Understanding the Potential of Genome Editing in Parkinson's Disease.
ABSTRACT: CRISPR is a simple and cost-efficient gene-editing technique that has become increasingly popular over the last decades. Various CRISPR/Cas-based applications have been developed to introduce changes in the genome and alter gene expression in diverse systems and tissues. These novel gene-editing techniques are particularly promising for investigating and treating neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, for which we currently lack efficient disease-modifying treatment options. Gene therapy could thus provide treatment alternatives, revolutionizing our ability to treat this disease. Here, we review our current knowledge on the genetic basis of Parkinson's disease to highlight the main biological pathways that become disrupted in Parkinson's disease and their potential as gene therapy targets. Next, we perform a comprehensive review of novel delivery vehicles available for gene-editing applications, critical for their successful application in both innovative research and potential therapies. Finally, we review the latest developments in CRISPR-based applications and gene therapies to understand and treat Parkinson's disease. We carefully examine their advantages and shortcomings for diverse gene-editing applications in the brain, highlighting promising avenues for future research.
Project description:Inherited retinal dystrophies [IRDs] are a common cause of severe vision loss resulting from pathogenic genetic variants. The eye is an attractive target organ for testing clinical translational approaches in inherited diseases. This has been demonstrated by the approval of the first gene supplementation therapy to treat an autosomal recessive IRD, RPE65-linked Leber congenital amaurosis (type 2), 4 years ago. However, not all diseases are amenable for treatment using gene supplementation therapy, highlighting the need for alternative strategies to overcome the limitations of this supplementation therapeutic modality. Gene editing has become of increasing interest with the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas9 platform. CRISPR-Cas9 offers several advantages over previous gene editing technologies as it facilitates targeted gene editing in an efficient, specific, and modifiable manner. Progress with CRISPR-Cas9 research now means that gene editing is a feasible strategy for the treatment of IRDs. This review will focus on the background of CRISPR-Cas9 and will stress the differences between gene editing using CRISPR-Cas9 and traditional gene supplementation therapy. Additionally, we will review research that has led to the first CRISPR-Cas9 trial for the treatment of CEP290-linked Leber congenital amaurosis (type 10), as well as outline future directions for CRISPR-Cas9 technology in the treatment of IRDs.
Project description:Genome editing is the modification of genomic DNA at a specific target site in a wide variety of cell types and organisms, including insertion, deletion and replacement of DNA, resulting in inactivation of target genes, acquisition of novel genetic traits and correction of pathogenic gene mutations. Due to the advantages of simple design, low cost, high efficiency, good repeatability and short-cycle, CRISPR-Cas systems have become the most widely used genome editing technology in molecular biology laboratories all around the world. In this review, an overview of the CRISPR-Cas systems will be introduced, including the innovations, the applications in human disease research and gene therapy, as well as the challenges and opportunities that will be faced in the practical application of CRISPR-Cas systems.
Project description:Genome editing is a relevant, versatile, and preferred tool for crop improvement, as well as for functional genomics. In this review, we summarize the advances in gene-editing techniques, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated with the Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins. These tools support great opportunities for the future development of plant science and rapid remodeling of crops. Furthermore, we discuss the brief history of each tool and provide their comparison and different applications. Among the various genome-editing tools, CRISPR has become the most popular; hence, it is discussed in the greatest detail. CRISPR has helped clarify the genomic structure and its role in plants: For example, the transcriptional control of Cas9 and Cpf1, genetic locus monitoring, the mechanism and control of promoter activity, and the alteration and detection of epigenetic behavior between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) investigated based on genetic traits and related genome-wide studies. The present review describes how CRISPR/Cas9 systems can play a valuable role in the characterization of the genomic rearrangement and plant gene functions, as well as the improvement of the important traits of field crops with the greatest precision. In addition, the speed editing strategy of gene-family members was introduced to accelerate the applications of gene-editing systems to crop improvement. For this, the CRISPR technology has a valuable advantage that particularly holds the scientist's mind, as it allows genome editing in multiple biological systems.
Project description:Accelerated development of novel CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing techniques provides a feasible approach to introduce a variety of precise modifications in the mammalian genome, including introduction of multiple edits simultaneously, efficient insertion of long DNA sequences into specific targeted loci as well as performing nucleotide transitions and transversions. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9 tool has become the method of choice for introducing genome alterations in livestock species. The list of new CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing tools is constantly expanding. Here, we discuss the methods developed to improve efficiency and specificity of gene editing tools as well as approaches that can be employed for gene regulation, base editing, and epigenetic modifications. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of two primary methods used for the production of gene-edited farm animals: somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT or cloning) and zygote manipulations will be discussed. Furthermore, we will review agricultural and biomedical applications of gene editing technology.
Project description:The recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technology has revolutionized the genome engineering field. Since 2016, increasing number of studies regarding CRISPR therapeutics have entered clinical trials, most of which are focusing on the ex vivo genome editing. In this review, we highlight the ex vivo cell-based CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for therapeutic applications. In these studies, CRISPR/Cas9 tools were used to edit cells in vitro and the successfully edited cells were considered as therapeutics, which can be introduced into patients to treat diseases. Considering a large number of previous reviews have been focused on the CRISPR/Cas9 delivery methods and materials, this review provides a different perspective, by mainly introducing the targeted conditions and design strategies for ex vivo CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics. Brief descriptions of the history, functionality, and applications of CRISPR/Cas9 systems will be introduced first, followed by the design strategies and most significant results from previous research that used ex vivo CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for the treatment of conditions or diseases. The last part of this review includes general information about the status of CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics in clinical trials. We also discuss some of the challenges as well as the opportunities in this research area.
Project description:Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) genome editing is revolutionizing fundamental research and has great potential for the treatment of many diseases. While editing of immortalized cell lines has become relatively easy, editing of therapeutically relevant primary cells and tissues can remain challenging. One recent advancement is the delivery of a Cas9 protein and an in vitro-transcribed (IVT) guide RNA (gRNA) as a precomplexed ribonucleoprotein (RNP). This approach allows editing of primary cells such as T cells and hematopoietic stem cells, but the consequences beyond genome editing of introducing foreign Cas9 RNPs into mammalian cells are not fully understood. Here, we show that the IVT gRNAs commonly used by many laboratories for RNP editing trigger a potent innate immune response that is similar to canonical immune-stimulating ligands. IVT gRNAs are recognized in the cytosol through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway but not the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) pathway, thereby triggering a type I interferon response. Removal of the 5'-triphosphate from gRNAs ameliorates inflammatory signaling and prevents the loss of viability associated with genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells. The potential for Cas9 RNP editing to induce a potent antiviral response indicates that care must be taken when designing therapeutic strategies to edit primary cells.
Project description:Liver disease, particularly viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a global healthcare burden and leads to more than 2 million deaths per year worldwide. Despite some success in diagnosis and vaccine development, there are still unmet needs to improve diagnostics and therapeutics for viral hepatitis and HCC. The emerging clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/associated proteins (CRISPR/Cas) technology may open up a unique avenue to tackle these two diseases at the genetic level in a precise manner. Especially, liver is a more accessible organ over others from the delivery point of view, and many advanced strategies applied for nanotheranostics can be adapted in CRISPR-mediated diagnostics or liver gene editing. In this review, the focus is on these two aspects of viral hepatitis and HCC applications. An overview on CRISPR editor development and current progress in clinical trials is first given, followed by highlighting the recent advances integrating the merits of gene editing and nanotheranostics. The promising systems that are used in other applications but may hold potentials in liver gene editing are also discussed. This review concludes with the perspectives on rationally designing the next-generation CRISPR approaches and improving the editing performance.
Project description:The development of genetic engineering in the 1970s marked a new frontier in genome-editing technology. Gene-editing technologies have provided a plethora of benefits to the life sciences. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/ Cas9) system is a versatile technology that provides the ability to add or remove DNA in the genome in a sequence-specific manner. Serious efforts are underway to improve the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting and thus reduce off-target effects. Currently, various applications of CRISPR/Cas9 are used in cancer biology and oncology to perform robust site-specific gene editing, thereby becoming more useful for biological and clinical applications. Many variants and applications of CRISPR/Cas9 are being rapidly developed. Experimental approaches that are based on CRISPR technology have created a very promising tool that is inexpensive and simple for developing effective cancer therapeutics. This review discusses diverse applications of CRISPR-based gene-editing tools in oncology and potential future cancer therapies.
Project description:Repurposed CRISPR-Cas molecules provide a useful tool set for broad applications of genomic editing and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recent discovery of phage-derived proteins, anti-CRISPRs, which serve to abrogate natural CRISPR anti-phage activity, potentially expands the ability to build synthetic CRISPR-mediated circuits. Here, we characterize a panel of anti-CRISPR molecules for expanded applications to counteract CRISPR-mediated gene activation and repression of reporter and endogenous genes in various cell types. We demonstrate that cells pre-engineered with anti-CRISPR molecules become resistant to gene editing, thus providing a means to generate "write-protected" cells that prevent future gene editing. We further show that anti-CRISPRs can be used to control CRISPR-based gene regulation circuits, including implementation of a pulse generator circuit in mammalian cells. Our work suggests that anti-CRISPR proteins should serve as widely applicable tools for synthetic systems regulating the behavior of eukaryotic cells.
Project description:The recent development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as an efficient and accessible programmable genome-editing tool has revolutionized basic science research. CRISPR/Cas9 system-based technologies have armed researchers with new powerful tools to unveil the impact of genetics on disease development by enabling the creation of precise cellular and animal models of human diseases. The therapeutic potential of these technologies is tremendous, particularly in gene therapy, in which a patient-specific mutation is genetically corrected in order to treat human diseases that are untreatable with conventional therapies. However, the translation of CRISPR/Cas9 into the clinics will be challenging, since we still need to improve the efficiency, specificity and delivery of this technology. In this review, we focus on several in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in human disease-focused research, explore the potential of this technology in translational medicine and discuss some of the major challenges for its future use in patients.