Rapid quantification of fatty acids in plant oils and biological samples by LC-MS.
ABSTRACT: Analysis of fatty acids (FA) in food and biological samples such as blood is indispensable in modern life sciences. We developed a rapid, sensitive and comprehensive method for the quantification of 41 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids by means of LC-MS. Optimized chromatographic separation of isobaric analytes was carried out on a C8 reversed phase analytical column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm core-shell particle) with a total run time of 15 min with back pressure lower than 300 bar. On an old triple quadrupole instrument (3200, AB Sciex), pseudo selected reaction monitoring mode was used for quantification of the poorly fragmenting FA, yielding limits of detection of 5-100 nM. Sample preparation was carried out by removal of phospholipids and triglycerides by solid-phase extraction (non-esterified fatty acids in oils) or saponification in iso-propanol (fatty acyls). This is not only a rapid strategy for quantification of fatty acyls, but allows the direct combination with the LC-MS-based analysis of fatty acid oxidation products (eicosanoids and other oxylipins) from the same sample. The concentrations of fatty acyls determined by means of LC-MS were consistent with those from GC-FID analysis demonstrating the accuracy of the developed method. Moreover, the method shows high precisions with a low intra-day (≤ 10% for almost all fatty acids in plasma and ≤ 15% in oils) and inter-day as well as inter-operator variability (< 20%). The method was successfully applied on human plasma and edible oils. The possibility to quantify non-esterified fatty acids in samples containing an excess of triacylglycerols and phospholipids is a major strength of the described approach allowing to gain new insights in the composition of biological samples.
Project description:Phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains are prevalent among brain lipids, and regional differences in acyl chain distribution appear to have both functional and pathological significance. A method is described in which the combined application of GC and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS yielded precise relative quantitation and approximate absolute quantitation of lipid species containing a particular fatty acyl chain in milligram-sized tissue samples. The method uses targeted MRM to identify specific molecular species of glycerophosphocholine lipids, glycerophospho-ethanolamine lipids, glycerophosphoinositol lipids, glycerophosphoserine lipids, glycero-phosphoglycerol lipids, and phosphatidic acids that contain esterified arachidonate (AA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA) separated during normal phase LC/MS/MS analysis. Quantitative analysis of the AA and DHA in the LC fractions is carried out using negative ion chemical ionization GC/MS and stable isotope dilution strategies. The method has been applied to assess the glycerophospholipid molecular species containing AA and DHA in microdissected samples of murine cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Results demonstrate the potential of this approach to identify regional differences in phospholipid concentration and reveal differences in specific phospholipid species between cortex and hippocampus. These differences may be related to the differential susceptibility of different brain regions to neurodegenerative disorders.
Project description:The intake of dietary lipids is known to affect the composition of phospholipids in gastrointestinal cells, thereby influencing passive lipid absorption. However, dietary lipids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as vegetable oils, are prone to oxidation. Studies investigating the phospholipid-regulating effect of oxidized lipids are lacking. We aimed at identifying the effects of oxidized lipids from moderately (18.8 ± 0.39 meq O2/kg oil) and highly (28.2 ± 0.39 meq O2/kg oil) oxidized and in vitro digested cold-pressed grape seed oils on phospholipids in human gastric tumor cells (HGT-1). The oils were analyzed for their antioxidant constituents as well as their oxidized triacylglycerol profile by LC-MS/MS before and after a simulated digestion. The HGT-1 cells were treated with polar oil fractions containing epoxidized and hydroperoxidized triacylglycerols for up to six hours. Oxidized triacylglycerols from grape seed oil were shown to decrease during the in vitro digestion up to 40% in moderately and highly oxidized oil. The incubation of HGT-1 cells with oxidized lipids from non-digested oils induced the formation of cellular phospholipids consisting of unsaturated fatty acids, such as phosphocholines PC (18:1/22:6), PC (18:2/0:0), phosphoserine PS (42:8) and phosphoinositol PI (20:4/0:0), by about 40%-60%, whereas the incubation with the in vitro digested oils did not affect the phospholipid metabolism. Hence, the gastric conditions inhibited the phospholipid-regulating effect of oxidized triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), with potential implications in lipid absorption.
Project description:Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LC-PUFA) in oilseeds has been one of the key targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ?3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from endogenous ?-linolenic acid (ALA), we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid (PL) lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG, and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1?9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provided insights into where DHA accumulated and combined with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds.
Project description:Few high-performance liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods have been developed for the full quantitation of fatty acids from human plasma without derivatization. Therefore, we propose a method that requires fewer sample preparation steps, which can be used for the quantitation of several polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma. The method offers rapid, accurate, sensitive, and simultaneous quantification of omega 3 (?-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) and omega 6 fatty acids (arachidonic and linoleic acids) using high-performance LC-MS/MS. The selected fatty acids were analysed in lipid extracts from both free and total forms. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column with isocratic flow using ammonium acetate for improving negative electrospray ionization (ESI) response. Mass detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and deuterated internal standards were used for each target compound. The limits of quantification were situated in the low nanomolar range, excepting linoleic acid, for which the limit was in the high nanomolar range. The method was validated according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines, and offers a fast, sensitive, and reliable quantification of selected omega 3 and 6 fatty acids in human plasma.
Project description:Avocado oil is prized for its high nutritional value due to the substantial amounts of triglycerides (TGs) and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) present. While avocado oil is traditionally extracted from mature fruit flesh, alternative sources such as avocado seed oil have recently increased in popularity. Unfortunately, sufficient evidence is not available to support the claimed health benefit and safe use of such oils. To address potential quality issues and identify possible adulteration, authenticated avocado oils extracted from the fruit peel, pulp and seed by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), as well as commercial avocado pulp and seed oils sold in US market were analyzed for TGs and FAs in the present study. Characterization and quantification of TGs were conducted using UHPLC/ESI-MS. Thirteen TGs containing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in avocado oils were unambiguously identified. Compared to traditional analytical methods, which are based only on the relative areas of chromatographic peaks neglecting the differences in the relative response of individual TG, our method improved the quantification of TGs by using the reference standards whenever possible or the reference standards with the same equivalent carbon number (ECN). To verify the precision and accuracy of the UHPLC/ESI-MS method, the hydrolysis and transesterification products of avocado oil were analyzed for fatty acid methyl esters using a GC/MS method. The concentrations of individual FA were calculated, and the results agreed with the UHPLC/ESI-MS method. Although chemical profiles of avocado oils from pulp and peel are very similar, a significant difference was observed for the seed oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on TG and FA compositional data allowed correct identification of individual avocado oil and detection of possible adulteration.
Project description:Ca2+ binding and concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids were compared in membrane fractions of rat small intestine. These fractions differed in density and were enriched for galactosyltransferase activity, a Golgi-membrane marker. Ca2+ binding was highest in the Golgi subfraction with the least density, as were the concentrations of both non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids; galactosyltransferase activity was distributed differently. The large amount of non-esterified fatty acids was sufficient to account for a 2:1 complex of fatty acid-Ca2+. In vitamin D-deficient animals, the yield of protein in the lightest subfractions was decreased, but Ca2+ binding per mg of protein was further decreased to about 60%. In Golgi fractions from vitamin D-deficient animals, Ca2+ binding and the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids were decreased in parallel, but phospholipids were not significantly changed. There was a close correlation between Golgi Ca2+ binding and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (r = 0.89; P less than 0.001). Non-esterified fatty acids, which are unusually prevalent in these membrane fractions, are likely to be the binding sites that account for this vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ uptake.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adverse exposures in early life may predispose children to cardio-metabolic disease in later life. Metabolomics may serve as a valuable tool to disentangle the metabolic adaptations and mechanisms that potentially underlie these associations. OBJECTIVES:To describe the acquisition, processing and structure of the metabolomics data available in a population-based prospective cohort from early pregnancy onwards and to examine the relationships between metabolite profiles of pregnant women and their children at birth and in childhood. METHODS:In a subset of 994 mothers-child pairs from a prospective population-based cohort study among pregnant women and their children from Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we used LC-MS/MS to determine concentrations of amino acids, non-esterified fatty acids, phospholipids and carnitines in blood serum collected in early pregnancy, at birth (cord blood), and at child's age 10 years. RESULTS:Concentrations of diacyl-phosphatidylcholines, acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, alkyl-lysophosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines were the highest in early pregnancy, concentrations of amino acids and non-esterified fatty acids were the highest at birth and concentrations of alkyl-lysophosphatidylcholines, free carnitine and acyl-carnitines were the highest at age 10 years. Correlations of individual metabolites between pregnant women and their children at birth and at the age of 10 years were low (range between r?=?- 0.10 and r?=?0.35). CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that unique metabolic profiles are present among pregnant women, newborns and school aged children, with limited intergenerational correlations between metabolite profiles. These data will form a valuable resource to address the early metabolic origins of cardio-metabolic disease.
Project description:The elucidation of lipid oxidation mechanisms of food is vital. In certain lipids, characteristic lipid hydroperoxide isomers are formed by different oxidation mechanisms (i.e., photo-oxidation or auto-oxidation). For example, linoleic acid is photo-oxidized to 13-9Z, 11E-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE), 12-9Z,13E-HPODE, 10-8E,12Z-HPODE and 9-10E,12Z-HPODE, whereas 13-9Z, 11E-HPODE, 13-9E,11E-HPODE, 9-10E,12Z-HPODE and 9-10E,12E-HPODE are formed by auto-oxidation. Therefore, we considered that oxidation mechanisms could be evaluated by analyzing these characteristic positional and cis/trans lipid hydroperoxide isomers. In this study, we developed a novel chiral stationary phase LC-MS/MS (CSP-LC-MS/MS) method to analyze the positional and cis/trans isomers of HPODE, with the use of a chiral column and sodium ion. Also, as an application of the method, either light-exposed or heated edible oils were treated with lipase to hydrolyze triacylglycerols. The resultant fatty acids including HPODE isomers were analyzed with the developed method. As a result, HPODE isomers characteristic to photo-oxidation were certainly detected in light-exposed edible oils. On the other hand, in heated edible oils, the HPODE isomers characteristic to auto-oxidation were largely increased. Thus, the combination of the developed CSP-LC-MS/MS method with lipase proves to be a powerful tool to evaluate the involvement and mechanisms of lipid oxidation in the process of food deterioration.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI) compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices.<h4>Results</h4>A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA)) and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA)) containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the molecules must contain at least one free carboxyl group.
Project description:The physiology of how prelabour caesarean section (PCS) and induction of labour (IOL) in comparison to spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) has not been fully clarified yet. We measured 201 cord blood (CB) phospholipids and energy metabolites via LC/MS-MS in 109 newborns from the ROLO Kids study; metabolites were compared across the three parturition groups via linear mixed models with correction for multiple testing. In comparison to SVD, PCS babies had lower non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), including sum of NEFA (p?<?0.001), and trends for lower acylcarnitines. The lack of hormonal stimuli, especially catecholamines and cortisol, may underlie the metabolic changes involving gluconeogenesis from fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in PCS born infants. IOL and SVD infants showed no significant differences in metabolites, but ratios estimating carnitine palmitoyltrasferase 1 activity (precursor for FAO) were slightly higher in IOL than in SVD. Thus, IOL does not induce metabolic disadvantage when compared to SVD, though post-natal gluconeogenesis might start earlier due to the artificial solicitation in IOL. These data shed light on the physiology of parturition and may contribute to understand how mode of delivery might modulate future metabolic risks.