. We, therefore, sought to determine the impact of high calories versus fat content in diet on cardiac structure and mitochondrial energetics.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high calorie, high lard fat-based diet (60% fat, HFD), high-calorie and low lard fat-based diet (10% fat, LFD), and lower-calorie and fat diet (standard chow, 12% fat, SCD) for 10 weeks.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The HFD- and LFD-fed mice had higher body weight, ventricular mass and thickness of posterior and septal wall with increased cardiomyocytes diameter compared to the SCD-fed mice. These changes were associated with a reduction in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes I and III activity compared to the SCD-fed mice without significant differences between the HFD- and LFD-fed animals. The HFD-fed animals had higher level of malondialdehyde (MDA) than LFD and SCD-fed mice.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>We assume that changes in cardiac morphology and selective reduction of the OXPHOS complexes activity observed in the HFD- and LFD-fed mice might be related to excessive calories with additional effect of fat content on oxidative stress.