ABSTRACT: Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with cART. While the incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after the advent of cART, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein-Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching that of the general population. In this regard, effective cART during chemotherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the optimal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis on advances in prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it.
Project description:Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence with HIV infection may have increased with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), suggesting that immune reconstitution may contribute to some cases. We evaluated HL risk with cART during the first months of treatment. With 187 HL cases among 64 368 HIV patients in France, relative rates (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HL were estimated using Poisson models for duration of cART, CD4 count, and HIV load, with and without adjustment for demographic/clinical covariates. HL risk was unrelated to cART use overall, but it was related to time intervals after cART initiation (P = .006). Risk was especially and significantly elevated in months 1-3 on cART (RR 2.95, CI 1.64-5.31), lower in months 4-6 (RR 1.63), and null with longer use (RR 1.00). CD4 count was strongly associated with HL risk (P < 10??), with the highest HL incidence at 50-99 CD4 cells/mm³. With adjustment for CD4 count and covariates, HL risk was elevated, but not significantly (RR 1.42), in months 1-3 on cART. HIV load had no added effect. HL risk increased significantly soon after cART initiation, which was largely explained by the CD4 count. Further studies of HIV-associated HL are needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased since introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While HIV-related HL is highly associated with EBV, the causes underlying the rising incidence remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immune reconstitution on HL incidence among a cohort of HIV-infected male veterans ever receiving cART.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing data from the Veterans Affairs HIV Clinical Case Registry from 1985-2010. HL cases were identified using ICD-9 codes (201.4-9). Poisson regression was conducted to evaluate relationships between cART-related immunologic measures (e.g., nadir CD4 before cART, time-updated CD4, % time undetectable HIV RNA) and HL incidence. Additionally, we examined CD4 change after cART initiation.<h4>Results</h4>31,056 cART users contributed 287,256 person-years and 196 HL cases (IR=6.8/10,000 person-years). Rate of CD4 increase after cART was worse among HL cases than non-cases (p<0.05). In multivariate regression, HL risk was elevated among veterans with recent CD4 200-350 cells/µL (IRR=1.67, 95%CI=1.16-2.40) and <200 cells/µL (IRR=1.61, 95%CI=1.09-2.39), compared to >350 cells/µL. HL risk was lower among veterans with >80% time undetectable HIV RNA (IRR=0.57, 95%CI=0.35-0.92) and 40-80% undetectable (IRR=0.68, 95%CI=0.47-0.99), compared to <40% undetectable. HL risk was higher in the first 12 months (IRR=2.02, 95%CI=1.32-3.10) and 12-24 months (IRR=1.75, 95%CI=1.16-2.64) after cART initiation, compared to >36 months.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These data highlight immunosuppression and poor viral control may increase HL risk, specifically during immune reconstitution in the interval post cART initiation. Findings suggest an immune reconstitution type mechanism in HIV-related HL development.
Project description:Despite successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), persistent low-grade immune activation together with inflammation and toxic antiretroviral drugs can lead to long-lasting metabolic flexibility and adaptation in people living with HIV (PLWH). Our study investigated alterations in the plasma metabolic profiles by comparing PLWH on long-term cART(>5years) and matched HIV-negative controls (HC) in two cohorts from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), Cameroon and India, respectively to understand the system-level dysregulation in HIV-infection. Using untargeted and targeted LC-MS/MS-based metabolic profiling and applying advanced system biology methods, an altered amino acid metabolism, more specifically to glutaminolysis in PLWH than HC were reported. A significantly lower level of neurosteroids were observed in both cohorts and could potentiate neurological impairments in PLWH. Further, modulation of cellular glutaminolysis promoted increased cell death and latency reversal in pre-monocytic HIV-1 latent cell model U1, which may be essential for the clearance of the inducible reservoir in HIV-integrated cells.
Project description:Background:Persons living with HIV (PLWH) have an elevated risk for certain types of cancer. With modern antiretroviral therapy, PLWH are aging and cancer rates are changing. Objective:To project cancer incidence rates and burden (number of new cancer diagnoses) among adult PLWH in the United States through 2030. Design:Descriptive. Setting:HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study to project cancer rates and HIV Optimization and Prevention Economics model to project HIV prevalence. Participants:HIV-infected adults. Measurements:Projected cancer rates and burden among HIV-infected adults in the United States by age during 2006 to 2030 for AIDS-defining cancer (ADC)-that is, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer-and certain types of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC). All other cancer types were combined. Results:The proportion of adult PLWH in the United States aged 65 years or older is projected to increase from 8.5% in 2010 to 21.4% in 2030. Age-specific rates are projected to decrease through 2030 across age groups for Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, cervical cancer, lung cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and other cancer types combined, and among those aged 65 years or older for colon cancer. Prostate cancer rates are projected to increase. The estimated total cancer burden in PLWH will decrease from 8150 cases in 2010 (2730 of ADC and 5420 of NADC) to 6690 cases in 2030 (720 of ADC and 5980 of NADC). In 2030, prostate cancer (n = 1590) and lung cancer (n = 1030) are projected to be the most common cancer types. Limitation:Projections assume that current trends in cancer incidence rates, HIV transmission, and survival will continue. Conclusion:The cancer burden among PLWH is projected to shift, with prostate and lung cancer expected to emerge as the most common types by 2030. Cancer will remain an important comorbid condition, and expanded access to HIV therapies and cancer prevention, screening, and treatment is needed. Primary Funding Source:National Cancer Institute.
Project description:Nivolumab is a standard treatment option in several advanced malignancies, but safety and efficacy are still unknown in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe a case series of people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving nivolumab in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) and report responses and toxicities. We identified all PLWH who received nivolumab at any VA facility since 2000 in the Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW), which provides nationwide research access to VA electronic medical records. We identified 16 HIV-infected nivolumab recipients. The median number of nivolumab doses received was 6 (range, 1-32). Changes in CD4 count during therapy were variable, with 70% (7/10) of patients experiencing increases. Half of PLWH were treated for non-small-cell lung cancer; 2 for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2 for renal cell carcinoma, and 4 for off-label cancers. For non-small-cell lung cancer, 7 patients had evaluable responses. Although 5 of 7 patients immediately progressed, 1 had a partial response and 1 had stable disease, which were both durable. Two of 16 (14%) PLWH had complete responses; both with HL (2/2 HL, 100%). The prevalence of immune-related adverse effects was 40% overall (6/15); 27% (4/15) had pneumonitis. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series reporting outcomes with nivolumab in PLWH. Outcomes were comparable with those seen in studies of HIV-uninfected patients, and particularly interesting for HL. The reason for the high proportions of immune-related adverse effects is unclear, but needs to be confirmed in larger studies.
Project description:Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk for developing both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Even if this risk has decreased for NHL after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), they remain the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cancer in the developed world. They are almost always of B-cell origin, and some specific lymphoma types are more common than others. Some of these lymphoma types can occur in both HIV-uninfected and infected patients, while others preferentially develop in the context of AIDS. HIV-associated lymphoma differs from lymphoma in the HIV negative population in that they more often present with advanced disease, systemic symptoms, and extranodal involvement and are frequently associated with oncogenic viruses (Epstein-Barr virus and/or human herpesvirus-8). Before the introduction of cART, most of these patients could not tolerate the treatment strategies routinely employed in the HIV-negative population. The widespread use of cART has allowed for the delivery of full-dose and dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens with improved outcomes that nowadays can be compared to those seen in non-HIV infected patients. However, a great deal of attention should be paid to opportunistic infections and other infectious complications, cART-chemotherapy interactions, and potential cumulative toxicity. In the context of relatively sparse prospective and randomized trials, the optimal treatment of AIDS-related lymphomas remains a challenge, particularly in patients with severe immunosuppression. This paper will address epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies in HIV-associated NHL and HL.
Project description:Liver diseases have become a major comorbidity health concern for people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). To investigate if HIV-1 infection and cART interact to lead to liver diseases, humanized mice reconstituted with progenitor cells from human fetal livers were infected with HIV-1 and treated with cART. We report here that chronic HIV-1 infection with cART induced hepatitis and liver fibrosis in humanized mice, associated with accumulation of M2-like macrophages (M2LMs), elevated TGF-β, and IFN signaling in the liver. Interestingly, IFN-I and TGF-β cooperatively activated human hepatic stellate cells (HepSCs) in vitro. Mechanistically, IFN-I enhanced TGF-β-induced SMAD2/3 activation in HepSCs. Finally, blockade of IFN-I signaling reversed HIV/cART-induced liver diseases in humanized mice. Consistent with the findings in humanized mice with HIV-1 and cART, we detected elevated markers of liver injury, M2LMs, and of IFN signaling in blood specimens from PLWH compared with those of healthy individuals. These findings identify the IFN-I/M2LM/HepSC axis in HIV/cART-induced liver diseases and suggest that inhibiting IFN-I signaling or M2LM may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating HIV/cART-associated liver diseases in PLWH treated with antiretroviral therapy.
Project description:Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) can directly cause lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), including AIDS-defining lymphomas such as Burkitt’s lymphoma and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The prevalence of EBV in HL and NHL is elevated in HIV-positive individuals compared with the general population. Rates of incidence of AIDS-defining cancers have been declining in HIV-infected individuals since initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) use in 1996. However, HIV-infected persons remain at an increased risk of cancers related to infections with oncogenic viruses. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-related cancers include decreased immune surveillance, decreased ability to suppress infection-related oncogenic processes and a state of chronic inflammation marked by alteration of the cytokine profile and expanded numbers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes with down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules and increased expression of markers of senescence in the setting of treated HIV infection. Here we discuss the cooperation of EBV-infected B cell- and environment-associated factors that may contribute to EBV-related lymphomagenesis in HIV-infected individuals. Environment-derived lymphomagenic factors include impaired host adaptive and innate immune surveillance, cytokine dysregulation and a pro-inflammatory state observed in the setting of chronic, cART-treated HIV infection. B cell factors include distinctive EBV latency patterns and host protein expression in HIV-associated LPD, as well as B cell-stimulating factors derived from HIV infection. We review the future directions for expanding therapeutic approaches in targeting the viral and immune components of EBV LPD pathogenesis.
Project description:Background:Cancer risk is increased in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). Improved survival has led to an aging of PLWH. We evaluated the cancer risk in older PLWH (age ?50 years). Methods:We included data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1996-2012) and evaluated risks of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical, anal, lung, liver, oral cavity/pharyngeal, breast, prostate, and colon cancers in older PLWH with risk in the general population by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and excess absolute risks (EARs). Cancer risk by time since HIV diagnosis was estimated using Poisson regression. Results:We identified 10371 cancers among 183542 older PLWH. Risk was significantly increased for KS (SIR, 103.34), NHL (3.05), Hodgkin lymphoma (7.61), and cervical (2.02), anal (14.00), lung (1.71), liver (2.91), and oral cavity/pharyngeal (1.66) cancers, and reduced for breast (0.61), prostate (0.47), and colon (0.63) cancers. SIRs declined with age for all cancers; however, EARs increased with age for anal, lung, liver, and oral cavity/pharyngeal cancers. Cancer risk was highest for most cancers within 5 years after HIV diagnosis; risk decreased with increasing time since HIV diagnosis for KS, NHL, lung cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusions:Cancer risk is elevated among older PLWH. Although SIRs decrease with age, EARs are higher for some cancers, reflecting a greater absolute excess in cancer incidence among older PLWH. High risk in the first 5 years after HIV diagnosis for some cancers highlights the need for early HIV diagnosis and rapid treatment initiation.
Project description:The epidemiology of lymphomas has changed since the use of antiretroviral therapy. The incidence of Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) has significantly decreased in high income countries but not in low and middle-income countries where AIDS-related events remain high. This observational study describes the characteristics, infectious complications and main outcomes of patients diagnosed with HIV and lymphoma at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología.All adults >18 years diagnosed with HIV and lymphoma from January 2010 to December 2017 were included. Information on HIV and lymphoma was collected, as well as the occurrence of co-infections at diagnosis and during therapy. Multiple regression was done with NHL patients to evaluate independent variables associated to death.One hundred fifty three patients were included: 127 patients with NHL (83%) and 26 (17%) with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Of the NHL, 49 (38%) were diffuse large B cell Lymphomas (DLBCL), 35 (27%) plasmablastic, 28 (23%) Burkitt, 10 (8%) primary DLBCL of Central Nervous system, 3 (2%) T-cell lymphomas, and 2 (2%) pleural effusion lymphoma. Most patients were diagnosed in an advanced stage: 70% of NHL had a high International Prognostic Index (IPI); 68% of patients had <200?cells/mm. Almost 25% of NHL patients had an opportunistic infection at lymphoma diagnosis. During chemotherapy, 60% of all patients presented with at least 1 serious non-opportunistic infectious complication, and 50% presented 2 or more infectious complications, mostly bacterial infections. Thirty six percent of NHL and 23% of HL died. After adjusting for confounders, the variables associated with death were IPI and lymphoma type.HIV positive patients with lymphoma in our institution are diagnosed with an advanced stage and a high burden of infections complications. Death remains high and the variables strongly associated with death are those related to lymphoma prognosis such as lymphoma type and IPI.