ABSTRACT: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are common genetic abnormalities in glioma, which result in the accumulation of an "oncometabolite", D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). Abnormally elevated D-2-HG levels result in a distinctive pattern in cancer biology, through competitively inhibiting α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxgenases (α-KGDDs). Recent studies have revealed that D-2-HG affects DNA/histone methylation, hypoxia signaling, DNA repair, and redox homeostasis, which impacts the oncogenesis of IDH-mutated cancers. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of D-2-HG in cancer biology, as well as the emerging opportunities in therapeutics in IDH-mutated glioma.
Project description:2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is an oncometabolite accumulating in certain cancers and some neurometabolic diseases. In cancers 2-HG accumulation is induced by a gain-of-function mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes, leading to conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate (a-KG) into 2-HG
Project description:Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 and -2 have recently been described in glioma. This mutation leads to a neomorphic enzymatic activity as the conversion of isocitrate to alpha ketoglutarate (αKG) is replaced by the conversion of αKG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) with NADPH oxidation. It has been suggested that this oncometabolite D-2HG via inhibition of αKG-dioxygenases is involved in multiple functions such as epigenetic modifications or hypoxia responses. The present study is aimed at deciphering how the mutant IDH can affect cancer pathogenesis, in particular with respect to its associated oncometabolite D-2HG. We show that the overexpression of mutant IDH in glioma cells or treatment with D-2HG triggered an increase in cell proliferation. However, although mutant IDH reduced cell sensitivity to the apoptotic inducer etoposide, D-2HG exhibited no effect on apoptosis. Instead, we found that the apoptotic effect was mediated through the mitochondrial NADH pool reduction and could be inhibited by oxamate. These data show that besides D-2HG production, mutant IDH affects other crucial metabolite pools. These observations lead to a better understanding of the biology of IDH mutations in gliomas and their response to therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recurrent mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes, which are frequent in gliomas, result in marked accumulation of the metabolic by-product 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) within tumors. In other malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, presence of IDH mutation is associated with elevated 2-HG levels in serum or urine compartments. Circulating 2-HG in patients with glial malignancies has not been thoroughly investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we analyzed 2-HG levels in the serum and urine of a large set of patients with IDH-mutant and IDH-wild-type glioma, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a subset of this cohort.<h4>Results</h4>We found that 2-HG was elevated in the urine of patients with IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild-type glioma, although no significant differences in 2-HG levels were observed in the serum or the small set of CSF samples obtained. Among patients with IDH-mutant glioma, 2-HG levels did not differ based on the histopathologic grade, genetic subtype (TP53 mutant or 1p/19q codeleted), presence of a canonical (IDH1 R132H) or noncanonical (any other IDH variant) mutation, or treatment type.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our finding suggests that urinary 2-HG is increased among patients with IDH-mutant gliomas, and may represent a future surrogate, noninvasive biomarker to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and management.<h4>Implications for practice</h4>Patients with glioma who harbor mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes showed selective elevation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate in the urine. Similar elevations were not identified in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid. 2-Hydroxyglutarate may serve as a useful, noninvasive biomarker to stratify patients newly diagnosed with glioma with regard to prognosis and management.
Project description:Chemotherapy of a combination of DNA alkylating agents, procarbazine and lomustine (CCNU), and a microtubule poison, vincristine, offers a significant benefit to a subset of glioma patients. The benefit of this regimen, known as PCV, was recently linked to IDH mutation that occurs frequently in glioma and produces D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), a competitive inhibitor of ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG). We report here that D-2-HG inhibits the ?-KG-dependent alkB homolog (ALKBH) DNA repair enzymes. Cells expressing mutant IDH display reduced repair kinetics, accumulate more DNA damages, and are sensitized to alkylating agents. The observed sensitization to alkylating agents requires the catalytic activity of mutant IDH to produce D-2-HG and can be reversed by the deletion of mutant IDH allele or overexpression of ALKBH2 or AKLBH3. Our results suggest that impairment of DNA repair may contribute to tumorigenesis driven by IDH mutations and that alkylating agents may merit exploration for treating IDH-mutated cancer patients.
Project description:D-2-Hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) is regarded as an oncometabolite. It is found at elevated levels in certain malignancies such as acute myeloid leukaemia and glioma. It is produced by a mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH1/2, a low-affinity/high-capacity enzyme. Its degradation, in contrast, is catalysed by the high-affinity/low-capacity enzyme D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HDH). So far, it has not been proven experimentally that the accumulation of D-2-HG in IDH mutant cells is the result of its insufficient degradation by D2HDH. Therefore, we developed an LC-MS/MS-based enzyme activity assay that measures the temporal drop in substrate and compared this to the expression of D2HDH protein as measured by Western blot. Our data clearly indicate, that the maximum D-2-HG degradation rate by D2HDH is reached in vivo, as v<sub>max</sub> is low in comparison to production of D-2-HG by mutant IDH1/2. The latter seems to be limited only by substrate availability. Further, incubation of IDH wild type cells for up to 48?hours with 5?mM D-2-HG did not result in a significant increase in either D2HDH protein abundance or enzyme activity.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) are commonly observed in lower-grade glioma and secondary glioblastomas. IDH mutants confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that converts ?-ketoglutarate to an oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate, which impacts cellular epigenetics and metabolism. IDH mutation establishes distinctive patterns in metabolism, cancer biology, and the therapeutic sensitivity of glioma. Thus, a deeper understanding of the roles of IDH mutations is of great value to improve the therapeutic efficacy of glioma and other malignancies that share similar genetic characteristics. In this review, we focused on the genetics, biochemistry, and clinical impacts of IDH mutations in glioma.
Project description:We discovered recently that the central metabolite ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) extends the lifespan of C. elegans through inhibition of ATP synthase and TOR signaling. Here we find, unexpectedly, that (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG), an oncometabolite that interferes with various ?-KG-mediated processes, similarly extends worm lifespan. (R)-2HG accumulates in human cancers carrying neomorphic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. We show that, like ?-KG, both (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG bind and inhibit ATP synthase and inhibit mTOR signaling. These effects are mirrored in IDH1 mutant cells, suggesting a growth-suppressive function of (R)-2HG. Consistently, inhibition of ATP synthase by 2-HG or ?-KG in glioblastoma cells is sufficient for growth arrest and tumor cell killing under conditions of glucose limitation, e.g., when ketone bodies (instead of glucose) are supplied for energy. These findings inform therapeutic strategies and open avenues for investigating the roles of 2-HG and metabolites in biology and disease.
Project description:The majority of low-grade and secondary high-grade gliomas carry heterozygous hotspot mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or the mitochondrial variant IDH2. These mutations mostly involve Arg132 in IDH1, and Arg172 or Arg140 in IDH2. Whereas IDHs convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate (?-KG) with simultaneous reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, these IDH mutants reduce ?-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) while oxidizing NADPH. D-2-HG is a proposed oncometabolite, acting via competitive inhibition of ?-KG-dependent enzymes that are involved in metabolism and epigenetic regulation. However, much less is known about the implications of the metabolic stress, imposed by decreased ?-KG and NADPH production, for tumor biology. We here present a novel heterozygous IDH1 mutation, IDH1(R314C), which was identified by targeted next generation sequencing of a high grade glioma from which a mouse xenograft model and a cell line were generated. IDH1(R314C) lacks isocitrate-to-?-KG conversion activity due to reduced affinity for NADP(+), and differs from the IDH1(R132) mutants in that it does not produce D-2-HG. Because IDH1(R314C) is defective in producing ?-KG and NADPH, without concomitant production of the D-2-HG, it represents a valuable tool to study the effects of IDH1-dysfunction on cellular metabolism in the absence of this oncometabolite.
Project description:Approximately 20% of unselected cases and 30% cytogenetically diploid cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 80% of grade II-III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas carry mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. IDH1/2 mutations prevent oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) and modulate the function of IDH (neomorphic activity) thereby facilitating reduction of ?-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), a putative oncometabolite. D-2HG is thought to act as a competitive inhibitor of ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases that include prolyl hydroxylases and chromatin-modifying enzymes. The end result is a global increase of cellular DNA hypermethylation and alterations of the cellular epigenetic state, which has been proposed to play a role in the development of a variety of tumors. In this review, we provide an update on potential molecular mechanisms linking IDH1/2 mutations and the resulting oncometabolite, D-2HG, with malignant transformation. In addition, in patients with AML and glioma we focus on the associations between IDH1/2 mutations and clinical, morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics.
Project description:The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate is a competitive inhibitor of ?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases' by Xu and colleagues, published in Cancer Cell in 2011 (Xu et al., 2011). The key experiments being replicated include Supplemental Figure 3I, which demonstrates that transfection with mutant forms of IDH1 increases levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), Figures 3A and 8A, which demonstrate changes in histone methylation after treatment with 2-HG, and Figures 3D and 7B, which show that mutant IDH1 can effect the same changes as treatment with excess 2-HG. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife.