Germline BAP1 Mutation in a Family With Multi-Generational Meningioma With Rhabdoid Features: A Case Series and Literature Review.
ABSTRACT: Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor, and recurrence risk increases with increasing WHO Grade from I to III. Rhabdoid meningiomas are a subset of WHO Grade III tumors with rhabdoid cells, a high proliferation index, and other malignant features that follow an aggressive clinical course. Some meningiomas with rhabdoid features either only focally or without other malignant features are classified as lower grade yet still recur early. Recently, inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BAP1 have been associated with poorer prognosis in rhabdoid meningioma and meningioma with rhabdoid features, and germline mutations have been linked to a hereditary tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS) predisposing patients primarily to melanoma and mesothelioma. We present the first report of a familial BAP1 inactivating mutation identified after multiple generations of a family presented with meningiomas with rhabdoid features instead of with previously described BAP1 loss-associated malignancies. A 24-year-old female presented with a Grade II meningioma with rhabdoid and papillary features treated with subtotal resection, adjuvant external beam radiation therapy, and salvage gamma knife radiosurgery six years later. Around that time, her mother presented with a meningioma with rhabdoid and papillary features managed with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy. Germline testing was positive for a pathogenic BAP1 mutation in both patients. Sequencing of both tumors demonstrated biallelic BAP1 inactivation via the combination of germline BAP1 mutation and either loss of heterozygosity or somatic mutation. No additional mutations implicated in oncogenesis were noted from either patient's germline or tumor sequencing, suggesting that the inactivation of BAP1 was responsible for pathogenesis. These cases demonstrate the importance of routine BAP1 tumor testing in meningioma with rhabdoid features regardless of grade, germline testing for patients with BAP1 inactivated tumors, and tailored cancer screening in this population.
Project description:We have recently shown that the breast cancer (BRCA)1-associated protein-1 tumor suppressor gene (BAP1) is inactivated in a subset of clinically aggressive meningiomas that display rhabdoid histomorphology. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 protein provides a rapid and inexpensive method for screening suspected cases. Notably, some patients with BAP1-mutant meningiomas have germline BAP1 mutations and BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS). It appears that nearly all patients with germline BAP1 mutations develop malignancies by age 55, most frequently uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma, or renal cell carcinoma, although other cancers have also been associated with BAP1 TPDS. Therefore, when confronted with a patient with a potentially high-grade rhabdoid meningioma, it is important that neuropathologists assess the BAP1 status of the tumor and that the patient's family history of cancer is carefully ascertained. In the appropriate clinical setting, genetic counseling and germline BAP1 DNA sequencing should be performed. A cancer surveillance program for individuals who carry germline BAP1 mutations may help identify tumors such as uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma at early and treatable stages. Because BAP1-mutant meningiomas are rare tumors, multi-institutional efforts will be needed to evaluate therapeutic strategies and to further define the clinicopathologic features of these tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with meningiomas have widely divergent clinical courses. Some entirely recover following surgery alone, while others have relentless tumor recurrences. This clinical conundrum is exemplified by rhabdoid meningiomas, which are designated in the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours as high grade, despite only a subset following an aggressive clinical course. Patient management decisions are further exacerbated by high rates of interobserver variability, biased against missing possibly aggressive tumors. Objective molecular determinants are needed to guide classification and clinical decision making.<h4>Methods</h4>To define genomic aberrations of rhabdoid meningiomas, we performed sequencing of cancer-related genes in 27 meningiomas from 18 patients with rhabdoid features and evaluated breast cancer [BRCA]1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) expression by immunohistochemistry in 336 meningiomas. We assessed outcomes, germline status, and family history in patients with BAP1-negative rhabdoid meningiomas.<h4>Results</h4>The tumor suppressor gene BAP1, a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase, is inactivated in a subset of high-grade rhabdoid meningiomas. Patients with BAP1-negative rhabdoid meningiomas had reduced time to recurrence compared with patients with BAP1-retained rhabdoid meningiomas (Kaplan-Meier analysis, 26 mo vs 116 mo, P < .001; hazard ratio 12.89). A subset of patients with BAP1-deficient rhabdoid meningiomas harbored germline BAP1 mutations, indicating that rhabdoid meningiomas can be a harbinger of the BAP1 cancer predisposition syndrome.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We define a subset of aggressive rhabdoid meningiomas that can be recognized using routine laboratory tests. We implicate ubiquitin deregulation in the pathogenesis of these high-grade malignancies. In addition, we show that familial and sporadic BAP1-mutated rhabdoid meningiomas are clinically aggressive, requiring intensive clinical management.
Project description:Meningioma is a primary brain tumor arising from the neoplastic transformation of meningothelial cells. Several histological variants of meningioma have been described. Here we show that NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor protein required for structuring specialized polarized epithelia, can distinguish meningioma variants with epithelial differentiation. NHERF1 decorates the membrane of intracytoplasmic lumens and microlumens in the secretory variant, consistent with a previously described epithelial differentiation of this subtype. NHERF1 also labels microlumens in chordoid meningioma, an epithelial variant not previously known to harbor these structures, and ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence of microlumens in this variant. NHERF1 associates with the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-NF2 cytoskeletal proteins, and moesin but not NF2 was detectable in the microlumens. In a meningioma series from 83 patients, NHERF1 revealed microlumens in 87.5% of the chordoid meningioma (<i>n</i> = 25) and meningioma with chordoid component (<i>n</i> = 7) cases, and in 100% of the secretory meningioma cases (<i>n</i> = 12). The most common WHO grade I meningioma variants lacked microlumens. Interestingly, 20% and 66.6% of WHO grades II (<i>n</i> = 20) and III (<i>n</i> = 3) meningiomas, respectively, showed microlumen-like NHERF1 staining of ultrastructural tight microvillar interdigitations, mainly in rhabdoid, papillary-like or sheeting areas, revealing a new subset of high grade meningiomas with epithelial differentiation. NHERF1 failed to detect microlumens in 12 additional cases of chordoid glioma of the 3rd ventricle, chordoma and chondrosarcoma, neoplasms that may mimic the histological appearance of chordoid meningioma. This study uncovers features of epithelial differentiation in meningioma and proposes NHERF1 immunohistochemistry as a method of discriminating chordoid meningioma from neoplasms with similar appearance.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are considered to be key mediators of tumor invasion and metastasis. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are expressed in meningiomas of dogs, but TIMP expression, and variations of specific MMP/TIMP ratios still are unknown in this tumor.Expression of MMP/TIMP might increase progressively from grade I to grade III meningioma. Therefore, genetic expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and specific TIMP-2 and TIMP-1, respectively, has been investigated in meningiomas of different grades.Selected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 43 meningiomas of dogs was evaluated.Genetic material was obtained from pathologic samples and used for quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).MMP-9 was not expressed in all of the tumors, but MMP-2 was significantly more expressed in papillary meningioma. Likewise, the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio was numerically higher in papillary meningiomas compared to all grades (>3.5 times) showing a strong bias in favor of metalloproteinase. In the papillary meningioma, TIMP-1 gene expression was significantly higher than in grades I and III.MMP-2/TIMP-2 imbalance might contribute to the aggressive biologic behavior of papillary meningiomas in dogs. TIMP-1 expression may play a role independent of MMP-9 expression in neoplastic progression. These results further support that therapeutic and prognostic evaluations of dogs with meningioma need to be addressed according to different histologic patterns as is performed in humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genomic studies of high-grade/progressive meningiomas have reported a heterogeneous mutation spectrum, identifying few recurrently mutated genes. Most studies have been underpowered to detect genomic subclasses of aggressive meningiomas due to relatively small number of available samples. Here, we present a genomic survey of one of the largest multi-institutional cohorts of high-grade/progressive meningiomas to date. METHODS:850 high-grade/progressive meningiomas, including 441 WHO grade 2 and 176 WHO grade 3 meningiomas and 220 progressive WHO grade 1 meningiomas, were tested as part of a clinical testing program by hybridization capture of 406 cancer-related genes to detect base substitutions, indels, amplifications, deletions, and rearrangements. Information from pathology reports, histopathology review, and patient clinical data was assessed. RESULTS:Genomic analyses converged to identify at least three distinct patterns of biologically-aggressive meningiomas. The first and most common contained NF2-mutant tumors (n?=?426, 50%), was associated with male sex (64.4% %, p?=?0.0001) and often harbored additional mutations in CDKN2A/B (24%), and the chromatin regulators ARID1A (9%), and KDM6A (6%). A second group (NF2-agnostic) featured TERT promoter (TERTp; n?=?56) or TP53 mutations (n?=?25) and were either NF2-mutant or wild-type, and displayed no association with either sex (p?=?0.39). The remaining group generally lacked NF2 mutations, and accounted for 40% of the cases-with three subgroups. One consistent primarily of grade 3 lesions harboring alterations in chromatin regulators BAP1 (n?=?22) or PBRM1 (n?=?16). A second subgroup contained AKT1 (n?=?26), PIK3CA (n?=?14) and SMO (n?=?7) mutant skull-based meningiomas, and a third mixed subgroup included 237 meningiomas with a heterogeneous spectrum of low frequency and non-recurrent alterations. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that the patterns of genomic alterations in high-grade/progressive meningiomas commonly group into three different categories. The most common NF2-associated canonical group frequently harbored CDKN2A/B alterations, which is potentially amenable to targeted therapies. An NF2-agnostic group harbored frequent TERTp and TP53 mutations. The final subclass, distinct from the canonical NF2 mutant associated pathway, was partly characterized by BAP1/PBRM1 alterations (rhabdoid/papillary histology) or skull-base disease. Overall, these data increase our understanding of the pathobiology of high-grade/progressive meningiomas and can guide the design of clinical trials. IRB APPROVAL STATUS:Reviewed and approved by Western IRB; Protocol No. 20152817.
Project description:Currently, there is an incomplete understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor. Several familial syndromes are characterized by increased meningioma risk, and the genetics of these syndromes provides mechanistic insight into sporadic disease. The best defined of these syndromes is neurofibromatosis type 2, which is caused by a mutation in the NF2 gene and has a meningioma incidence of approximately 50%. This finding led to the subsequent discovery that NF2 loss-of-function occurs in up to 60% of sporadic tumors. Other important familial diseases with increased meningioma risk include nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1), Cowden syndrome, Werner syndrome, BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and familial meningiomatosis caused by germline mutations in the SMARCB1 and SMARCE1 genes. For each of these syndromes, the diagnostic criteria, incidence in the population, and frequency of meningioma are presented to review the relevant clinical information for these conditions. The genetic mutations, molecular pathway derangements, and relationship to sporadic disease for each syndrome are described in detail to identify targets for further investigation. Familial syndromes characterized by meningiomas often affect genes and pathways that are also implicated in a subset of sporadic cases, suggesting key molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Further studies are needed to resolve the functional relevance of specific genes whose significance in sporadic disease remains to be elucidated.
Project description:The behavior of rhabdoid meningiomas otherwise lacking malignant features remains unknown as most of the originally reported aggressive cases showed anaplastic histologic features independently of rhabdoid phenotype. We studied 44 patients with rhabdoid meningiomas lacking anaplastic features. Median age at diagnosis was 48.6 years (range 10-79). Location was supratentorial in 28 (63.6%), skull base in 15 (34.1%), and spinal in 1 (2.3%). Tumor grade was otherwise World Health Organization grade I (n?=?22, 50%) or II (n?=?22, 50%). Rhabdoid cells represented <20% of the tumor in 12 cases (27.3%), 20% to 50% in 18 (40.9%), and >50% in 14 (31.8%). Median clinical follow-up, available for 38 patients, was 5.0 years (range 0.17-14.2). Recurrence occurred in 9 patients (5-year recurrence-free survival, 73.7%) with a significantly higher risk in subtotally resected tumors (p?=?0.043). Rhabdoid cell percentage was not associated with recurrence. Six patients died (4 of disease, 2 of unclear causes); 5-year overall survival was 86.7%, a mortality in excess of that expected in grade I-II meningiomas but much lower than originally reported. Review of 50 similar previously reported cases confirmed our findings. We suggest that rhabdoid meningiomas be graded analogously to nonrhabdoid tumors, with caution that some may still behave aggressively and close follow-up is recommended.
Project description:The gene for the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) on 22q12.3 had been reported to be inactivated by promoter methylation in various types of cancers, with controversial findings in meningiomas. We performed direct sodium bisulfite sequencing in a series of 50 meningiomas, including 27 benign meningiomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grade I], 11 atypical meningiomas (WHO grade II) and 12 anaplastic meningiomas (WHO grade III), and found hypermethylation of TIMP3 in 67% of anaplastic meningiomas, but only 22% of atypical and 17% of benign meningiomas. Moreover, TIMP3 methylation scores were significantly inversely correlated with TIMP3 mRNA expression levels (P = 0.0123), and treatment of the meningioma cell line Ben-Men-1 with demethylating agents induced an increased TIMP3 mRNA expression. TIMP3 is located in the chromosomal band 22q12, the allelic loss of which occurs early in meningioma tumorigenesis and preferentially targets the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. In our tumor panel, all meningiomas with TIMP3 hypermethylation--except for a single case--exhibited allelic losses on 22q12.3. Thus, TIMP3 inactivation by methylation seems fairly exclusive to meningiomas with allelic losses on 22q12 but--in contrast to NF2 mutation--appears to be involved in meningioma progression as it is associated with a more aggressive, high-grade meningioma phenotype.
Project description:A significant proportion of low-grade WHO grade I and higher-grade WHO grade II or III meningiomas are at risk to develop post-resection recurrence. Though recent studies investigated genomic alterations within histological subtypes of meningiomas, few have compared genomic profiles of primary meningiomas matched to their recurrences. The present study aimed to identify oncogenic driver mutations that may indicate risk of meningioma recurrence and aggressive clinical course. Seventeen patients treated for low-grade (n = 8) or high-grade (n = 9) meningioma and underwent both primary and recurrent resection between 2007-2017 were reviewed. Tumor specimens (n = 38) underwent genomic sequencing of known oncogenic driver mutations. Primary and recurrent tumors were compared using matched-pair analyses for mutational associations with clinical outcomes including functional status, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Most common driver mutations included POLE and NF2. There was no enrichment for any driver mutation from primary to recurrent tumor specimen. NF2 mutant meningiomas were associated with larger tumor size (8-fold increase), presence of vasogenic edema, and higher mitotic proliferation on univariate and independently on multivariate regression (p's < 0.05) after controlling for preoperative and tumor features. Tumors with POLE driver mutations were associated with decreased functional status at last postoperative follow-up (p = 0.022) relative to presentation. Mutation status was not associated with PFS or OS on multivariate Cox regression, but rather with grade of resection (p = 0.046) for PFS. While primary and recurrent tumors exhibited similar driver mutations within patients, the identification of driver mutations associated with clinical outcomes is crucial for guiding potential targeted treatments in recurrent meningiomas.
Project description:Germline mutation of the BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) gene has been linked to uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, meningioma, renal cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Germline variants have also been found in familial cutaneous melanoma pedigrees, but their contribution to sporadic melanoma has not been fully assessed. We sequenced BAP1 in 1,977 melanoma cases and 754 controls and used deubiquitinase assays, a pedigree analysis, and a histopathological review to assess the consequences of the mutations found. Sequencing revealed 30 BAP1 variants in total, of which 27 were rare (ExAc allele frequency?<0.002). Of the 27 rare variants, 22 were present in cases (18 missense, one splice acceptor, one frameshift and two near splice regions) and five in controls (all missense). A missense change (S98R) in a case that completely abolished BAP1 deubiquitinase activity was identified. Analysis of cancers in the pedigree of the proband carrying the S98R variant and in two other pedigrees carrying clear loss-of-function alleles showed the presence of BAP1-associated cancers such as renal cell carcinoma, mesothelioma and meningioma, but not uveal melanoma. Two of these three probands carrying BAP1 loss-of-function variants also had melanomas with histopathological features suggestive of a germline BAP1 mutation. The remaining cases with germline mutations, which were predominantly missense mutations, were associated with less typical pedigrees and tumours lacking a characteristic BAP1-associated histopathological appearances, but may still represent less penetrant variants. Germline BAP1 alleles defined as loss-of-function or predicted to be deleterious/damaging are rare in cutaneous melanoma.