Sperm selection of cryopreserved milt of catfish (Rhamdia quelen) by density gradient centrifugation with AllGrad® 90.
ABSTRACT: Density gradient centrifugation is a technique used to wash or separate samples of cryopreserved milt, mainly in humans and bovines allowing, for example, reducing the concentration of cryoprotectants or choosing the best portion of sperm. The proposed method seeks to reduce the presence of cryoprotectant in the cryopreserved milt of the Rhamdia qhelen and to obtain a fraction of better quality sperm. Gradient centrifugation was formed from 90% AllGrad® and different centrifugation times and forces were compared. The separated sperm presented a low increase in motility and decreased head damage and presence of gout, however, it was better compared to the non-separated samples. The speed of 1000 × g for 10 min, 4 °C, allowed 22.25 ± 4.64% of normal spermatozoa, that is, 9.25% more than the non-centrifuged milt (p = 0.0013).•The centrifugation method allows a fraction of spermatozoa morphologically less affected by cryopreservation.•Density gradient centrifugation with AllGrad® 90% is proposed as a tool of easy adaptation and application for the separation of cryopreserved sperm of R. quelen.•Density gradient centrifugation method at 1000 × g for 10 min allows obtaining a better fraction of normal sperm.
Project description:This study has established a successful protocol to cryopreserve lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt. Three cryosolutions were tested based on Mounib's medium; the original medium including reduced l-glutathione (GSH), the basic sucrose and potassium bicarbonate medium without GSH, or with hen's egg yolk (EY). Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was used as the cryoprotectant along with all three diluents in a 1-2 dilution. Cryopreservation was performed with the mentioned cryosolutions at two freezing rates. Motility percentages of spermatozoa were evaluated using ImageJ with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) plug-in. Findings revealed that spermatozoa cryopreserved in Mounib's medium without GSH had a post-thaw motility score of 6.4 percentage points (pp) higher than those in the original Mounib's medium, and an addition of EY to the modified Mounib's medium lowered the post-thaw motility score by 19.3 pp. The difference in motility between both freezing rates was 13.0 pp, and samples cryopreserved on a 4.8 cm high tray resulted in a better post-thaw motility score. On average, cryopreserved milt had a 24.1 pp lower post-thaw motility score than fresh milt. There was no significant difference in fertilisation success between cryopreserved and fresh milt. Cryopreservation of lumpfish milt has, to our knowledge, never been successfully carried out before. The established protocol will be a main contributing factor in a stable production of lumpfish juveniles in future.
Project description:In many fish species, sperm cryopreservation has deleterious effects and leads to a significant decrease in spermatozoa viability. However, the effect of cryopreservation on sperm cells that survive this process and are still viable is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to compare the viability and proteomes of fresh and cryopreserved sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) sperm samples before and after live-dead cell separation using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Both fresh and cryopreserved sperm samples were divided into two groups (with or without application of Percoll separation). At each step of the experiment, sperm quality was evaluated by video microscopy combined with integrated computer-assisted sperm analysis software and flow cytometry for live-dead sperm viability analysis. Sperm motility and the percentage of live cells were reduced in the cryopreserved group compared to the fresh group from 89% to 33% for percentage of motility and from 96% to 70% for live cells. Straight line velocity and linearity of track were significantly lower in cryopreserved samples than in those separated by Percoll before and after cryopreservation. However, the percentages of motile and live spermatozoa were higher than 90% in samples subjected to Percoll separation. Proteomic analysis of spermatozoa by two-dimensional differences in-gel electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that 20 protein spot abundances underwent significant changes in cryopreserved samples compared to fresh ones. However, only one protein spot was significantly altered when samples before and after cryopreservation followed by Percoll separation were compared. Thus, the results of this study show that cryopreservation leads to minimal proteomic changes in the spermatozoa population, retaining high motility and viability parameters. The results also suggest that global differences in protein profiles between unselected fresh and cryopreserved samples are mainly due to protein loss or changes in the lethal and sublethal damaged cell subpopulations.
Project description:Cryopreservation by negatively affecting sperm quality decreases the efficiency of assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). Thus, we first evaluated sperm motility at different conditions for the manipulation of equine cryopreserved spermatozoa. Higher motility was observed when spermatozoa were incubated for 30 min at 30 × 10<sup>6</sup>/mL compared to lower concentrations (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and when a short centrifugation at 200× <i>g</i> was performed (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Moreover, because sperm suitable for oocyte fertilization is released from oviduct epithelial cells (OECs), in response to the capacitation process, we established an in vitro OEC culture model to select a sperm population with potential fertilizing capacity in this species. We demonstrated E-cadherin and cytokeratin expression in cultures of OECs obtained. When sperm-OEC cocultures were performed, the attached spermatozoa were motile and presented an intact acrosome, suggesting a selection by the oviductal model. When co-cultures were incubated in capacitating conditions a greater number of alive (<i>p</i> < 0.05), capacitated (<i>p</i> < 0.05), with progressive motility (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and with the intact acrosome sperm population was observed (<i>p</i> < 0.05) suggesting that the sperm population released from OECs in vitro presents potential fertilizing capacity. Improvements in handling and selection of cryopreserved sperm would improve efficiencies in ARTs allowing the use of a population of higher-quality sperm.
Project description:This pilot study was conducted to explore the benefits of using a centrifugation-free device based on the migration-sedimentation (MS) technique over centrifugation-based techniques in selecting competent spermatozoa, as compared with using split human semen samples. Ejaculates from 35 men undergoing semen analysis were split into four parts where one part was retained as the neat (NE) and the other three parts were subjected to sperm selection by using migration-sedimentation (MS), density gradient (DG) separation, and swim-up (SU) techniques. Sperm functional characteristics along with mitochondrial integrity, tyrosine phosphorylation, acrosome reaction, and ultrastructure were measured. The ability of selection techniques in reducing spontaneous and radiation-induced sperm DNA lesions was assessed by the TUNEL assay. In results, MS-selected spermatozoa had higher viability (P?<?0.001), longevity in terms of total motility at the end of 6 and 18 h post-extraction (P?<?0.001), and mitochondrial integrity (P?<?0.001) compared with those selected by DG. Furthermore, spontaneous DNA lesions were significantly reduced in MS and SU fractions compared with NE (P?<?0.001). Similarly, radiation-induced sperm DNA lesions were significantly lower in MS and SU fractions (P?<?0.001) compared with DG. Ultrastructural analysis using scanning electron microscopy suggested a moderate, non-significant increase in the number of spermatozoa with normal head and mid-piece in MS fraction compared with other methods. In conclusion, the MS-based device offers a centrifugation-free, efficient, and reliable sperm selection method, making it suitable for partially equipped intra-uterine insemination (IUI) laboratories or office IUI programmes. Further research should focus on the safety and clinical usefulness of the device in assisted conception programmes in general and IUI in specific.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Andrology research has evolved notoriously in the latest years, particularly since male factor contribution to couple infertility has been undoubtedly demonstrated. However, sperm function investigations results are sometimes contradictory, probably as a result of the use of different sperm processing techniques. In this work, we underwent a systematic functional comparison of human sperm samples simultaneously processed by swim-up and density gradient centrifugation, which are the preferred sperm processing methods used in basic and clinical laboratories.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>To compare functional characteristics of sperm isolated by swim-up and density gradient centrifugation followed by incubation at different times under capacitating conditions.<h4>Results</h4>Semen samples processed in parallel by these two procedures resulted in sperm preparations with significant differences in redox state, spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillations, hyperactivation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and acrosome reaction responsivity to calcium ionophore. Such differences showed time-dependent specific patterns for spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillations, hyperactivation and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Sperm retrieved by density gradient centrifugation showed more hyperactivation and tyrosine phosphorylation than swim-up sperm, suggesting a higher degree of capacitation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results account for functional differences observed in spermatozoa processed with these two methods and therefore may contribute to a better interpretation of outcomes obtained in different laboratories as well as to improve experimental designs aimed to study sperm physiology and fertility potential.
Project description:The aims of this project were to characterize tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) spermatozoa motility over time, when excreted as either milt or spermic urine prior to packaging into a spermatophore, and to determine the effect of temperature on sperm motility. A split-plot design was utilized to assess the motility of the two pre-spermatophore sample types at two temperatures, 0°C and 20°C (n = 10 for each treatment). Spermiation was induced through exogenous hormone treatment of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog in order to collect both milt and spermic urine, which were evaluated for motility, divided into two separate aliquots, and subsequently stored in either an ice-bath (0°C) or on the benchtop (20°C). The decay rate of sperm motility was assessed by reevaluating subsamples at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 24 hours following the initial assessment. Results showed that sperm stored at 0°C had significantly higher progressive, non-progressive, and total motility for both sperm collection types over time. An interaction was found between collection type and time, with milt exhibiting lower initial motility that was more sustainable over time, compared to spermic urine. For both milt and spermic urine, motility decreased rapidly with storage duration, indicating samples should be used as soon as possible to maximize motility for in-vitro fertilization and cryopreservation. This is the first study to describe the differences in sperm motility between milt and spermic urine from an internally fertilizing caudate and demonstrates the benefits of near freezing temperatures on sperm longevity.
Project description:In recent years, microfluidic chip-based sperm sorting has emerged as an alternative tool to centrifugation-based conventional techniques for in vitro fertilization. This prospective study aims to compare the effects of density gradient centrifugation and microfluidic chip sperm preparation methods on embryo development in patient populations with astheno-teratozoospermia. In the study, the semen samples of the patients were divided into two groups for preparation with either the microfluidic or density gradient methods. Selected spermatozoa were then used to fertilize mature sibling oocytes and the semen parameters and embryo development on days 3 and 5 were assessed. While the density gradient group was associated with a higher sperm concentration, motility (progressive and total) was significantly higher in the microfluidic chip group. No significant differences were observed in the fertilization rates or grade 1 (G1) and grade 2 (G2) proportions of the third-day embryos. Furthermore, while the proportions of the poor, fair and good blastocysts on day 5 did not differ significantly, excellent blastocysts (indicating high-quality embryos) were observed in a significantly higher proportion of the microfluidic chip group. When compared to the classical density gradient method, the microfluidic chip sperm preparation yielded sperm with higher motility and higher quality blastocysts at day 5; in patients with astheno-teratozoospermia.
Project description:Dysfunctional sperm maturation is the primary reason for the poor sperm motility and morphology in infertile men. Spermatozoa from infertile men were fractioned on three-layer density gradient (80%, 60%, and 40%). Fraction 1 (F1) refers to the least mature stage having the lowest density, whereas the fraction 4 (F4) includes the most dense and morphologically mature motile spermatozoa. Fraction 2 (F2) and fraction 3 (F3) represent the intermediate stages. Proteins were extracted and separated by 1-dimensional gel. Bands were digested with trypsin and analyzed on a LTQ-Orbitrap Elite hybrid mass spectrometer system. Functional annotations of proteins were obtained using bioinformatics tools and pathway databases. A total of 1585 proteins were detected in the four fractions of spermatozoa. A dysregulated protein turnover and protein folding may lead to accumulation of defective proteins or proteins that otherwise would have been eliminated during the process of maturation, resulting in the impairment of sperm function. Aberrant chaperone expression may be a major contributing factor to the defective sperm function. Androgen receptor was predicted as a transcription regulator in one of the networks and the affected pathways were chaperone-mediated stress response, proteosomal pathway, and sperm function. The downregulation of key pathways and proteins which compromises the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa may provide insight into the mechanisms that lead to male infertility.
Project description:Conventional sperm selection techniques used in ARTs rely on centrifugation steps. To date, the different studies reported on the effects of centrifugation on stallion sperm motility provided contrasting results and do not include effects on mitochondrial functionality and different oxidative parameters. The effects of different centrifugation protocols (300 ×g for 5', 300 ×g for 10', 1500 ×g for 5' and 1500 ×g for 10' vs no centrifugation) on motility and oxidative status in cryopreserved stallion sperm, were analyzed. After centrifugation, almost all motility parameters were significantly altered, as observed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. A polarographic assay of oxygen consumption showed a progressive decrease in mitochondria respiration from the gentlest to the strongest protocol. By laser scanning confocal microscopy, significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, at any tested protocol, and time-dependent effects, at the same centrifugal force, were found. Increased DNA fragmentation index at any tested protocol and time-dependent effects at the same centrifugal force were found, whereas increased protein carbonylation was observed only at the strongest centrifugal force. These results provide more comprehensive understandings on centrifugation-induced effects on cryopreserved stallion sperm and suggest that, even at a weak force for a short time, centrifugation impairs different aspects of equine sperm metabolism and functionality.
Project description:In the present work the nonapeptides i.e., isotocin and vasotocin alone or in a combination were tested in C. magur to evaluate their effect on stripping by abdominal massage. Also, we used chitosan-carbon nanotube nanocomposites to conjugate the nonapetides isotocin (abbreviated as COOH-SWCNTCSPeP) and isotocin and vasotocin (COOH-SWCNTCSPePs) with the aim of sustaining the effect for a longer duration. The conjugation of nonapeptides with nanocomposites was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of naked (without nanoparticles) and conjugated nonapeptides on the milt release by stripping. Both the experiments consisted of eight treatments which included four naked groups two nanoconjugated groups and two controls. Both naked and nonconjugated formulations were successful in stripping the male catfish. The mRNA expression of selected reproductive genes was analysed to decipher the effect of nanopeptides at the molecular level. Nonapeptide treatment either naked or nanoconjugated, resulted in the upregulation of the transcript level of genes. Histological analysis revealed the concentration of spermatozoa was more in peptide injected groups than in the controls. The synergistic effects of nonapeptides and Ovatide had a positive impact on GSI. Thus, the present formulations were successful in stripping the male catfish to obtain the milt with significant reproductive success. Even though the naked groups perform better but the number of males required to fertilize the eggs in nanoconjuagted groups was smaller making it worth using for the delivery of nonapeptides.