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Antibacterial, Antihemolytic, Cytotoxic, Anticancer, and Antileishmanial Effects of Ajuga bracteosa Transgenic Plants.

ABSTRACT: Herbal and traditional medicines can play a pivotal role in combating cancer and neglected tropical diseases. Ajuga bracteosa, family Lamiaceae, is an important medicinal plant. The genetic transformation of A. bracteosa with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes further enhances its metabolic content. This study aimed at undertaking the molecular, phytochemical, and in vitro biological analysis of A. bracteosa extracts. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. Transgenic integration and expression of rolB were confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and qPCR analysis. The methanol: chloroform crude extracts of wild-type plants and transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antibacterial, antihemolytic, cytotoxic, anticancer, and leishmanial activity. Among all plants, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed the highest expression of the rolB gene. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis confirmed the enhanced number of functional groups of active compounds in all transgenic lines. Moreover, ABRL3 exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, minimum hemolytic activity (CC50 = 7293.05 ± 7 μg/mL) and maximum antileishmanial activity (IC50 of 56.16 ± 2 μg/mL). ABRL1 demonstrated the most prominent brine shrimp cytotoxicity (LD5039.6 ± 4 μg/mL). ABRL3 was most effective against various human cancer cell lines with an IC50 of 57.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, 46.2 ± 1.1 μg/mL, 72.4 ± 1.3 μg/mL, 73.3 ± 2.1 μg/mL, 98.7 ± 1.6 μg/mL, and 97.1 ± 2.5 μg/mL against HepG2, LM3, A549, HT29, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Overall, these transgenic extracts may offer a cheaper therapeutic source than the more expensive synthetic drugs.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8473257 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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