5-Year Clinical Outcomes of Successful Recanalisation for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions in Patients With or Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
ABSTRACT: Background: Despite substantial improvement in chronic total occlusions (CTO) revascularization technique, the long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with revascularized CTO remain controversial. Our study aimed to investigate the 5-year cardiovascular survival for patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO. Methods: Data of the current analysis derived from a large single-center, prospective and observational cohort study, including 10,724 patients who underwent PCI in 2013 at Fuwai Hospital. Baseline, angiographic and follow-up data were collected. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), which consisted of death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Cox regression analysis and propensity-score matching was performed to balance the baseline confounders. Results: A total of 719 consecutive patients with ≥1 successful CTO-PCI were stratified into diabetic (n = 316, 43.9%) and non-diabetic (n = 403, 56.1%) group. During a median follow-up of 5 years, the risk of MACCE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.00, P = 0.013) was significantly higher in the diabetic group than in the non-diabetic group, whereas the adjusted risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.37, 95% CI 0.94-5.98, P = 0.068) was similar. In the propensity score matched population, there were no significant differences in the risk of MACCE (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.92-1.75, P = 0.155) and all-cause mortality (HR 2.56, 95% CI 0.91-7.24, P = 0.076) between groups. Subgroup analysis and stratification analysis revealed consistent effects on 5-year MACCE across various subgroups. Conclusions: In patients who received successful CTO-PCI, non-diabetic patients were related to better long-term survival benefit in terms of MACCE. The risk of 5-year MACCE appeared to be similar in less-controlled and controlled diabetic patients after successful recanalization of CTO. Further randomized studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To assess the prognostic role of coronary collaterals in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). METHODS:Coronary collateralization was graded according to Rentrop scoring system in 198 type 2 diabetic patients and 335 non-diabetics with stable angina undergoing PCI for at least one CTO lesion. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was determined and major adverse cardio-cerebral events (MACCE) were recorded during follow-up. RESULTS:Poor collateralization was more common in patients with T2DM than in non-diabetics (40% vs 29%, p?=?0.008). At 13.5?±?4.1 months, the rate of composite MACCE (17.3% vs 27.6%, p?=?0.034) and repeat revascularization (15.2% vs 25.5%, p?=?0.026) was lower and the increase in LVEF (3.10% vs 1.80%, p?=?0.024) was greater in patients with good collaterals than in those with poor collaterals for non-diabetic group. The associations were in the same direction for T2DM group (35% vs 44%; 30% vs 36%; 2.14% vs 1.65%, respectively) with a higher all-cause mortality in diabetic patients with poor collaterals (p?=?0.034). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that coronary collateralization was an independent factor for time to MACCE (HR 2.155,95% CI 1.290-3.599, p?=?0.003) and repeat revascularization (HR 2.326, 95% CI 1.357-3.986, p?=?0.002) in non-diabetic patients, but did not enter the model in those with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS:T2DM is associated with reduced coronary collateralization. The effects of the status of coronary collateralization on long-term clinical outcomes and left ventricular function appear to be similar in size in type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetics after successful recanalization of CTO.
Project description:Background:In patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), approximately 10% are concomitant with a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-culprit vessel. However, the impact of staged CTO recanalization on prognosis in this cohort remains disputable. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of staged CTO recanalization versus medical therapy in patients with STEMI after primary PCI. Methods:Between January 2005 and December 2016, a total of 287 patients were treated with staged CTO-PCI (n = 91) or medical therapy (n = 196) after primary PCI in our center. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or unplanned revascularization. After propensity-score matching, 77 pairs of well-balanced patients were identified. Results:The mean follow-up period was 6.06 years. Overall, the incidence of the primary endpoint of MACCE was significantly lower in staged CTO-PCI group than that in medical therapy group in both overall population (22.0% vs. 46.9%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.77) and propensity-matched cohorts (22.1% vs. 42.9%; HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27-0.86). In addition, staged CTO-PCI was also associated with reduced risk of the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke compared with medical therapy in both overall population (9.9% vs. 26.5%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19-0.79) and propensity-matched cohorts (9.1% vs. 22.1%; HR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16-0.96). After correction of the possible confounders, staged CTO-PCI was independently associated with reduced risks of MACCE (adjusted HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75), the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke (adjusted HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.94) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83). Moreover, the results of sensitivity analysis were almost concordant with the overall analysis. Conclusions:In patients with STEMI and a concurrent CTO who undergo primary PCI, successful staged recanalization of CTO in the non-culprit vessels is associated with better clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The territory of the right coronary artery (RCA) is smaller than that of the left anterior descending artery. Previous studies have reported conflicting results when considering whether stable RCA-chronic total occlusion (CTO) should be reopened. The coexistence of diabetic and coronary artery diseases represents a severe situation. Therefore, we aimed to determine if stable RCA-CTO in diabetic patients was necessary to be reopened. To our knowledge, no studies have focused on this topic to date.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled diabetic patients with RCA-CTO who had clinical presentations of symptomatic stable angina or silent ischemia. RCA-CTO was treated with either successful revascularization (the CTO-SR group) or medical therapy (the CTO-MT group). The primary endpoint was all-cause death. Both Cox regression and propensity score matching analyses were used. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on subgroup populations and relevant baseline variables.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 943 patients were included: 443 (46.98%) patients in the CTO-MT group and 500 (53.02%) patients in the CTO-SR group. After a mid-term follow-up (CTO-SR: 48 months; CTO-MT: 42 months), we found that CTO-SR was superior to CTO-MT in terms of all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [model 1]: 0.429, 95% conference interval [CI] 0.269-0.682; adjusted HR [model 2]: 0.445, 95% CI 0.278-0.714). The superiority of CTO-SR was consistent for cardiac death, possible/definite cardiac death, repeat revascularization, target vessel revascularization (TVR) and repeat nonfatal myocardial infarction. Subgroup analysis confirmed the mortality benefit of CTO-SR by percutaneous coronary intervention (the successful CTO-PCI subgroup, 309 patients in total). While CTO-SR by coronary artery bypass grafting (the CTO-CABG subgroup, 191 patients in total) offered patients more benefit from repeat revascularization and TVR than that offered by successful CTO-PCI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>For stable RCA-CTO patients with diabetes, successful revascularization offered patients more clinical benefits than medical therapy. CTO-CABG might be a more recommended way to accomplish revascularization. Trial registration This study was not registered in an open access database.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, several randomized trials have noted improved outcomes with staged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of nonculprit vessels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease. However, it remains unclear whether diabetes status affects the outcomes after different revascularization strategies. This study thus compared the impact of diabetes status on long-term outcomes after staged complete revascularization with that after culprit-only PCI.<h4>Methods</h4>From January 2006 to December 2015, 371 diabetic patients (staged PCI: 164, culprit-only PCI: 207) and 834 nondiabetic patients (staged PCI: 412, culprit-only PCI: 422) with STEMI and multivessel disease were enrolled. The primary endpoint was 5-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or unplanned revascularization.<h4>Results</h4>The rate of the 5-year composite primary endpoint for diabetic patients was close to that for nondiabetic patients (34.5% vs. 33.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.012, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.815-1.255). In nondiabetic patients, the 5-year risks of MACCE (31.8% vs. 35.5%; adjusted HR 0.638, 95% CI 0.500-0.816), MI (4.6% vs. 9.2%; adjusted HR 0.358, 95% CI 0.200-0.641), unplanned revascularization (19.9% vs. 24.9%; adjusted HR 0.532, 95% CI 0.393-0.720), and the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke (11.4% vs. 15.2%; adjusted HR 0.621, 95% CI 0.419-0.921) were significantly lower after staged PCI than after culprit-only PCI. In contrast, no significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to MACCE, MI, unplanned revascularization, and the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke in diabetic patients. Significant interactions were found between diabetes status and revascularization assignment for the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.013), MI (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.005), and unplanned revascularization (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.013) at 5 years. In addition, the interaction tended to be significant for the primary endpoint of MACCE (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.053). Moreover, the results of propensity score-matching analysis were concordant with the overall analysis in both diabetic and nondiabetic population.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, diabetes is not an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events at 5 years. In nondiabetic patients, an approach of staged complete revascularization is superior to culprit-only PCI, whereas the advantage of staged PCI is attenuated in diabetic patients. Trial registration This study was not registered in an open access database.
Project description:AIMS: To investigate the impact of chronic total occlusion (CTO) in non-infarct-related artery (IRA) on the long-term prognosis and evaluate the clinical significance of staged revascularization in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: 1266 STEMI patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were categorized as single-vessel disease (SVD), multivessel disease (MVD) without and with CTO. We study the clinical outcomes of patients after primary PCI in the following 3 years. Additionally, patients with CTO received staged revascularization, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 3-year follow-up were recorded. RESULTS: Presence of CTO was a predictor of both early mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-4.5, P < 0.01] and late mortality (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-3.6, P < 0.01), whereas MVD without CTO was only a predictor of early mortality (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3, P < 0.05). In CTO group, 100 patients had successful CTO recanalization, and 48 patients failed. During 3-year follow-up, patients with failed procedure had higher cardiac mortality (22.9% versus 9.0%, P = 0.020) and lower MACE-free survival (50.0% versus 72.0%, P = 0.009) compared to patients with successful procedure. CONCLUSION: The presence of CTO and not MVD alone is associated with long-term mortality. Successful revascularization of CTO in the non-IRA is associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In this study, we compared the outcomes of medical therapy (MT) with successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in chronic total occlusions (CTO) patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 2015 patients with CTOs were stratified. Diabetic patients (n?=?755, 37.5%) and non-diabetic patients (n?=?1260, 62.5%) were subjected to medical therapy or successful CTO-PCI. We performed a propensity score matching (PSM) to balance the baseline characteristics. A comparison of the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was done to evaluate long-term outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>The median follow-up duration was 2.6 years. Through multivariate analysis, the incidence of MACE was significantly higher among diabetic patients compared to the non-diabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.61, p?=?0.005). Among the diabetic group, the rate of MACE (adjusted HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.87, p?=?0.006) was significantly lower in the successful CTO-PCI group than in the MT group. Besides, in the non-diabetic group, the prevalence of MACE (adjusted HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.64-1.15, p?=?0.294) and cardiac death (adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.51-1.70, p?=?0.825) were comparable between the two groups. Similar results as with the early detection were obtained in propensity-matched diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Notably, there was a significant interaction between diabetic or non-diabetic with the therapeutic strategy on MACE (p for interaction?=?0.036).<h4>Conclusions</h4>For treatment of CTO, successful CTO-PCI highly reduces the risk of MACE in diabetic patients when compared with medical therapy. However, this does not apply to non-diabetic patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The development of the technique has improved the success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for in-stent chronic total occlusion (IS-CTO). However, long-term outcomes remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate long-term outcomes of PCI for IS-CTO.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 474 IS-CTO patients were enrolled at two cardiac centers from 2015 to 2018 retrospectively. These patients were allocated into either successful or failed IS-CTO PCI groups. The primary endpoint (major adverse cardiac events [MACE]) consisted of recurrent angina pectoris (RAP), target-vessel myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, cardiac death, or ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization (TVR) at follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between treatment appropriateness and clinical outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 367 patients were successfully treated with IS-CTO PCI while 107 patients had failed recanalization. After a median follow-up of 30 months (interquartile range: 17-42 months), no significant difference was observed between the two groups for the following parameters: cardiac death (successful PCI vs. failed PCI: 0.9% vs. 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.442; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-9.887; P?=?0.709), RAP (successful PCI vs. failed PCI: 40.8% vs. 40.0%; adjusted HR: 1.025; 95% CI: 0.683-1.538; P?=?0.905), heart failure (successful PCI vs. failed PCI: 6.1% vs. 2.7%; adjusted HR: 0.281; 95% CI: 0.065-1.206; P?=?0.088), target-vessel related MI (successful PCI vs. failed PCI: 1.5% vs. 2.7%; adjusted HR: 1.150; 95% CI: 0.221-5.995; P?=?0.868), MACE (successful PCI vs. failed PCI: 44.2% vs. 45.3%; adjusted HR: 1.052; 95% CI: 0.717-1.543; P?=?0.797). More patients were free of angina in the successful IS-CTO PCI group compared with failed PCI in the first (80.4% vs. 60%, P?<?0.01) and second years (73.3% vs. 60.0%, P?=?0.02) following up. Successful IS-CTO PCI had a lower incidence of MACE in the first and second years (20.2% vs. 40.0%, P?<?0.01; 27.9% vs. 41.3%, P?=?0.023) compared with failed PCI. After a median follow-up of 30 months, the reocclusion rate was 28.5% and TVR was 26.1% in the successful IS-CTO PCI group. Receiving >18 months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was an independent predictor of decreased risk of TVR (HR: 2.682; 95% CI: 1.295-5.578; P?=?0.008) or MACE (without TVR) (HR: 1.898; 95% CI: 1.036-3.479; P?=?0.038) in successful IS-CTO PCI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>After a median follow-up of 30 months, the successful IS-CTO PCI group had MACE similar to that of the failed PCI group. However, the successful IS-CTO PCI group had improved angina symptoms and were free from requiring coronary artery bypass grafting in the first or second years. To decrease MACE, DAPT was found to be essential and recommended for at least 18 months for IS-CTO PCI.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Many recent studies have reported that successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DESs) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) has more beneficial effects than failed CTO-PCI; however, there are only limited data available from comparisons of successful CTO-PCI with medical therapy (MT) in the Korean population.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A total of 840 consecutive CTO patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography, receiving either PCI with DESs or MT, were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment assigned. To adjust for potential confounders, propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed using logistic regression. Individual major clinical outcomes and major adverse cardiac events, a composite of total death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and revascularization, were compared between the two groups up to 5 years.<h4>Results</h4>After PSM, two propensity-matched groups (265 pairs, n=530) were generated, and the baseline characteristics were balanced. Although the PCI group showed a higher incidence of target lesion and vessel revascularization on CTO, the incidence of MI tended to be lower [hazard ratio (HR): 0.339, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.110 to 1.043, p=0.059] and the composite of total death or MI was lower (HR: 0.454, 95% CI: 0.224 to 0.919, p=0.028), compared with the MT group up to 5 years.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this study, successful CTO PCI with DESs was associated with a higher risk of repeat PCI for the target vessel, but showed a reduced incidence of death or MI.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We sought to determine the 1-year outcomes of patients receiving successful chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures comparing subintimal versus intraplaque wire tracking patterns. BACKGROUND:CTO PCI utilizes both intraluminal and subintimal wire tracking to achieve successful percutaneous revascularization. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can be used to precisely determine the path of wire tracking. METHODS:From 2014 to 2016, data from patients undergoing CTO PCI were collected in a single-center database. The primary composite endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF) defined as cardiovascular death, target vessel myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularization (TVR). RESULTS:In total 157 patients with successful CTO PCI and concomitant IVUS imaging completed 1-year follow-up. Subintimal tracking was detected in 53.5% of cases and those patients had a higher incidence of prior PCI, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, and higher J-CTO score. At 1-year, the unadjusted rate of TVF in the subintimal tracking group was higher than the intraplaque group (17.9 vs. 6.9%, HR 2.74, 95% CI 1.00-7.54, P = 0.04), driven by numerically higher rates of TVR and peri-procedural MI. After multivariable adjustment, no significant differences in the rates of the TVF between subintimal vs. intraplaque groups were present at 1-year (TVF: HR 1.51, 95% CI 0.38-6.00, P = 0.55). Landmark analysis excluding in-hospital events showed no significant differences in TVF to 1-year. CONCLUSIONS:IVUS-detected subintimal tracking was observed in over half of successful CTO PCI cases and correlated with baseline and angiographic factors that contributed to the overall rate of TVF at 1-year.
Project description:Background As an initial treatment strategy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) did not show midterm survival benefits compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT). We sought to evaluate the benefit of PCI compared with OMT in patients with CTO over extended long-term follow-up. Methods and Results Between March 2003 and February 2012, 2024 patients with CTO were enrolled in a single-center registry and followed for ≈10 years. We excluded patients with CTO who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (n=477) and classified patients into the CTO-PCI group (n=883) or OMT group (n=664) according to initial treatment strategy. Patients with multivessel disease received PCI for obstructive non-CTO lesions in both groups. In the CTO-PCI group, 699 patients (79.2%) underwent successful revascularization. The CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (10.4% versus 22.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.32-0.59]; <i>P</i><0.001) than the OMT group. After propensity score matching analyses, the CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (13.6% versus 20.8%; HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.45-0.91]; <i>P</i>=0.01) than the OMT group. The relative reduction in cardiac death at 10 years was mainly driven by a relative reduction between 3 and 10 years (8.3% versus 16.6%; HR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.27-0.71]; <i>P</i><0.001) but not at 3 years (5.7% versus 5.0%; HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.63-2.00]; <i>P</i>=0.71). The beneficial effects of CTO-PCI were consistent among subgroups. Conclusions As an initial treatment strategy, CTO-PCI might reduce late cardiac death compared with OMT in patients with CTO. Extended follow-up of randomized trials may confirm the findings of the present study.