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Serine Metabolism Tunes Immune Responses To Promote Oreochromis niloticus Survival upon Edwardsiella tarda Infection.

ABSTRACT: Overactive immune response is a critical factor triggering host death upon bacterial infection. However, the mechanism behind the regulation of excessive immune responses is still largely unknown, and the corresponding control and preventive measures are still to be explored. In this study, we find that Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, that died from Edwardsiella tarda infection had higher levels of immune responses than those that survived. Such immune responses are strongly associated with metabolism that was altered at 6 h postinfection. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling, we identify glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism as the top three of the most impacted pathways, which were not properly activated in the fish that died. Serine is one of the crucial biomarkers. Exogenous serine can promote O. niloticus survival both as a prophylactic and therapeutic upon E. tarda infection. Our further analysis revealed exogenous serine flux into the glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism and, more importantly, the glutathione metabolism via glycine. The increased glutathione synthesis could downregulate reactive oxygen species. Therefore, these data together suggest that metabolic modulation of immune responses is a potential preventive strategy to control overactive immune responses. IMPORTANCE Bacterial virulence factors are not the only factors responsible for host death. Overactive immune responses, such as cytokine storm, contribute to tissue injury that results in organ failure and ultimately the death of the host. Despite the recent development of anti-inflammation strategies, the way to tune immune responses to an appropriate level is still lacking. We propose that metabolic modulation is a promising approach in tuning immune responses. We find that the metabolomic shift at as early as 6 h postinfection can be predictive of the consequences of infection. Serine is a crucial biomarker whose administration can promote host survival upon bacterial infection either in a prophylactic or therapeutic way. Further analysis demonstrated that exogenous serine promotes the synthesis of glutathione, which downregulates reactive oxygen species to dampen immune responses. Our study exemplifies that the metabolite(s) is a potential therapeutic reagent for overactive immune response during bacterial infection.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8407201 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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