Clonal fitness inferred from time-series modelling of single-cell cancer genomes.
ABSTRACT: Progress in defining genomic fitness landscapes in cancer, especially those defined by copy number alterations (CNAs), has been impeded by lack of time-series single-cell sampling of polyclonal populations and temporal statistical models1-7. Here we generated 42,000 genomes from multi-year time-series single-cell whole-genome sequencing of breast epithelium and primary triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), revealing the nature of CNA-defined clonal fitness dynamics induced by TP53 mutation and cisplatin chemotherapy. Using a new Wright-Fisher population genetics model8,9 to infer clonal fitness, we found that TP53 mutation alters the fitness landscape, reproducibly distributing fitness over a larger number of clones associated with distinct CNAs. Furthermore, in TNBC PDX models with mutated TP53, inferred fitness coefficients from CNA-based genotypes accurately forecast experimentally enforced clonal competition dynamics. Drug treatment in three long-term serially passaged TNBC PDXs resulted in cisplatin-resistant clones emerging from low-fitness phylogenetic lineages in the untreated setting. Conversely, high-fitness clones from treatment-naive controls were eradicated, signalling an inversion of the fitness landscape. Finally, upon release of drug, selection pressure dynamics were reversed, indicating a fitness cost of treatment resistance. Together, our findings define clonal fitness linked to both CNA and therapeutic resistance in polyclonal tumours.
Project description:Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have become a prominent cancer model system, as they are presumed to faithfully represent the genomic features of primary tumors. Here we monitored the dynamics of copy number alterations (CNAs) in 1,110 PDX samples across 24 cancer types. We observed rapid accumulation of CNAs during PDX passaging, often due to selection of preexisting minor clones. CNA acquisition in PDXs was correlated with the tissue-specific levels of aneuploidy and genetic heterogeneity observed in primary tumors. However, the particular CNAs acquired during PDX passaging differed from those acquired during tumor evolution in patients. Several CNAs recurrently observed in primary tumors gradually disappeared in PDXs, indicating that events undergoing positive selection in humans can become dispensable during propagation in mice. Notably, the genomic stability of PDXs was associated with their response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs. These findings have major implications for PDX-based modeling of human cancer.
Project description:Hepatic resection is potentially curative for patients with colorectal liver metastases, but the treatment benefit varies. KRAS/NRAS (RAS)/TP53 co-mutations are associated with a poor prognosis after resection, but there is large variation in patient outcome within the mutation groups, and genetic testing is currently not used to evaluate benefit from surgery. We have investigated the potential for improved prognostic stratification by combined biomarker analysis with DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs), and taking tumor heterogeneity into account. We determined the mutation status of RAS, BRAF<sup>V600</sup> , and TP53 in 441 liver lesions from 171 patients treated by partial hepatectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer. CNAs were profiled in 232 tumors from 67 of the patients. Mutations and high-level amplifications of cancer-critical genes, the latter including ERBB2 and EGFR, were predominantly homogeneous within patients. RAS/BRAF<sup>V600E</sup> and TP53 co-mutations were associated with a poor patient outcome (hazard ratio, HR, 3.9, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.3-11.1, P = 0.012) in multivariable analyses with clinicopathological variables. The genome-wide CNA burden and intrapatient intermetastatic CNA heterogeneity varied within the mutation groups, and the CNA burden had prognostic associations in univariable analysis. Combined prognostic analyses of RAS/BRAF<sup>V600E</sup> /TP53 mutations and CNAs, either as a high CNA burden or high intermetastatic CNA heterogeneity, identified patients with a particularly poor outcome (co-mutation/high CNA burden: HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-5.9, P = 0.013; co-mutation/high CNA heterogeneity: HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.6, P = 0.022). In conclusion, DNA copy number profiling identified genomic and prognostic heterogeneity among patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases with co-mutated RAS/BRAF<sup>V600E</sup> /TP53.
Project description:Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are resected human tumors engrafted into mice for preclinical studies and therapeutic testing. It has been proposed that the mouse host affects tumor evolution during PDX engraftment and propagation, affecting the accuracy of PDX modeling of human cancer. Here, we exhaustively analyze copy number alterations (CNAs) in 1,451 PDX and matched patient tumor (PT) samples from 509 PDX models. CNA inferences based on DNA sequencing and microarray data displayed substantially higher resolution and dynamic range than gene expression-based inferences, and they also showed strong CNA conservation from PTs through late-passage PDXs. CNA recurrence analysis of 130 colorectal and breast PT/PDX-early/PDX-late trios confirmed high-resolution CNA retention. We observed no significant enrichment of cancer-related genes in PDX-specific CNAs across models. Moreover, CNA differences between patient and PDX tumors were comparable to variations in multiregion samples within patients. Our study demonstrates the lack of systematic copy number evolution driven by the PDX mouse host.
Project description:Progress in defining genomic fitness landscapes in cancer by copy number alterations (CNA) has been impeded by lack of single cell and timeseries sampling. We generated 42,000 single cell whole genomes (scWGS) from breast epithelium and primary triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient-derived xenografts (PDX) collected during multi-year time series. Using a Wright-Fisher population genetics model, we inferred reproducible CNA-defined clonal fitness dynamics induced by TP53 mutation and cisplatin chemotherapy, with accurate forecasting of experimentally enforced clonal competition dynamics. Drug treatment in three long-term serially passaged TNBC PDX resulted in cisplatin resistant clones that had shown low fitness in the untreated setting. By contrast high fitness clones from treatment naive controls were eradicated reflecting an inversion of the fitness landscape. Upon drug release selective pressure dynamics were reversed indicating a fitness cost of treatment resistance. Taken together, our findings reveal clonal fitness dynamics linked to CNA and therapeutic resistance in polyclonal tumours.
Project description:Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare proliferative lesion of the breast composed of small glands lacking myoepithelial cells and lined by S100-positive, oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative epithelial cells. There is evidence to suggest that MGA may constitute a non-obligate precursor of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We sought to define the genomic landscape of pure MGA and of MGA, atypical MGA (AMGA) and associated TNBCs, and to determine whether synchronous MGA, AMGA, and TNBCs would be clonally related. Two pure MGAs and eight cases of MGA and/or AMGA associated with in situ or invasive TNBC were collected, microdissected, and subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all coding regions of 236 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer or related to DNA repair. Pure MGAs lacked clonal non-synonymous somatic mutations and displayed limited copy number alterations (CNAs); conversely, all MGAs (n = 7) and AMGAs (n = 3) associated with TNBC harboured at least one somatic non-synonymous mutation (range 3-14 and 1-10, respectively). In all cases where TNBCs were analyzed, identical TP53 mutations and similar patterns of gene CNAs were found in the MGA and/or AMGA and in the associated TNBC. In the MGA/AMGA associated with TNBC lacking TP53 mutations, somatic mutations affecting PI3K pathway-related genes (eg PTEN, PIK3CA, and INPP4B) and tyrosine kinase receptor signalling-related genes (eg ERBB3 and FGFR2) were identified. At diagnosis, MGAs associated with TNBC were found to display subclonal populations, and clonal shifts in the progression from MGA to AMGA and/or to TNBC were observed. Our results demonstrate the heterogeneity of MGAs, and that MGAs associated with TNBC, but not necessarily pure MGAs, are genetically advanced, clonal, and neoplastic lesions harbouring recurrent mutations in TP53 and/or other cancer genes, supporting the notion that a subset of MGAs and AMGAs may constitute non-obligate precursors of TNBCs.
Project description:Primary triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are prone to dissemination but sub-clonal relationships between tumors and resulting metastases are poorly understood. Here we use cellular barcoding of two treatment-naïve TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to track the spatio-temporal fate of thousands of barcoded clones in primary tumors, and their metastases. Tumor resection had a major impact on reducing clonal diversity in secondary sites, indicating that most disseminated tumor cells lacked the capacity to 'seed', hence originated from 'shedders' that did not persist. The few clones that continued to grow after resection i.e. 'seeders', did not correlate in frequency with their parental clones in primary tumors. Cisplatin treatment of one BRCA1-mutated PDX model to non-palpable levels had a surprisingly minor impact on clonal diversity in the relapsed tumor yet purged 50% of distal clones. Therefore, clonal features of shedding, seeding and drug resistance are important factors to consider for the design of therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Triple?negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for ~15% of all breast cancer diagnoses each year. Patients with TNBC tend to have a higher risk for early relapse and a worse prognosis. TNBC is characterized by extensive somatic copy number alterations (CNAs). However, the DNA CNA profile of TNBC remains to be extensively investigated. The present study assessed the genomic profile of CNAs in 201 TNBC samples, aiming to identify recurrent CNAs that may drive the pathogenesis of TNBC. In total, 123 regions of significant amplification and deletion were detected using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer algorithm, and potential driver genes for TNBC were identified. A total of 31 samples exhibited signs of chromothripsis and revealed chromosome pulverization hotspot regions. The present study further determined 199 genomic locations that were significantly enriched for breakpoints, which indicated TNBC?specific genomic instability regions. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of tumors resulted in three main subgroups that exhibited distinct CNA profiles, which may reveal the heterogeneity of molecular mechanisms in TNBC subgroups. These results will extend the molecular understanding of TNBC and will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates.
Project description:Mutations in the nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) gene are considered as a founder event in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To address the role of clonal evolution in relapsed NPM1 mutated (NPM1mut) AML, we applied high-resolution genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array profiling to detect copy number alterations (CNA) and uniparental disomies (UPD) and performed comprehensive gene mutation screening in 53 paired bone marrow/peripheral blood samples obtained at diagnosis and relapse. At diagnosis, 15 aberrations (CNAs, n=10; UPDs, n=5) were identified in 13 patients (25%), whereas at relapse 56 genomic alterations (CNAs, n=46; UPDs, n=10) were detected in 29 patients (55%) indicating an increase in genomic complexity. Recurrent aberrations acquired at relapse included deletions affecting tumor suppressor genes [ETV6 (n=3), TP53 (n=2), NF1 (n=2), WT1 (n=3), FHIT (n=2)] and homozygous FLT3 mutations acquired via UPD13q (n=7). DNMT3A mutations (DNMT3Amut) showed the highest stability (97%). Persistence of DNMT3Amut in 5 patients who lost NPM1mut at relapse suggests that DNMT3Amut may precede NPM1mut in AML pathogenesis. Of note, all relapse samples shared at least one genetic aberration with the matched primary AML sample implying common ancestral clones. In conclusion, our study reveals novel insights into clonal evolution in NPM1mut AML. Bone marrow or peripheral blood samples from diagnosis, remission and relapse of 53 NPM1 mutated AML patient were analyzed on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 Array. Raw data (CEL-Files) were transformed to genotyping files (CHP) with Genotyping Console Version 4.2 from Affymetrix. Bioinformatic evaluation of CNAs was performed using dChipSNP and circular binary segmentation .
Project description:Tumor heterogeneity and evolution drive treatment resistance in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) can model mCRC biology; however, their ability to accurately mimic human tumor heterogeneity is unclear. Current genomic studies in mCRC have limited scope and lack matched PDXs. Therefore, the landscape of tumor heterogeneity and its impact on the evolution of metastasis and PDXs remain undefined. We performed whole-genome, deep exome, and targeted validation sequencing of multiple primary regions, matched distant metastases, and PDXs from 11 patients with mCRC. We observed intricate clonal heterogeneity and evolution affecting metastasis dissemination and PDX clonal selection. Metastasis formation followed both monoclonal and polyclonal seeding models. In four cases, metastasis-seeding clones were not identified in any primary region, consistent with a metastasis-seeding-metastasis model. PDXs underrepresented the subclonal heterogeneity of parental tumors. These suggest that single sample tumor sequencing and current PDX models may be insufficient to guide precision medicine.
Project description:Single cell technologies allow the interrogation of tumor heterogeneity, providing insights into tumor evolution and treatment resistance. To better understand whether circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could complement metastatic biopsies for tumor genomic profiling, we characterized 11 single CTCs and 10 pooled CTC samples at the mutational and copy number aberration (CNA) levels, and compared these results with matched synchronous tumor biopsies from 3 metastatic breast cancer patients with triple-negative (TNBC), HER2-positive and estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors. Similar CNA profiles and the same patient-specific driver mutations were found in bulk tissue and CTCs for the HER2-positive and TNBC tumors, whereas different CNA profiles and driver mutations were identified for the ER+ tumor, which presented two distinct clones in CTCs defined by mutations in ESR1 Y537N and TP53, respectively. Furthermore, de novo mutational signatures derived from CTCs described patient-specific biological processes. These data suggest that tumor tissue and CTCs provide complementary clinically relevant information to map tumor heterogeneity and tumor evolution.