Characterization of an A3G-VifHIV-1-CRL5-CBFβ Structure Using a Cross-linking Mass Spectrometry Pipeline for Integrative Modeling of Host-Pathogen Complexes.
ABSTRACT: Structural analysis of host-pathogen protein complexes remains challenging, largely due to their structural heterogeneity. Here, we describe a pipeline for the structural characterization of these complexes using integrative structure modeling based on chemical cross-links and residue-protein contacts inferred from mutagenesis studies. We used this approach on the HIV-1 Vif protein bound to restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G), the Cullin-5 E3 ring ligase (CRL5), and the cellular transcription factor Core Binding Factor Beta (CBFβ) to determine the structure of the (A3G-Vif-CRL5-CBFβ) complex. Using the MS-cleavable DSSO cross-linker to obtain a set of 132 cross-links within this reconstituted complex along with the atomic structures of the subunits and mutagenesis data, we computed an integrative structure model of the heptameric A3G-Vif-CRL5-CBFβ complex. The structure, which was validated using a series of tests, reveals that A3G is bound to Vif mostly through its N-terminal domain. Moreover, the model ensemble quantifies the dynamic heterogeneity of the A3G C-terminal domain and Cul5 positions. Finally, the model was used to rationalize previous structural, mutagenesis and functional data not used for modeling, including information related to the A3G-bound and unbound structures as well as mapping functional mutations to the A3G-Vif interface. The experimental and computational approach described here is generally applicable to other challenging host-pathogen protein complexes.
Project description:Here we use an optimization cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) pipeline for the structural characterization of a dynamic HIV-host protein complex. Using DSSO-based XL-MS analysis, residue-protein proximity restraints based on functional genetics, and integrative modeling, we define the structure of the HIV-1 Vif protein bound to restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G), the Cullin-5 E3 ring ligase (CRL5), and the cellular transcription factor Core Binding Factor Beta (CBFβ). Using a XL-MS3 methodology, we identify 132 inter-linked peptides and integrate the data with atomic structures of the subunits and mutagenesis data, and computed an integrative structure model of the heptameric A3G-CRL5-Vif-CBFβ complex. The resulting model ensemble quantifies the dynamic heterogenity of the A3G C-terminal domain, as well as CUL5 flexibility, and defines the interface between Vif and A3G. Our model can be used to rationalize previous structural, mutatagenesis, and functional data not included in modeling. The experimental and computational approach described here is generally applicable to other challenging host-pathogen protein complexes and provides new visualization tools for characterizing cross-linking data.
Project description:Vif is a lentiviral accessory protein that regulates viral infectivity in part by inducing proteasomal degradation of APOBEC3G (A3G). Recently, CBFβ was found to facilitate Vif-dependent degradation of A3G. However, the exact role of CBFβ remains unclear. Several studies noted reduced Vif expression in CBFβ knockdown cells while others saw no significant impact of CBFβ on Vif stability. Here, we confirmed that CBFβ increases Vif steady-state levels. CBFβ affected expression of neither viral Gag nor Vpu protein, indicating that CBFβ regulates Vif expression posttranscriptionally. Kinetic studies revealed effects of CBFβ on both metabolic stability and the rate of Vif biosynthesis. These effects were dependent on the ability of CBFβ to interact with Vif. Importantly, at comparable Vif levels, CBFβ further enhanced A3G degradation, suggesting that CBFβ facilitates A3G degradation by increasing the levels of Vif and by independently augmenting the ability of Vif to target A3G for degradation. CBFβ also increased expression of RUNX1 by enhancing RUNX1 biosynthesis. Unlike Vif, however, CBFβ had no detectable effect on RUNX1 metabolic stability. We propose that CBFβ acts as a chaperone to stabilize Vif during and after synthesis and to facilitate interaction of Vif with cellular cofactors required for the efficient degradation of A3G.In this study, we show that CBFβ has a profound effect on the expression of the HIV-1 infectivity factor Vif and the cellular transcription factor RUNX1, two proteins that physically interact with CBFβ. Kinetic studies revealed that CBFβ increases the rate of Vif and RUNX1 biosynthesis at the level of translation. Mutants of Vif unable to physically interact with CBFβ were nonresponsive to CBFβ. Our data suggest that CBFβ exerts a chaperone-like activity (i) to minimize the production of defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) by binding to nascent protein to prevent premature termination and (ii) to stabilize mature protein conformation to ensure proper function of Vif and RUNX1. Thus, we identified a novel mechanism of protein regulation that affects both viral and cellular factors and thus has broad implications beyond the immediate HIV field.
Project description:The human APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA cytosine deaminase restricts and hypermutates DNA-based parasites including HIV-1. The viral infectivity factor (Vif) prevents restriction by triggering A3G degradation. Although the structure of the A3G catalytic domain is known, the structure of the N-terminal Vif-binding domain has proven more elusive. Here, we used evolution- and structure-guided mutagenesis to solubilize the Vif-binding domain of A3G, thus permitting structural determination by NMR spectroscopy. A smaller zinc-coordinating pocket and altered helical packing distinguish the structure from previous catalytic-domain structures and help to explain the reported inactivity of this domain. This soluble A3G N-terminal domain is bound by Vif; this enabled mutagenesis and biochemical experiments, which identified a unique Vif-interacting surface formed by the ?1-?1, ?2-?2 and ?4-?4 loops. This structure sheds new light on the Vif-A3G interaction and provides critical information for future drug development.
Project description:In the absence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein, the host antiviral deaminase apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (A3G) restricts the production of infectious HIV-1 by deamination of dC residues in the negative single-stranded DNA produced by reverse transcription. The Vif protein averts the lethal threat of deamination by precluding the packaging of A3G into assembling virions by mediating proteasomal degradation of A3G. In spite of this robust Vif activity, residual A3G molecules that escape degradation and incorporate into newly assembled virions are potentially deleterious to the virus. We hypothesized that virion-associated Vif inhibits A3G enzymatic activity and therefore prevents lethal mutagenesis of the newly synthesized viral DNA. Here, we show that (i) Vif-proficient HIV-1 particles released from H9 cells contain A3G with lower specific activity compared with ?vif-virus-associated A3G, (ii) encapsidated HIV-1 Vif inhibits the deamination activity of recombinant A3G, and (iii) purified HIV-1 Vif protein and the Vif-derived peptide Vif25-39 inhibit A3G activity in vitro at nanomolar concentrations in an uncompetitive manner. Our results manifest the potentiality of Vif to control the deamination threat in virions or in the pre-integration complexes following entry to target cells. Hence, virion-associated Vif could serve as a last line of defense, protecting the virus against A3G antiviral activity.
Project description:Accessory proteins are a key feature that distinguishes primate immunodeficiency viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) from other retroviruses. A prime example is the virion infectivity factor, Vif, which hijacks a cellular co-transcription factor (CBF-?) to recruit a ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL5) to bind and degrade antiviral APOBEC3 enzymes including APOBEC3D (A3D), APOBEC3F (A3F), APOBEC3G (A3G), and APOBEC3H (A3H). Although APOBEC3 antagonism is essential for viral pathogenesis, and a more than sufficient functional justification for Vif's evolution, most viral proteins have evolved multiple functions. Indeed, Vif has long been known to trigger cell cycle arrest and recent studies have shed light on the underlying molecular mechanism. Vif accomplishes this function using the same CBF-?/CRL5 ubiquitin ligase complex to degrade a family of PPP2R5 phospho-regulatory proteins. These advances have helped usher in a new era of accessory protein research and fresh opportunities for drug development.
Project description:During coevolution with the host, HIV-1 developed the ability to hijack the cellular ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway to counteract the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G (A3G), a host cytidine deaminase that can block HIV-1 replication. Abrogation of A3G function involves the HIV-1 Vif protein, which binds A3G and serves as an adapter molecule to recruit A3G to a Cullin5-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Structure-guided mutagenesis of A3G focused on the 14 most surface-exposed Lys residues allowed us to identify four Lys residues (Lys-297, 301, 303, and 334) that are required for Vif-mediated A3G ubiquitination and degradation. Substitution of Arg for these residues confers Vif resistance and restores A3G's antiviral activity in the presence of Vif. In our model, the critical four Lys residues cluster at the C terminus, opposite to the known N-terminal Vif-interaction region in the protein. Thus, spatial constraints imposed by the E3 ligase complex may be an important determinant in Vif-dependent A3G ubiquitination.
Project description:Human cells express natural antiviral proteins, such as APOBEC3G (A3G), that potently restrict HIV replication. As a counter-defense, HIV encodes the accessory protein Vif, which binds A3G and mediates its proteasomal degradation. Our structural knowledge on how Vif and A3G interact is limited, because a co-structure is not available. We identified specific points of contact between Vif and A3G by using functional assays with full-length A3G, patient-derived Vif variants, and HIV forced evolution. These anchor points were used to model and validate the Vif-A3G interface. The resultant co-structure model shows that the negatively charged ?4-?4 A3G loop, which contains primate-specific variation, is the core Vif binding site and forms extensive interactions with a positively charged pocket in HIV Vif. Our data present a functional map of this viral-host interface and open avenues for targeted approaches to block HIV replication by obstructing the Vif-A3G interaction.
Project description:APOBEC3 (A3) proteins are a family of host antiviral restriction factors that potently inhibit various retroviral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. To overcome this restriction, HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) recruits the cellular cofactor CBFβ to assist in targeting A3 proteins to a host E3 ligase complex for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Intervention of the Vif-A3 interactions could be a promising therapeutic strategy to facilitate A3-mediated suppression of HIV-1 in patients. In this structural snapshot, we review the structural features of the recently determined structure of human A3F in complex with HIV-1 Vif and its cofactor CBFβ, discuss insights into the molecular principles of Vif-A3 interplay during the arms race between the virus and host, and highlight the therapeutic implications.
Project description:Multi-subunit cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are the largest family of ubiquitin E3 ligases in humans. CRL activity is tightly regulated to prevent unintended substrate degradation or autocatalytic degradation of CRL subunits. Using a proteomics strategy, we discovered that CRL4AMBRA1 (CRL substrate receptor denoted in superscript) targets Elongin C (ELOC), the essential adapter protein of CRL5 complexes, for polyubiquitination and degradation. We showed that the ubiquitin ligase function of CRL4AMBRA1 is required to disrupt the assembly and attenuate the ligase activity of human CRL5SOCS3 and HIV-1 CRL5VIF complexes as AMBRA1 depletion leads to hyperactivation of both CRL5 complexes. Moreover, CRL4AMBRA1 modulates interleukin-6/STAT3 signaling and HIV-1 infectivity that are regulated by CRL5SOCS3 and CRL5VIF, respectively. Thus, by discovering a substrate of CRL4AMBRA1, ELOC, the shared adapter of CRL5 ubiquitin ligases, we uncovered a novel CRL cross-regulation pathway.
Project description:The HIV-1 protein Vif is essential for in vivo viral replication that targets the human DNA-editing enzyme, APOBEC3G (A3G), which inhibits replication of retroviruses. The Vif-A3G interactions are believed to be important targets for antiviral drug development. Since the interactions of A3G and Vif evade the ubiquitination pathways in human host, the viral replication precedes which otherwise spreads infection. In this study, two potent Vif inhibitors RN 18 and VEC5 have been evaluated for their inhibitory potential employing ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions studies. VEC 5 showed better interaction with Vif than RN18. Predicted data show that VEC5 bound Vif and RN18 bound Vif showed diminished interaction to A3G compared to inhibitor unbound Vif. However, this should be further validated using in vitro studies.