Identification of Six Autophagy-Related-lncRNA Prognostic Biomarkers in Uveal Melanoma.
ABSTRACT: Currently, no autophagy-related long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been reported to predict the prognosis of uveal melanoma patients. Our study screened for autophagy-related lncRNAs in 80 samples downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database through lncRNA-mRNA coexpression. We used univariate Cox to further filter the lncRNAs. Multivariate Cox regression and LASSO regression were applied to construct an autophagy-associated lncRNA predictive model and calculate the risk score. Clinical risk factors were validated using Cox regression to determine whether they were independent prognostic indicators. Functional enrichment was performed using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The model was built with six predictive autophagy-associated lncRNAs and clustered uveal melanoma patients into high- and low-risk groups. The risk score of our model was a significant independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 1.0; p < 0.001). Moreover, these six lncRNAs were significantly concentrated in the biological pathways of cytoplasmic component recycling, energy metabolism, and apoptosis. Thus, the six autophagy-associated lncRNAs are potential molecular biomarkers and treatment targets for uveal melanoma patients.
Project description:This study aimed to develop an autophagy-associated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) signature to predict the prognostic outcomes of uveal melanoma (UM). The data of UM from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were enrolled to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between metastasizing and non-metastasizing UM patients. A total of 13 differentially expressed autophagy genes were identified and validated in Gene Expression Omnibus, and 11 autophagy-related lncRNAs were found to be associated with overall survival. Through performing least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analyses, a six-autophagy-related lncRNA signature was built, and its efficacy was confirmed by receiver-operating characteristic, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. A comprehensive nomogram was established and its clinical net benefit was validated by decision curve analysis. GSEA revealed that several biological processes and signaling pathways including Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and B- and T-cell receptor signaling pathway were enriched in the high-risk group. CIBERSORT results showed that the signature was related to the immune response especially HLA expression. This signature could be deployed to assist clinicians to identify high-risk UM patients and help scientists to explore the molecular mechanism of autophagy-related lncRNAs in UM pathogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Autophagy and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been the focus of research on the pathogenesis of melanoma. However, the autophagy network of lncRNAs in melanoma has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lncRNA prognostic markers related to melanoma autophagy and predict the prognosis of patients with melanoma.<h4>Methods</h4>We downloaded RNA sequencing data and clinical information of melanoma from the Cancer Genome Atlas. The coexpression of autophagy-related genes (ARGs) and lncRNAs was analyzed. The risk model of autophagy-related lncRNAs was established by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, and the best prognostic index was evaluated combined with clinical data. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis was performed on patients in the high- and low-risk groups.<h4>Results</h4>According to the results of the univariate Cox analysis, only the overexpression of LINC00520 was associated with poor overall survival, unlike HLA-DQB1-AS1, USP30-AS1, AL645929, AL365361, LINC00324, and AC055822. The results of the multivariate Cox analysis showed that the overall survival of patients in the high-risk group was shorter than that recorded in the low-risk group (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Moreover, in the receiver operating characteristic curve of the risk model we constructed, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.734, while the AUC of T and N was 0.707 and 0.658, respectively. The Gene Ontology was mainly enriched with the positive regulation of autophagy and the activation of the immune system. The results of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment were mostly related to autophagy, immunity, and melanin metabolism.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The positive regulation of autophagy may slow the transition from low-risk patients to high-risk patients in melanoma. Furthermore, compared with clinical information, the autophagy-related lncRNA risk model may better predict the prognosis of patients with melanoma and provide new treatment ideas.
Project description:Recent advancements in cancer biology have identified a large number of lncRNAs that are dysregulated expression in the development and tumorigenesis of cancers, highlighting the importance of lncRNAs as a key player for human cancers. However, the prognostic value of lncRNAs still remains unclear and needs to be further investigated. In the present study, we aim to assess the prognostic value of lncRNAs in cutaneous melanoma by integrated lncRNA expression profiles from TCGA database and matched clinical information from a large cohort of patients with cutaneous melanoma. We finally identified a set of six lncRNAs that are significantly associated with survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma. A linear combination of six lncRNAs (LINC01260, HCP5, PIGBOS1, RP11-247L20.4, CTA-292E10.6 and CTB-113P19.5) was constructed as a six-lncRNA signature which classified patients of training cohort into the high-risk group and low-risk group with significantly different survival time. The prognostic value of the six-lncRNA signature was validated in both the validation cohort and entire TCGA cohort. Moreover, the six-lncRNA signature is independent of known clinic-pathological factors by multivariate Cox regression analysis and demonstrated good performance for predicting three- and five-year overall survival by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Our study provides novel insights into the molecular heterogeneity of cutaneous melanoma and also shows potentially important implications of lncRNAs for prognosis and therapy for cutaneous melanoma.
Project description:There were no systematic researches about autophagy-related long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signatures to predict the survival of patients with colon adenocarcinoma. It was necessary to set up corresponding autophagy-related lncRNA signatures. The expression profiles of lncRNAs which contained 480 colon adenocarcinoma samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The coexpression network of lncRNAs and autophagy-related genes was utilized to select autophagy-related lncRNAs. The lncRNAs were further screened using univariate Cox regression. In addition, Lasso regression and multivariate Cox regression were used to develop an autophagy-related lncRNA signature. A risk score based on the signature was established, and Cox regression was used to test whether it was an independent prognostic factor. The functional enrichment of autophagy-related lncRNAs was visualized using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Ten prognostic autophagy-related lncRNAs (AC027307.2, AC068580.3, AL138756.1, CD27-AS1, EIF3J-DT, LINC01011, LINC01063, LINC02381, AC073896.3, and SNHG16) were identified to be significantly different, which made up an autophagy-related lncRNA signature. The signature divided patients with colon adenocarcinoma into the low-risk group and the high-risk group. A risk score based on the signature was a significantly independent factor for the patients with colon adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.088, 95%CI = 1.057 - 1.120; P < 0.001). Additionally, the ten lncRNAs were significantly enriched in autophagy process, metabolism, and tumor classical pathways. In conclusion, the ten autophagy-related lncRNAs and their signature might be molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the patients with colon adenocarcinoma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death from cervical cancer (CC), thus it is important to identify more effective biomarkers to improve its prognosis. The purpose of our research was to determine the potential role of autophagy-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in CC and to construct an autophagy-related lncRNA signature for survival of CC.<h4>Methods</h4>The lncRNAs in CC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and autophagy-related lncRNAs were identified through the co-expression of lncRNA genes and autophagy genes. Several autophagy-related lncRNAs with prognostic value (AC012306.2, AL109976.1, ATP2A1-AS1, ILF3-DT, Z83851.2, STARD7-AS1, AC099343.2, AC008771.1, DBH-AS1, and AC097468.3) were identified using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses and a prognostic signature was established. The signature effect was detected by univariate Cox regression analysis [hazard ratio (HR) =1.665; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.331-2.082; P<0.001] and multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR =1.738; 95% CI: 1.359-2.223; P<0.001). A nomogram was drawn by risk score and clinical features.<h4>Results</h4>The prognostic signature could predict the survival of CC by survival-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve [area under the curve (AUC) =0.810]. A nomogram was drawn by risk score and clinical features, and its c-index and calibration curve demonstrated that the prognostic signature could independently predict the prognosis of CC (P<0.001). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) confirmed that the genes were significantly enriched in cancer- and autophagy-related pathways (P<0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This 10 autophagy-related lncRNA signature has prognostic potential for CC. More important roles in the CC biology of these lncRNAs may be identified with further study.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly malignant tumor in the digestive system. Both long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and autophagy play vital roles in the development and progress of PC. Here, we constructed a prognostic risk score system based on the expression profile of autophagy-associated lncRNAs for prognostic prediction in PC patients. Firstly, we extracted the expression profile of lncRNA and clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) databases. The autophagy-associated genes were from The Human Autophagy Database. Through Cox regression and survival analysis, we screened out seven autophagy-associated lncRNAs and built the risk score system in which the patients with PC were distinguished into high- and low-risk groups in both training and validation datasets. PCA plot displayed distinct discrimination, and risk score system displayed independently predictive value for PC patient survival time by multivariate Cox regression. Then, we built a lncRNA and mRNA co-expression network <i>via</i> Cytoscape and Sankey diagram. Finally, we analyzed the function of lncRNAs in high- and low-risk groups by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The results showed that autophagy and metabolism might make significant effects on PC patients of low-risk groups. Taken together, our study provides a new insight to understand the role of autophagy-associated lncRNAs and finds novel therapeutic and prognostic targets in PC.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a commonly occurring tumour with poor prognosis. Autophagy-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have received much attention as biomarkers for cancer prognosis and diagnosis. However, few studies have focused on their prognostic predictive value specifically in CRC. This research aimed to construct a robust autophagy-related lncRNA prognostic signature for CRC. Autophagy-related lncRNAs from The Cancer Genome Atlas database were screened using univariate Cox, LASSO, and multivariate Cox regression analyses, and the resulting key lncRNAs were used to establish a prognostic risk score model. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression of several lncRNAs in cancer tissues from CRC patients and in normal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues. A prognostic signature comprising lncRNAs AC125603.2, LINC00909, AC016876.1, MIR210HG, AC009237.14, and LINC01063 was identified in patients with CRC. A graphical nomogram based on the autophagy-related lncRNA signature was developed to predict CRC patients' 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival. Overall survival in patients with low risk scores was significantly better than in those with high risk scores (P < 0.0001); a similar result was obtained in an internal validation sample. The nomogram was shown to be suitable for clinical use and gave correct predictions. The 1- and 3-year values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.797 and 0.771 in the model sample, and 0.656 and 0.642 in the internal validation sample, respectively. The C-index values for the verification samples and training samples were 0.756 (95% CI = 0.668-0.762) and 0.715 (95% CI = 0.683-0.829), respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the six autophagy-related lncRNAs were greatly enriched in CRC-related signalling pathways, including p53 and VEGF signalling. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of lncRNAs in CRC was higher than that in adjacent tissues, consistent with the expression trends of lncRNAs in the CRC data set. In summary, we established a signature of six autophagy-related lncRNAs that could effectively guide clinical prediction of prognosis in patients with CRC. This lncRNA signature has significant clinical implications for improving the prediction of outcomes and, with further prospective validation, could be used to guide tailored therapy for CRC patients.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> Our study aimed to construct a robust long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) prognostic signature for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. <b>Methods:</b> Differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified between metastatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas Database (TCGA) using the edgeR package. The differentially expressed lncRNAs with prognosis of patients with CRC metastasis were identified by univariate Cox regression analysis, followed by a stepwise multivariate Cox regression model. The survminer package in R was used to identify the optimal cutoff point for high-risk and low-risk groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to assess this signature. To explore potential signaling pathways associated with these lncRNAs, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed. <b>Results:</b> A 6-lncRNA signature was built based on the lncRNA expression profile for CRC metastasis. The optimal cutoff value was used to classify high-risk and low-risk groups using the survminer package. The high-risk groups could have poorer survival time than the low-risk groups. ROC curve result indicated that this lncRNA signature had high sensitivity and accuracy. GSEA analysis results showed that the six lncRNAs were significantly enriched in several CRC metastasis-related signaling pathways such as "cell cycle," "DNA replication," "mismatch repair," "oxidative phosphorylation," "regulation of autophagy," and "insulin signaling pathway." <b>Conclusion:</b> Our study constructed a 6-lncRNA model for predicting the survival outcomes of patients with CRC metastasis, which could become potential prognostic biomarkers, and therapeutic targets for CRC metastasis.
Project description:Autophagy-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) disorders are related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to explore whether autophagy-related lncRNA can predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients. The autophagy-related lncRNAs prognostic signature was constructed by Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) Cox regression. We identified five autophagy-related lncRNAs (MAPT-AS1, LINC01871, AL122010.1, AC090912.1, AC061992.1) associated with prognostic value, and they were used to construct an autophagy-related lncRNA prognostic signature (ALPS) model. ALPS model offered an independent prognostic value (HR = 1.664, 1.381-2.006), where this risk score of the model was significantly related to the TNM stage, ER, PR and HER2 status in breast cancer patients. Nomogram could be utilized to predict survival for patients with breast cancer. Principal component analysis and Sankey Diagram results indicated that the distribution of five lncRNAs from the ALPS model tends to be low-risk. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the high-risk group was enriched in autophagy and cancer-related pathways, and the low-risk group was enriched in regulatory immune-related pathways. These results indicated that the ALPS model composed of five autophagy-related lncRNAs could predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The incidence of skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) has risen more rapidly than any other solid tumor in the past few decades. The median survival for metastatic melanoma is only six to nine months and the 5°years survival rate of patients with conventional therapy is less than 5%. Our aim was to reveal the potential molecular mechanism in m6A modification of lncRNA and provide candidate prognostic biomarkers for metastatic SKCM. <b>Methods:</b> lncRNAs expression level was obtained by re-annotation in TCGA and CCLE datasets. m6A-related lncRNAs were selected though correlation analysis. Univariate cox regression analysis was used to screen out independent prognostic factors. LASSO Cox regression was performed to construct an m6A-related lncRNA model (m6A-LncM). Univariate survival analysis and ROC curve were used to assess the prognostic efficacy of this model and candidate lncRNAs. Enrichment analysis was used to explore the candidate genes' functions. <b>Results:</b> We obtained 1,086 common m6A-related lncRNAs after Pearson correlation analysis in both two datasets. 130 out of the 1,086 lncRNAs are independent prognostic factors. 24 crucial lncRNAs were filtered after LASSO Cox regression analysis. All the m6A-LncM and the 24 lncRNAs were related to overall survival. Stratified survival analysis of m6A-LncM showed that the model retains its prognostic efficacy in recurrence, radiation therapy and other subgroups. Enrichment analysis also found that these lncRNAs were immune associated. <b>Conclusion:</b> Here, we obtained 24 crucial lncRNAs that may be potential biomarkers to predict survival of metastatic SKCM and may provide a new insight to improve the prognosis of it.