Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Complex N-Glycans of the Parasite S. mansoni to Examine the Importance of Epitope Presentation on DC-SIGN recognition.
ABSTRACT: The importance of multivalency for N-glycan-protein interactions has primarily been studied by attachment of minimal epitopes to artificial multivalent scaffold and not in the context of multi-antennary glycans. N-glycans can be modified by bisecting GlcNAc, core xylosides and fucosides, and extended N-acetyl lactosamine moieties. The impact of such modifications on glycan recognition are also not well understood. We describe here a chemoenzymatic methodology that can provide N-glycans expressed by the parasitic worm S. mansoni having unique epitopes at each antenna and containing core xyloside. NMR, computational and electron microscopy were employed to investigate recognition of the glycans by the human lectin DC-SIGN. It revealed that core xyloside does not influence terminal epitope recognition. The multi-antennary glycans bound with higher affinity to DC-SIGN compared to mono-valent counterparts, which was attributed to proximity-induced effective concentration. The multi-antennary glycans cross-linked DC-SIGN into a dense network, which likely is relevant for antigen uptake and intracellular routing.
Project description:Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that affects a wide variety of physiological functions. DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin) is a protein expressed in antigen-presenting cells that recognizes a variety of glycan epitopes. Until now, the binding of DC-SIGN to SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein has been reported in various articles and is regarded to be a factor in systemic infection and cytokine storm. The mechanism of DC-SIGN recognition offers an alternative method for discovering new medication for COVID-19 treatment. Here, we discovered three potential pockets that hold different glycan epitopes by performing molecular dynamics simulations of previously reported oligosaccharides. The "EPN" motif, "NDD" motif, and Glu354 form the most critical pocket, which is known as the Core site. We proposed that the type of glycan epitopes, rather than the precise amino acid sequence, determines the recognition. Furthermore, we deduced that oligosaccharides could occupy an additional site, which adds to their higher affinity than monosaccharides. Based on our findings and previously described glycoforms on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike, we predicted the potential glycan epitopes for DC-SIGN. It suggested that glycan epitopes could be recognized at multiple sites, not just Asn234, Asn149 and Asn343. Subsequently, we found that Saikosaponin A and Liquiritin, two plant glycosides, were promising DC-SIGN antagonists in silico.
Project description:A systematic, efficient means of producing diverse libraries of asymmetrically branched N-glycans is needed to investigate the specificities and biology of glycan-binding proteins. To that end, we describe a core pentasaccharide that at potential branching positions is modified by orthogonal protecting groups to allow selective attachment of specific saccharide moieties by chemical glycosylation. The appendages were selected so that the antenna of the resulting deprotected compounds could be selectively extended by glycosyltransferases to give libraries of asymmetrical multi-antennary glycans. The power of the methodology was demonstrated by the preparation of a series of complex oligosaccharides that were printed as microarrays and screened for binding to lectins and influenza-virus hemagglutinins, which showed that recognition is modulated by presentation of minimal epitopes in the context of complex N-glycans.
Project description:The immune scavenger protein DC-SIGN interacts with glycosylated proteins and has a putative role in facilitating viral infection. How these recognition events take place with different viruses is not clear and the effects of glycosylation on the folding and stability of DC-SIGN have not been reported. Herein, we report the development and application of a mass-spectrometry-based approach to both uncover and characterise the effects of O-glycans on the stability of DC-SIGN. We first quantify the Core?1 and 2 O-glycan structures on the carbohydrate recognition and extracellular domains of the protein using sequential exoglycosidase sequencing. Using ion mobility mass spectrometry, we show how specific O-glycans, and/or single monosaccharide substitutions, alter both the overall collision cross section and the gas-phase stability of the DC-SIGN isoforms. We find that rather than the mass or length of glycoprotein modifications, the stability of DC-SIGN is better correlated with the number of glycosylation sites.
Project description:Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and aggressive primary brain tumour for which total tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination is currently under clinical evaluation. Glioblastoma extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent an enriched cell-free source of tumour-associated (neo-) antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs) for the initiation of an anti-tumour immune response. Capture and uptake of EVs by DCs could occur in a receptor-mediated and presumably glycan-dependent way, yet the glycan composition of glioblastoma EVs is unknown. Here, we set out to characterize the glycocalyx composition of glioblastoma EVs by lectin-binding ELISA and comprehensive immunogold transmission electron microscopy (immuno-TEM). The surface glycan profile of human glioblastoma cell line-derived EVs (50-200 nm) was dominated by ?-2,3- and ?-2,6 linked sialic acid-capped complex N-glycans and bi-antennary N-glycans. Since sialic acids can trigger immune inhibitory sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) receptors, we screened for Siglec ligands on the EVs. Glioblastoma EVs showed significant binding to Siglec-9, which is highly expressed on DCs. Surprisingly, however, glioblastoma EVs lack glycans that could bind Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), a receptor that mediates uptake and induction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation. Therefore, we explored whether modification of the EV glycan surface could reduce immune inhibitory Siglec binding, while enhancing EV internalization by DCs in a DC-SIGN dependent manner. Desialylation with a pan-sialic acid hydrolase led to reduction of sialic acid expression on EVs. Moreover, insertion of a high-affinity ligand (LewisY) for DC-SIGN resulted in a four-fold increase of uptake by monocyte-derived DCs. In conclusion, we show that the glycocalyx composition of EVs is a key factor of efficient DC targeting and that modification of the EV glycocalyx potentiates EVs as anti-cancer vaccine.
Project description:Dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is a member of the C-type lectin family selectively expressed on immune-related cells. In the present study, we performed a systematic interaction analysis of DC-SIGN and its related receptors, DC-SIGN-related protein (DC-SIGNR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin (LSECtin) using frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). Carbohydrate-recognition domains of the lectins, expressed as Fc-fusion chimeras, were immobilized to Protein A-Sepharose and subjected to quantitative FAC analysis using 157 pyridylaminated glycans. Both DC-SIGN-Fc and DC-SIGNR-Fc showed similar specificities for glycans containing terminal mannose and fucose, but great difference in affinity under the given experimental conditions. By contrast, LSECtin-Fc showed no affinity to these glycans. As a common feature, the DC-SIGN-related lectin-Fc chimeras, including LSECtin, exhibited binding affinity to mono- and/or bi-antennary agalactosylated N-glycans. The detailed FAC analysis further implied that the presence of terminal GlcNAc at the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I position is a key determinant for the binding of these lectins to agalactosylated N-glycans. By contrast, none of the lectins showed significant affinity to highly branched agalactosylated N-glycans. All of the lectins expressed on the cells were able to mediate cellular adhesion to agalactosylated cells and endocytosis of a model glycoprotein, agalactosylated ?1-acid glycoprotein. In this context, we also identified three agalactosylated serum glycoproteins recognized by DC-SIGN-Fc (i.e. ?-2-macroglobulin, serotransferrin and IgG heavy chain), by lectin blotting and MS analysis. Hence, we propose that 'agalactosylated N-glycans' are candidate ligands common to these lectins.
Project description:It is widely accepted that the heavily glycosylated glycoprotein gp120 on the surface of HIV-1 shields peptide epitopes from recognition by the immune system and may promote infection in vivo by interaction with dendritic cells and transport to tissue rich in CD4(+) T cells such as lymph nodes. A conserved cluster of oligomannose glycans on gp120 has been identified as the epitope recognized by the broadly HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12. Oligomannose glycans are also the ligands for DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin found on the surface of dendritic cells. Multivalency is fundamental for carbohydrate-protein interactions, and mimicking of the high glycan density on the virus surface has become essential for designing carbohydrate-based HIV vaccines and antiviral agents. We report an efficient synthesis of oligomannose dendrons, which display multivalent oligomannoses in high density, and characterize their interaction with 2G12 and DC-SIGN by a glycan microarray binding assay. The solution and the surface binding analysis of 2G12 to a prototype oligomannose dendron clearly demonstrated the efficacy of dendrimeric display. We further showed that these glycodendrons inhibit the binding of gp120 to 2G12 and recombinant dimeric DC-SIGN with IC(50) in the nanomolar range. A second-generation Man(9) dendron was identified as a potential immunogen for HIV vaccine development and as a potential antiviral agent.
Project description:Glycan-protein lateral interactions have gained increased attention as important modulators of receptor function, by regulating surface residence time and endocytosis of membrane glycoproteins. The pathogen-recognition receptor DC-SIGN is highly expressed at the membrane of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, where it is organized in nanoclusters and binds to different viruses, bacteria and fungi. We recently demonstrated that DC-SIGN N-glycans spatially restrict receptor diffusion within the plasma membrane, favoring its internalization through clathrin-coated pits. Here, we investigated the involvement of the N-glycans of DC-SIGN expressing cells on pathogen binding strengthening when interacting with Candida fungal cells by using atomic force microscope (AFM)-assisted single cell-pathogen adhesion measurements. The use of DC-SIGN mutants lacking the N-glycans as well as blocking glycan-mediated lateral interactions strongly impaired cell stiffening during pathogen binding. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the direct involvement of the cell membrane glycans in strengthening cell-pathogen interactions. This study, therefore, puts forward a possible role for the glycocalyx as extracellular cytoskeleton contributing, possibly in connection with the intracellular actin cytoskeleton, to optimize strengthening of cell-pathogen interactions in the presence of mechanical forces.
Project description:A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based methodology has been developed to differentiate core- and antennary-fucosylated glycosylation of glycopeptides. Both the glycosylation sites (heterogeneity) and multiple possible glycan occupancy at each site (microheterogeneity) can be resolved via intact glycopeptide analysis. The serum glycoprotein alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) which contains both core- and antennary-fucosylated glycosites was used in this study. Sialidase was used to remove the sialic acids in order to simplify the glycosylation microheterogeneity and to enhance the MS signal of glycopeptides with similar glycan structures. ?1-3,4 galactosidase was used to differentiate core- and antennary-fucosylation. In-source dissociation was found to severely affect the identification and quantification of glycopeptides with low abundance glycan modification. The settings of the mass spectrometer were therefore optimized to minimize the in-source dissociation. A three-step mass spectrometry fragmentation strategy was used for glycopeptide identification, facilitated by pGlyco software annotation and manual checking. The collision energy used for initial glycopeptide fragmentation was found to be crucial for improved detection of oxonium ions and better selection of Y1 ion (peptide+GlcNAc). Structural assignments revealed that all three glycosylation sites of A1AT glycopeptides contain complex N-glycan structures: site Asn70 contains biantennary glycans without fucosylation; site Asn107 contains bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with both core- and antennary-fucosylation; site Asn271 contains bi- and tri-antennary glycans with both core- and antennary-fucosylation. The relative intensity of core- and antennary-fucosylation on Asn107 was similar to that of the A1AT protein indicating that the glycosylation level of Asn107 is much larger than the other two sites.
Project description:The dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN mediates pathogen recognition by binding to glycans characteristic of pathogen surfaces, including those found on HIV. Clustering of carbohydrate-binding sites in the receptor tetramer is believed to be critical for targeting of pathogen glycans, but the arrangement of these sites remains poorly understood. Surface force measurements between apposed lipid bilayers displaying the extracellular domain of DC-SIGN and a neoglycolipid bearing an oligosaccharide ligand provide evidence that the receptor is in an extended conformation and that glycan docking is associated with a conformational change that repositions the carbohydrate-recognition domains during ligand binding. The results further show that the lateral mobility of membrane-bound ligands enhances the engagement of multiple carbohydrate-recognition domains in the receptor oligomer with appropriately spaced ligands. These studies highlight differences between pathogen targeting by DC-SIGN and receptors in which binding sites at fixed spacing bind to simple molecular patterns.
Project description:We previously developed a biobetter version of rhIFN-? (R27T) that possesses an additional glycosylation site compared with rhIFN-? 1a. Herein, we characterized N-glycosylation heterogeneity of R27T, which includes both N-glycan site occupancy heterogeneity (macro-heterogeneity) and complexity of carbohydrate moieties (micro-heterogeneity). N-glycan site occupancy manifested as distinct differences in size and isoelectric point. The analysis of complex carbohydrate moieties of R27T involved the common biopharmaceutical glycosylation critical quality attributes such as core fucosylation, antennary composition, sialylation, N-acetyllactosamine extensions, linkages, and overall glycan profiles using weak anion-exchange and hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography with 2-aminobenzoic acid-labeled N-glycans. The double-glycosylated form accounted for approx. 94% R27T, while the single-glycosylated form accounted for 6% R27T. N-glycans consisted of a mixture of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary glycans, some with N-acetyllactosamine extensions, but neither outer arm fucose nor ?-galactose was detected. Sialic acid major variants, N-acetyl- and N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid, were more abundant in R27T than in Rebif. The major N-glycan, accounting for ?42% of total N-glycans, had a di-sialylated, core-fucosylated bi-antennary structure.