Trimetazidine Attenuates Heart Failure by Improving Myocardial Metabolism via AMPK.
ABSTRACT: Energic deficiency of cardiomyocytes is a dominant cause of heart failure. An antianginal agent, trimetazidine improves the myocardial energetic supply. We presumed that trimetazidine protects the cardiomyocytes from the pressure overload-induced heart failure through improving the myocardial metabolism. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After 4 weeks of TAC, heart failure was observed in mice manifested by an increased left ventricular (LV) chamber dimension, an impaired LV ejection fraction evaluated by echocardiography analysis, which were significantly restrained by the treatment of trimetazidine. Trimetazidine restored the mitochondrial morphology and function tested by cardiac transmission electron microscope and mitochondrial dynamic proteins analysis. Positron emission tomography showed that trimetazidine significantly elevated the glucose uptake in TAC mouse heart. Trimetazidine restrained the impairments of the insulin signaling in TAC mice and promoted the translocation of glucose transporter type IV (GLUT4) from the storage vesicle to membrane. However, these cardioprotective effects of trimetazidine in TAC mice were notably abolished by compound C (C.C), a specific AMPK inhibitor. The enlargement of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte induced by mechanical stretch, together with the increased expression of hypertrophy-associated proteins, mitochondria deformation and dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by trimetazidine. Trimetazidine enhanced the isolated cardiomyocyte glucose uptake in vitro. These benefits brought by trimetazidine were also removed with the presence of C.C. In conclusion, trimetazidine attenuated pressure overload-induced heart failure through improving myocardial mitochondrial function and glucose uptake via AMPK.
Project description:Background:Metabolic remodeling plays a vital role in the development of heart failure. The trimetazidine can optimize fatty acid and glucose oxidation via inhibition of long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase in the heart. So, trimetazidine commonly used in cardiovascular therapy as a myocardial metabolic drug. This study was conducted to assess the effects and mechanisms of trimetazidine on ketone body metabolism in heart failure rats. Methods:A rat model of heart failure was established by continuous subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol in 10 mg/kg/d. We examined body weight, heart weight index, and tested B-type natriuretic peptide by kit. We detected the structure and function of the heart. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining was performed to assess myocardial tissue morphology. To evaluate apoptosis, we used Tunel staining. Metabolic substrate contents of glucose, free fatty acid, ketone bodies, lactic acid, and pyruvate and ATP levels in myocardial tissues were measured with the corresponding kit. We detected the levels of protein expressions related to myocardial substrate uptake and utilization by Western blot. Results:Trimetazidine remarkably reduced the heart weight index and B-type natriuretic peptide levels. Besides, trimetazidine increased the level of blood pressure and decreased heart rate. Moreover, trimetazidine inhibited decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening. Further, trimetazidine decreased the levels of collagen volume fraction and promoted ATP production in myocardial tissues. Trimetazidine also reduced the levels of free fatty acid, ketone bodies, lactic acid, and increased glucose and pyruvate levels in myocardial tissues. Furthermore, trimetazidine markedly inhibited apoptosis. More importantly, the protein expression levels related to myocardial substrate uptake and utilization increased dramatically in the trimetazidine group. In particular, the protein expressions related to ketone body utilization were prominent. Conclusions:Trimetazidine could attenuate metabolic remodeling and improve cardiac function in heart failure rats. The potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effect of trimetazidine may be highly associated with its regulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? expressions. Along with the regulation, myocardial substrate utilization was improved, especially the utilization of ketone bodies.
Project description:The energy metabolism of the failing heart is characterized by reduced fatty acid (FA) oxidation and an increase in glucose utilization. However, little is known about how energy metabolism-function relationship is relevant to pathophysiology of heart failure. Recent study showed that the genetic deletion of CD36 (CD36KO), which causes reduction in FA use with an increased reliance on glucose, accelerates the progression from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure. Here, we show the mechanisms by which CD36 deletion accelerates heart failure in response to pressure overload. CD36KO mice exhibited contractile dysfunction and death from heart failure with enhanced cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis when they were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The pool size in the TCA cycle and levels of high-energy phosphate were significantly reduced in CD36KO-TAC hearts despite an increase in glycolytic flux. De novo synthesis of non-essential amino acids was facilitated in CD36KO-TAC hearts, which could cause a further decline of the pool size. The ingestion of a diet enriched in medium-chain FA improved cardiac dysfunction in CD36KO-TAC hearts. These findings suggest that myocardial FA uptake through CD36 is indispensable for sufficient ATP production and for preventing an increased glycolytic flux-mediated structural remodeling during pressure overload-induced hypertrophy.
Project description:Inflammation contributes to ventricular remodeling after myocardial ischemia, but its role in nonischemic heart failure is poorly understood. Local tissue inflammation is difficult to assess serially during pathogenesis. Although 18F-FDG accumulates in inflammatory leukocytes and thus may identify inflammation in the myocardial microenvironment, it remains unclear whether this imaging technique can isolate diffuse leukocytes in pressure-overload heart failure. We aimed to evaluate whether inflammation with 18F-FDG can be serially imaged in the early stages of pressure-overload-induced heart failure and to compare the time course with functional impairment assessed by cardiac MRI. Methods: C57Bl6/N mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) (n = 22), sham surgery (n = 12), or coronary ligation as an inflammation-positive control (n = 5). MRI assessed ventricular geometry and contractile function at 2 and 8 d after TAC. Immunostaining identified the extent of inflammatory leukocyte infiltration early in pressure overload. 18F-FDG PET scans were acquired at 3 and 7 d after TAC, under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia to suppress cardiomyocyte glucose uptake. Results: Pressure overload evoked rapid left ventricular dilation compared with sham (end-systolic volume, day 2: 40.6 ± 10.2 ?L vs. 23.8 ± 1.7 ?L, P < 0.001). Contractile function was similarly impaired (ejection fraction, day 2: 40.9% ± 9.7% vs. 59.2% ± 4.4%, P < 0.001). The severity of contractile impairment was proportional to histology-defined myocardial macrophage density on day 8 (r = -0.669, P = 0.010). PET imaging identified significantly higher left ventricular 18F-FDG accumulation in TAC mice than in sham mice on day 3 (10.5 ± 4.1 percentage injected dose [%ID]/g vs. 3.8 ± 0.9 %ID/g, P < 0.001) and on day 7 (7.8 ± 3.7 %ID/g vs. 3.0 ± 0.8 %ID/g, P = 0.006), though the efficiency of cardiomyocyte suppression was variable among TAC mice. The 18F-FDG signal correlated with ejection fraction (r = -0.75, P = 0.01) and ventricular volume (r = 0.75, P < 0.01). Western immunoblotting demonstrated a 60% elevation of myocardial glucose transporter 4 expression in the left ventricle at 8 d after TAC, indicating altered glucose metabolism. Conclusion: TAC induces rapid changes in left ventricular geometry and contractile function, with a parallel modest infiltration of inflammatory macrophages. Metabolic remodeling overshadows inflammatory leukocyte signal using 18F-FDG PET imaging. More selective inflammatory tracers are requisite to identify the diffuse local inflammation in pressure overload.
Project description:A causal role of hypercholesterolemia in non-ischemic heart failure has never been demonstrated. Adeno-associated viral serotype 8 (AAV8)-low-density lipoprotein receptor (AAV8-LDLr) gene transfer was performed in LDLr-deficient mice without and with pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AAV8-LDLr gene therapy resulted in an 82.8% (p < 0.0001) reduction of plasma cholesterol compared with controls. Mortality rate was lower (p < 0.05) in AAV8-LDLr TAC mice compared with control TAC mice (hazard ratio for mortality 0.457, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.237-0.882) during 8 weeks of follow-up. AAV8-LDLr gene therapy attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, reduced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, and decreased lung congestion in TAC mice. Cardiac function, quantified by invasive hemodynamic measurements and magnetic resonance imaging, was significantly improved 8 weeks after sham operation or after TAC in AAV8-LDLr mice compared with respective control groups. Myocardial protein levels of mammalian target of rapamycin and of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase were strikingly decreased following cholesterol lowering in mice without and with pressure overload. AAV8-LDLr therapy potently reduced cardiac glucose uptake and counteracted metabolic remodeling following pressure overload. Furthermore, oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis were decreased following AAV8-LDLr therapy in mice with pressure overload. In conclusion, cholesterol-lowering gene therapy potently counteracts structural and metabolic remodeling, and enhances cardiac function.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous GLUT1 induction and the increased glucose utilization that accompanies pressure overload hypertrophy (POH) are required to maintain cardiac function during hemodynamic stress, and to test the hypothesis that lack of GLUT1 will accelerate the transition to heart failure. To determine the contribution of endogenous GLUT1 to the cardiac adaptation to POH, male mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of the GLUT1 gene (G1KO) and their littermate controls (Cont) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). GLUT1 deficiency reduced glycolysis and glucose oxidation by 50%, which was associated with a reciprocal increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) relative to controls. Four weeks after TAC, glycolysis increased and FAO decreased by 50% in controls, but were unchanged in G1KO hearts relative to shams. G1KO and controls exhibited equivalent degrees of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and capillary density loss after TAC. Following TAC, in vivo left ventricular developed pressure was decreased in G1KO hearts relative to controls, but+dP/dt was equivalently reduced in Cont and G1KO mice. Mitochondrial function was equivalently impaired following TAC in both Cont and G1KO hearts. GLUT1 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters myocardial substrate utilization, but does not substantially exacerbate pressure-overload induced contractile dysfunction or accelerate the progression to heart failure.
Project description:The heart regeneration after apical resection and myocardial infarction in neonatal mice has been studied for years. However, the response of neonatal mouse heart under pressure overload is seldom explored. This study aimed to induce pressure overload in neonatal mice through a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) with different-gauge needles so as to investigate the effect of pressure overload on cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy in these mice. Myocardial hypertrophy was evaluated by echocardiographic, pathological, and molecular analyses. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was detected by immune-staining of phospho-histone H3, Ki67, and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Mild pressure overload induced with a 30-gauge needle stimulated cardiomyocyte proliferation, adaptive hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The heart function was not hampered even 21 days after the surgery. Moderate pressure overload induced with a 32-gauge needle led to pathological myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, and heart failure 7 days after the surgery. The gene and protein expression levels of markers of hypertrophy and fibrosis increased in 32-gauge TAC group compared with that in sham and 30-gauge TAC groups. The mice barely survived after severe pressure overload induced with a 34-gauge needle. The findings of this study might provide new insights into cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy in neonatal mice under pressure overload.
Project description:Aims:The metabolism of the failing heart is characterized by an increase in glucose uptake with reduced fatty acid (FA) oxidation. We previously found that the genetic deletion of FA-binding protein-4 and -5 [double knockout (DKO)] induces an increased myocardial reliance on glucose with decreased FA uptake in mice. However, whether this fuel switch confers functional benefit during the hypertrophic response remains open to debate. To address this question, we investigated the contractile function and metabolic profile of DKO hearts subjected to pressure overload. Methods and results:Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) significantly reduced cardiac contraction in DKO mice (DKO-TAC), although an increase in cardiac mass and interstitial fibrosis was comparable with wild-type TAC (WT-TAC). DKO-TAC hearts exhibited enhanced glucose uptake by 8-fold compared with WT-TAC. Metabolic profiling and isotopomer analysis revealed that the pool size in the TCA cycle and the level of phosphocreatine were significantly reduced in DKO-TAC hearts, despite a marked increase in glycolytic flux. The ingestion of a diet enriched in medium-chain FAs restored cardiac contractile dysfunction in DKO-TAC hearts. The de novo synthesis of amino acids as well as FA from glycolytic flux was unlikely to be suppressed, despite a reduction in each precursor. The pentose phosphate pathway was also facilitated, which led to the increased production of a coenzyme for lipogenesis and a precursor for nucleotide synthesis. These findings suggest that reduced FA utilization is not sufficiently compensated by a robust increase in glucose uptake when the energy demand is elevated. Glucose utilization for sustained biomass synthesis further enhances diminishment of the pool size in the TCA cycle. Conclusions:Our data suggest that glucose is preferentially utilized for biomass synthesis rather than ATP production during pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and that the efficient supplementation of energy substrates may restore cardiac dysfunction caused by energy insufficiency.
Project description:QiShenYiQi dripping pills (QSYQ), a traditional Chinese medicine, are commonly used to treat coronary heart disease, and QSYQ was recently approved as a complementary treatment for ischemic heart failure in China. However, only few studies reported on whether QSYQ exerts a protective effect on heart failure induced by pressure overload. In this study, we explored the role of QSYQ in a mouse model of heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Twenty-eight C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: Sham + NS group, Sham + QSYQ group, TAC + NS group, and TAC + QSYQ group. QSYQ dissolved in normal saline (NS) was administered intragastrically (3.5 mg/100 g/day) in the Sham + QSYQ and TAC + QSYQ groups. In the Sham + NS and TAC + NS groups, NS was provided every day intragastrically. Eight weeks after TAC, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization were performed to evaluate the cardiac function, and immunofluorescent staining with anti-actinin2 antibody was performed to determine the structure of the myocardial fibers. Moreover, TUNEL staining and Masson trichrome staining were employed to assess the effects of QSYQ on cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis. Western blots and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to measure the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the heart, and immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31 antibody was performed to explore the role of QSYQ in cardiac angiogenesis. Results showed that TAC-induced cardiac dysfunction and disrupted structure of myocardial fibers significantly improved after QSYQ treatment. Moreover, QSYQ treatment also significantly improved cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis in TAC-induced heart failure, which was accompanied by an increase in VEGF expression levels and maintenance of microvessel density in the heart. In conclusion, QSYQ exerts a protective effect on TAC-induced heart failure, which could be attributed to enhanced cardiac angiogenesis, which is closely related to QSYQ. Thus, QSYQ may be a promising traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heart failure induced by pressure overload such as hypertension.
Project description:Factors secreted by the heart, referred to as "cardiokines," have diverse actions in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis and remodeling. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted glycoprotein expressed in the adult heart and is induced in response to injurious conditions that promote myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cardiac Fstl1 in the remodeling response to pressure overload. Cardiac myocyte-specific Fstl1-KO mice were constructed and subjected to pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Although Fstl1-KO mice displayed no detectable baseline phenotype, TAC led to enhanced cardiac hypertrophic growth and a pronounced loss in ventricular performance by 4 wk compared with control mice. Conversely, mice that acutely or chronically overexpressed Fstl1 were resistant to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and cardiac failure. Fstl1-deficient mice displayed a reduction in TAC-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in heart, whereas Fstl1 overexpression led to increased myocardial AMPK activation under these conditions. In cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, administration of Fstl1 promoted AMPK activation and antagonized phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy. Inhibition of AMPK attenuated the antihypertrophic effect of Fstl1 treatment. These results document that cardiac Fstl1 functions as an autocrine/paracrine regulatory factor that antagonizes myocyte hypertrophic growth and the loss of ventricular performance in response to pressure overload, possibly through a mechanism involving the activation of the AMPK signaling axis.
Project description:Heart failure due to pressure overload is frequently associated with inflammation. In addition to inflammatory responses of the innate immune system, autoimmune reactions of the adaptive immune system appear to be triggered in subgroups of patients with heart failure as demonstrated by the presence of autoantibodies against myocardial antigens. Moreover, T cell-deficient and T cell-depleted mice have been reported to be protected from heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and we have shown recently that CD4<sup>+</sup>-helper T cells with specificity for an antigen in cardiomyocytes accelerate TAC-induced heart failure. In this study, we set out to investigate the potential contribution of CD8<sup>+</sup>-cytotoxic T cells with specificity to a model antigen (ovalbumin, OVA) in cardiomyocytes to pressure overload-induced heart failure. In 78% of cMy-mOVA mice with cardiomyocyte-specific OVA expression, a low-grade OVA-specific cellular cytotoxicity was detected after TAC. Adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8<sup>+</sup>-T cells from T cell receptor transgenic OT-I mice before TAC did not increase the risk of OVA-specific autoimmunity in cMy-mOVA mice. After TAC, again 78% of the mice displayed an OVA-specific cytotoxicity with on average only a three-fold higher killing of OVA-expressing target cells. More CD8<sup>+</sup> cells were present after TAC in the myocardium of cMy-mOVA mice with OT-I T cells (on average 17.5/mm<sup>2</sup>) than in mice that did not receive OVA-specific CD8<sup>+</sup>-T cells (3.6/mm<sup>2</sup>). However, the extent of fibrosis was similar in both groups. Functionally, as determined by echocardiography, the adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8<sup>+</sup>-T cells did not significantly accelerate the progression from hypertrophy to heart failure in cMy-mOVA mice. These findings argue therefore against a major impact of cytotoxic T cells with specificity for autoantigens of cardiomyocytes in pressure overload-induced heart failure.