Long-Term Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Gut Microbiota Composition and Faecal Metabolome Related to Obesity Remission.
ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the main worldwide public health concerns whose clinical management demands new therapeutic approaches. Bariatric surgery is the most efficient treatment when other therapies have previously failed. Due to the role of gut microbiota in obesity development, the knowledge of the link between bariatric surgery and gut microbiota could elucidate new mechanistic approaches. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of bariatric surgery in the faecal metagenome and metabolome of patients with severe obesity. Faecal and blood samples were collected before and four years after the intervention from patients with severe obesity. Biochemical, metagenomic and metabolomic analyses were performed and faecal short-chain fatty acids were measured. Bariatric surgery improved the obesity-related status of patients and significantly reshaped gut microbiota composition. Moreover, this procedure was associated with a specific metabolome profile characterized by a reduction in energetic and amino acid metabolism. Acetate, butyrate and propionate showed a significant reduction with bariatric surgery. Finally, correlation analysis suggested the existence of a long-term compositional and functional gut microbiota profile associated with the intervention. In conclusion, bariatric surgery triggered long-lasting effects on gut microbiota composition and faecal metabolome that could be associated with the remission of obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Few studies have assessed differences in the gut microbiota composition after bariatric surgery in the long term or whether differences are correlated with remission of type 2 diabetes.<h4>Objectives</h4>This observational study assessed differences in the gut microbiota between individuals at up to 13 years after surgery and a comparison group of individuals with severe obesity. The relationship between type 2 diabetes remission and the gut microbiota was also assessed.<h4>Setting</h4>University.<h4>Methods</h4>Stool samples were collected from individuals completing bariatric surgery (surgery group; n = 16) and individuals with severe obesity that did not receive surgery (nonsurgery group; n = 19) as part of the 12-year follow-up in the Utah Obesity Study. Metabolic health data were collected at baseline and the follow-up examination. The gut microbiota was quantified by sequencing the V4 region of the 16 S rRNA gene. Significant differences in microbiota composition with surgery and other covariates were determined by Unifrac distance analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Significant differences in the relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa were assessed using analysis of composition of microbiomes software.<h4>Results</h4>The surgery group had higher relative abundances of Verrucomicrobiaceae (5.7 ± 1.3% versus 1.1 ± .3%) and Streptococcaceae (6.3 ± 1.0% versus 3.2 ± .8%), but lower relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae (8.8 ± 1.8% versus 18.6 ± 2.3%) 10.6 years after surgery. In a small subset of 8 individuals, a higher relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila was correlated with type 2 diabetes remission.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Differences in the gut microbiota are evident a decade after bariatric surgery compared with individuals with severe obesity that did not undergo surgery. The observed long-term differences are consistent with previous findings.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An abnormal faecal microbiota could be a causal factor for disease. This study evaluated a new method for faecal microbiota analysis in subjects with obesity and irritable bowel syndrome.<h4>Methods</h4>The study had a matched case-control design. Forty-six subjects with morbid obesity (defined as BMI > 40 or >35 kg/m<sup>2</sup> with obesity-related complications) of whom 23 had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), were compared with 46 healthy volunteers. The faecal microbiota was analysed with Precision Microbiome Profiling (PMP™) which quantified 104 bacteria species. The primary aim was comparisons between the cases and controls.<h4>Results</h4>Two men and 44 women with a mean age of 43.6 years were included in each of the groups; BMI in the groups was (mean and SD) 41.9 (3.5) and 22.5 (1.5) kg/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. Seventeen bacterial species showed statistically significant differences between the groups after adjusting for multiple testing. In a post hoc analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were 78%. Alpha diversity was lower in the group with obesity. In subjects with morbid obesity, no clinically significant differences were seen between subjects with and without IBS or from before to six months after bariatric surgery.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results encourage further evaluation of the new microbiome profiling tool.
Project description:<h4>Backgruound</h4>Current evidence support that the gut microbiota plays a potential role in obesity. Bariatric surgery can reduce excess weight and decrease the risk of life-threatening weight-related health problems and may also influence gut microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery and evaluate the association of the gut microbial shift and altered body mass index (BMI) after bariatric surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>Between January 2019 and July 2020, stools from 58 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were collected. Six months after bariatric surgery, stools from 22 of these patients were re-collected, and the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery were evaluated. In addition, the differences in gut microbiota between patients with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2, n=42) and healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.8 to 22.8 kg/m2, n=41) were investigated.<h4>Results</h4>The gut microbiota of patients who underwent bariatric surgery showed increased α-diversity and differed β-diversity compared with those before surgery. Interestingly, Blautia was decreased and Bacteriodes was increased at the genus level after bariatric surgery. Further, the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio showed a positive correlation with BMI. To validate these results, we compared the gut microbiota from severely obese patients with high BMI with those from healthy volunteers and demonstrated that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio correlated positively with BMI.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In the gut microbial analysis of patients who underwent bariatric surgery, we presented that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio had changed after bariatric surgery and showed a positive correlation with BMI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bariatric surgery, used to achieve effective weight loss in individuals with severe obesity, modifies the gut microbiota and systemic metabolism in both humans and animal models. The aim of the current study was to understand better the metabolic functions of the altered gut microbiome by conducting deep phenotyping of bariatric surgery patients and bacterial culturing to investigate causality of the metabolic observations.<h4>Methods</h4>Three bariatric cohorts (n = 84, n = 14 and n = 9) with patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB), respectively, were enrolled. Metabolic and 16S rRNA bacterial profiles were compared between pre- and post-surgery. Faeces from RYGB patients and bacterial isolates were cultured to experimentally associate the observed metabolic changes in biofluids with the altered gut microbiome.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to SG and LGB, RYGB induced the greatest weight loss and most profound metabolic and bacterial changes. RYGB patients showed increased aromatic amino acids-based host-bacterial co-metabolism, resulting in increased urinary excretion of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetylglutamine, 4-cresyl sulphate and indoxyl sulphate, and increased faecal excretion of tyramine and phenylacetate. Bacterial degradation of choline was increased as evidenced by altered urinary trimethylamine-N-oxide and dimethylamine excretion and faecal concentrations of dimethylamine. RYGB patients' bacteria had a greater capacity to produce tyramine from tyrosine, phenylalanine to phenylacetate and tryptophan to indole and tryptamine, compared to the microbiota from non-surgery, normal weight individuals. 3-Hydroxydicarboxylic acid metabolism and urinary excretion of primary bile acids, serum BCAAs and dimethyl sulfone were also perturbed following bariatric surgery.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Altered bacterial composition and metabolism contribute to metabolic observations in biofluids of patients following RYGB surgery. The impact of these changes on the functional clinical outcomes requires further investigation. Video abstract.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Obesity increases the risk of pelvic floor disorders in individuals with obesity, including faecal incontinence. Faecal incontinence (FI) is a condition with important clinical and psychosocial consequences. Though it is associated with obesity, the effect of bariatric surgery on the prevalence and severity of FI is not well reported.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the effect of bariatric surgery on the prevalence and severity of FI in adult patients with obesity.<h4>Methods</h4>This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane and Embase from 1 January 1980 to 12 January 2019. We included published English-language randomized control trials and observational studies assessing pre- and post-bariatric surgery prevalence or severity of FI. Random-effects models with DerSimonian and Laird's variance estimator were used for meta-analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Thirteen studies were included, eight assessing prevalence (678 patients) and 11 assessing severity of FI (992 patients). There was no significant difference in prevalence post-operatively overall, though it trended towards a reduction [pooled OR=0.55; =0.075]. There was a significant reduction of FI prevalence in women post-bariatric surgery [95% CI 0.22 to 0.94, p=0.034]. There was a statistically significant reduction in FI prevalence following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and one anastomosis gastric bypass [0.46, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.81; p=0.007]. There was no significant reduction of incontinence episodes post-operatively [pooled mean difference =-0.17, 95% CI -0.90 to 0.56; p=0.65]. Quality of life (QOL) was not significantly improved post-bariatric surgery [mean differences for the following facets of QOL: behaviour -0.35, 95% CI -0.94 to 0.24; depression 0.04, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.2; lifestyle -0.33, 95% CI -0.98 to 0.33; p values of 0.25, 0.61 and 0.33, respectively].<h4>Discussion</h4>There was a significant reduction in FI prevalence in women and those who underwent Roux-en-Y or one anastomosis gastric bypass. Our results for FI prevalence overall, FI severity and impact on quality of life were not statistically significant. Larger studies are needed in this under-researched area to determine the true effect of bariatric surgery on FI.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective procedure for the treatment of obesity. Given the role of the gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism and adiposity, we investigated the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on the microbiome of patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or vertical banded gastroplasty and matched for weight and fat mass loss. The two surgical procedures induced similar and durable changes on the gut microbiome that were not dependent on body mass index and resulted in altered levels of fecal and circulating metabolites compared with obese controls. By colonizing germ-free mice with stools from the patients, we demonstrated that the surgically altered microbiota promoted reduced fat deposition in recipient mice. These mice also had a lower respiratory quotient, indicating decreased utilization of carbohydrates as fuel. Our results suggest that the gut microbiota may play a direct role in the reduction of adiposity observed after bariatric surgery.
Project description:Gut microbiota has been shown to have an important influence on host health. The microbial composition of the human gut microbiota is modulated by diet and other lifestyle habits and it has been reported that microbial diversity is altered in obese people. Obesity is a worldwide health problem that negatively impacts the quality of life. Currently, the widespread treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. Interestingly, gut microbiota has been shown to be a relevant factor in effective weight loss after bariatric surgery. Since that the human gut microbiota of normal subjects differs between geographic regions, it is possible that rearrangements of the gut microbiota in dysbiosis context are also region-specific. To better understand how gut microbiota contribute to obesity, this study compared the composition of the human gut microbiota of obese and lean people from six different regions and showed that the microbiota compositions in the context of obesity were specific to each studied geographic location. Furthermore, we analyzed the functional patterns using shotgun DNA metagenomic sequencing and compared the results with other obesity-related metagenomic studies, we observed that microbial contribution to functional pathways were country-specific. Nevertheless, our study showed that although microbial composition of obese patients was country-specific, the overall metabolic functions appeared to be the same between countries, indicating that different microbiota components contribute to similar metabolic outcomes to yield functional redundancy. Furthermore, we studied the microbiota functional changes of obese patients after bariatric surgery, by shotgun metagenomics sequencing and observed that changes in functional pathways were specific to the type of obesity treatment. In all, our study provides new insights into the differences and similarities of obese gut microbiota in relation to geographic location and obesity treatments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has become increasingly accepted that establishing and maintaining a complex and diverse gut microbiota is fundamental to human health. There are growing efforts to identify means of modulating and influencing the microbiota, especially in individuals who have experienced a disruption in their native microbiota. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one method that restores diversity to the microbiota of an individual by introducing microbes from a healthy donor. FMT introduces the total microbial load into the recipient, including the bacteria, archaea, yeasts, protists and viruses. In this study, we investigated whether an autochthonous faecal viral transfer (FVT), in the form of a sterile faecal filtrate, could impact the recovery of a bacteriome disrupted by antibiotic treatment. RESULTS:Following antibiotic disruption of the bacteriome, test mice received an FVT harvested prior to antibiotic treatment, while control mice received a heat- and nuclease-treated FVT. In both groups of mice, the perturbed microbiome reverted over time to one more similar to the pre-treatment one. However, the bacteriomes of mice that received an FVT, in which bacteriophages predominate, separated from those of the control mice as determined by principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA). Moreover, analysis of the differentially abundant taxa indicated a closer resemblance to the pre-treatment bacteriome in the test mice that had received an FVT. Similarly, metagenomic sequencing of the virome confirmed that faecal bacteriophages of FVT and control mice differed over time in both abundance and diversity, with the phages constituting the FVT persisting in mice that received them. CONCLUSIONS:An autochthonous virome transfer reshaped the bacteriomes of mice post-antibiotic treatment such that they more closely resembled the pre-antibiotic microbiota profile compared to mice that received non-viable phages. Thus, FVT may have a role in addressing antibiotic-associated microbiota alterations and potentially prevent the establishment of post-antibiotic infection. Given that bacteriophages are biologically inert in the absence of their host bacteria, they could form a safe and effective alternative to whole microbiota transplants that could be delivered during/following perturbation of the gut flora.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To explore how bariatric surgery (BS) modified the obesity-associated gut microbiome, the host metabolome, and their interactions in obese Korean patients.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Stool and fasting blood samples were obtained before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after BS from 52 patients enrolled in the Korean Obesity Surgical Treatment Study. We analysed the gut microbiome by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the serum metabolome, including bile acids, by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.<h4>Results</h4>Stool metagenomics showed that 27 microbiota were enriched and 14 microbiota were reduced after BS, whereas the abundances and diversity of observed features were increased. The levels of branched-chain amino acids and metabolites of energy metabolism in serum were decreased after surgery, whereas the levels of metabolites related to microbial metabolism, including dimethyl sulphone, glycine, and secondary bile acids, were increased in the serum samples. In addition, we found notable mutual associations among metabolites and gut microbiome changes attributed to BS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Changes in the gut microbiome community and systemic levels of amino acids and sugars were directly derived from anatomical changes in the gastrointestinal tract after BS. We hypothesized that the observed increases in microbiome-related serum metabolites were a result of complex and indirect changes derived from BS. Ethnic-specific environmental or genetic factors could affect Korean-specific postmetabolic modification in obese patients who undergo BS.
Project description:We investigated the effects of gut microbiota and serum metabolite levels in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (B-CS) and their importance for guiding clinical management strategies. In total, 214 B-CS patients (93 untreated and 121 treated) and 41 healthy controls were enrolled. Gut microbiota and serum metabolome were analysed using shotgun metagenomics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The gut microbiota of the patients showed abundance of Campylobacter and low levels of Saccharomyces, Deinococcus, and Thiomonas (P < 0.05). Thirty metabolites, including taurocholate and (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid, were identified in the patients (VIP > 1, P < 0.05 and FC > 1.2 or FC < 0.83). Random forest (RF) models showed that serum metabolome could effectively identify B-CS from healthy controls and RF-metabolomics exhibited perfect discrimination (AUC = 100%, 95% CI: 100% – 100%), which was significantly higher than that achieved by RF-metagenomics (AUC = 58.48%, 95% CI: 38.46% – 78.5%). Campylobacter concisus and taurocholate showed significant positive correlation in patients with clinical manifestations (P < 0.05). Actinobacteria levels were significantly higher in untreated patients than in treated patients (P < 0.05). Campylobacter and Veillonella levels were significantly higher in treated patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.05). We identified major alterations in the gut microbiota and serum metabolome of patients with B-CS. Faecal metagenomics- and serum metabolomics-guided management strategies are required for patients with B-CS.