Characterization of group C rotaviruses associated with diarrhea outbreaks in feeder pigs.
ABSTRACT: Feces and serum specimens were collected from three farms in Michigan on which approximately 50-lb (8- to 9-week-old) pigs experienced diarrhea just after placement into all-in-all-out finishing barns. The clinical signs (profuse watery diarrhea lasting about 2 weeks and no vomiting) were similar on all farms, and the morbidity rate was high (ranging from 60 to 80%) but without mortality. Eleven diarrheic fecal samples from the farms were tested for group A and C rotaviruses by immune electron microscopy (IEM) and various assays. IEM indicated that the fecal samples reacted only with antiserum against group C rotaviruses, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the samples had characteristic genomic electropherotypes for group C rotavirus. Group C rotavirus was detected by cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) tests in nine fecal samples, but no group A rotavirus was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or CCIF. By reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, all 11 fecal samples were positive for group C rotaviruses, with only 2 samples positive for group A rotaviruses. However, a second amplification of RT-PCR products using nested primers detected group A rotaviruses in all samples. Analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the RT-PCR product (partial-length VP7) of the group C rotavirus showed 87.2 to 91% nucleotide identity and 92.6 to 95.9% amino acid identity among two strong samples from the different farms and the Cowden strain of porcine group C rotavirus. All nine convalescent-phase serum samples tested had neutralizing antibodies to the Cowden strain, and the majority of them had neutralizing antibody against group A rotaviruses (OSU or/and Gottfried strains) by fluorescent focus neutralization tests. Although group C rotaviruses have been reported as a cause of sporadic diarrhea in suckling or weanling pigs, to our knowledge, this is the first report of epidemic diarrhea outbreaks associated with group C rotavirus in older pigs.
Project description:Groups A, B, and C rotaviruses have been identified in cattle. Group B rotaviruses are associated with sporadic cases of diarrhea in calves and adult cows. From diagnostic submissions to our laboratory, 90 fecal samples from cases of calf diarrhea, 81 fecal samples from cases of adult cow diarrhea (winter dysentery), and 20 fecal samples from case control normal adult cows were tested for group B rotaviruses by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (targeting 279 bp of the VP7 gene). In addition, 53 fecal samples from diarrheic adult cows were tested for group B rotaviruses by immune electron microscopy (IEM). By RT-PCR, five samples from calves were group B rotavirus positive (5.6%). Fifteen samples from adult cows with diarrhea were group B rotavirus positive (18.5%), and none of the control fecal samples from normal cows were positive for group B rotaviruses. By PAGE, one calf sample (RT-PCR positive) was group B rotavirus positive (short electropherotype), but none of the adult cow samples were positive for group B rotaviruses. By IEM, 5 (9.4%) of the 53 fecal samples from diarrheic adult cows were group B positive (all were also RT-PCR positive). The VP7 genes of three strains (WD653 from an adult cow and the ATI and Mebus calf strains) were sequenced. The VP7 genes from the three bovine strains showed high (over 90%) nucleotide and deduced amino acid homologies, but lower homologies (48 to 61%) were seen between these genes and the genes from rodent (IDIR) and human (ADRV) group B rotaviruses. Although there were some differences of degree, all inoculated gnotobiotic calves (n = 6) showed abnormal feces between 1 and 3 days after inoculation with each of three strains of group B bovine rotaviruses, and group B rotaviruse, were detected in the feces for up to 2 weeks by RT-PCR but for shorter periods by PAGE or IEM.
Project description:There is serological evidence that bovine group C rotaviruses exist in the United States, but there are no reports of their isolation. Ninety fecal samples from calves with diarrhea, 81 samples from adult cows with diarrhea (winter dysentery), and 20 fecal samples from healthy adult cows were tested for group C rotaviruses by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immune electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Three samples from adult cow diarrhea cases were positive only by RT-PCR, and a group C rotavirus was isolated from a positive sample in monkey kidney (MA104) cells (WD534tc/C). Genetically and serologically, the WD534tc/C strain was more closely related to the Cowden porcine group C strain than to the Shintoku bovine strain. Because the original cow feces also contained a group A rotavirus (detected after passage in cell culture), we hypothesized that such dual-rotavirus infections might play a role in the pathogenesis and host adaptation of rotaviruses. Thus, we examined the pathogenesis of WD534tc/C alone or combined with virulent (IND/A) or attenuated (NCDV/A) bovine group A rotaviruses in gnotobiotic calves. WD534tc/C alone induced diarrhea without (or with limited) virus shedding in inoculated calves (n = 3). In contrast, all calves coinfected with WD534tc/C and IND/A (n = 2) developed diarrhea and shed both viruses, whereas calves coinfected with WD534tc/C and NCDV/A (n = 3) developed diarrhea but did not shed either virus. Infection with WD534tc/C or NCDV/A alone caused only mild villous atrophy (jejunum and/or ileum), whereas dual infection with both viruses induced lesions throughout the small intestine. Although IND/A alone caused villous atrophy, more-widespread small intestinal lesions occurred in calves coinfected with WD534tc/C and IND/A. In conclusion, coinfection of calves with group A rotaviruses enhanced fecal shedding of a bovine group C rotavirus and the extent of histopathological lesions in the small intestines. Thus, our findings suggest a potential novel hypothesis involving dual infections for the adaptation of heterologous rotaviruses to new host species.
Project description:Group C rotaviruses are important human enteric pathogens that have also been detected in a variety of mammalian species, including pigs. Group C rotaviruses have been identified in piglets with diarrhea, but their ecology remains to be elucidated. By screening of 292 fecal samples collected from 4- to 5-week-old asymptomatic pigs from four herds in Ireland between 2005 and 2007, 13 (4.4%) samples tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR for group C rotavirus. Group A rotaviruses were also detected in 19 samples but not in conjunction with group C viruses. The gene encoding the major group C neutralization antigen, the outer capsid protein VP7, was sequenced. The majority of the strains were very closely related to each other (>99% amino acid [aa] identity) and were characterized as genogroup G1 since they were genetically related to the prototype porcine strain Cowden (92.6% aa identity). Conversely, two strains (1GA/05/Cork/Ire and 281/07/Dublin/Ire) were characterized as genogroup G6 since they displayed the highest identity (89.2 to 94.0% aa) to porcine G6 strains (43/06-22-like). Unexpectedly, one such G6 strain, 1GA/05/Cork/Ire, lacked the 4-aa insertion in the VP7 variable region VR8 found in all the other G6 group C rotaviruses. This study provides evidence that porcine group C rotavirus may be detected not infrequently in asymptomatic piglets. In addition, it provides evidence that, unlike the human viruses, porcine group C rotaviruses display broad genetic heterogeneity, which may pose a challenge for the development of prophylactic tools.
Project description:Enteric viral infections in pigs may cause diarrhea resulting in ill-thrift and substantial economic losses. This study reports the enteric infections with porcine astrovirus type 4 (PAstV4), porcine group A rotavirus (GARV), porcine group C rotavirus (GCRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) in 419 pigs, comprising both healthy and diarrheic animals, from 49 farms in five European countries (Austria, Germany, Hungary, Spain and Sweden). Real-time RT-PCR assays were developed to test fecal samples and to compare the prevalence and viral load in relation to health status, farms of origin and age groups. The results showed that PAstV4 (70.4%) was the dominant virus species, followed by PKoV (56.7%), PCV2 (42.2%), GCRV (3%) and GARV (0.9%). Diarrheic pigs had a higher viral load of PAstV4 in the nursery and growing-finishing groups. Rotaviruses were mainly detected in diarrheic pigs, whereas PCV2 was more often detected in clinically healthy than in diarrheic pigs, suggesting that most PCV2 infections were subclinical. PAstV4, PCV2 and PKoV were considered ubiquitous in the European pig livestock and co-infections among them were frequent, independently of the disease status, in contrast to a low prevalence of classical rotavirus infections.
Project description:There are few reports describing diarrhea of adult cattle caused by group A rotaviruses. Here, we report the identification of a novel bovine group A rotavirus from diarrhea of adult cows. A group A rotavirus was detected from an epizootic outbreak of diarrhea in adult cows with a decrease in milk production in Japan in 2013. The comprehensive genomic analyses from fecal samples by viral metagenomics using a next-generation sequencer revealed that it had an unreported genotype combination G15P. The genome constellation of this strain, namely, RVA/Cow-wt/JPN/Tottori-SG/2013/G15P was G15-P-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3 representing VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5, respectively. Each gene segment of Tottori-SG was most closely related to Japanese bovine group A rotaviruses suggesting that Tottori-SG might have derived from multiple reassortment events from group A rotavirus strains circulating among Japanese cattle. No other diarrhea pathogen of adult cattle was detected by routine diagnosis and metagenomics. Viral metagenomics, using a next-generation sequencer, is useful to characterize group A rotaviruses from fecal samples and offers unbiased comprehensive investigations of pathogen.
Project description:A total of 557 fecal specimens collected from piglets with diarrhea in Thailand were examined for rotavirus RNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-three, one, and two samples were positive for group A, group B, and group C rotaviruses, respectively. Two samples exhibited two segments found in picobirnavirus RNA. RNA electropherotyping of 23 group A rotaviruses showed that they were classified into five patterns. By serotyping by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR, viruses in 3 and 14 specimens were found to be serotype G3 and serotype G10, respectively. For one specimen, containing a serotype G10 virus (strain P343), virus was isolated in MA-104 cells, and the nucleotide sequences of the VP7 and VP4 genes were determined. Comparative sequence analysis and cross-neutralization tests showed that strain P343 has B223-like G10 and UK-like P7 serotype (or VP4 genotype 5) specificities. Rotaviruses having such antigenic specificities have not been detected in piglets. Thus, the interspecies transmission of rotaviruses between cows and pigs was suggested.
Project description:Swine are economically important food animals, but highly contagious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and rotavirus can afflict pig herds and contribute significantly to piglet morbidity and mortality. While there have been studies on rotavirus group A (RVA) in Thailand, reports of rotavirus group C (RVC) are limited. Here, we aimed to identify the prevalence of RVC circulating on Thai commercial swine farms. We analyzed 769 feces and intestine mucosal contents of pigs affected with diarrhea between 2011 and 2016 using RT-PCR specific for the PEDV spike (S), rotavirus glycoprotein (G) VP7, and protease-sensitive protein (P) VP4 genes. We found that 6.6% (51/769) of samples tested positive for RVC, of which 11 samples were co-infected with RVA and four samples were co-infected with PEDV. Three samples tested positive for all three viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene showed that the most frequent RVC genotype was G1, which grouped with the prototypic RVC Cowden strain. While G6 and G9 were also common, G3 was relatively rare. Analysis of the VP4 gene revealed that the most common P type was P, followed by P, P, and P. In all, there were six G/P combinations (G6P, G1P, G1P, G1P, G9P, and G9P), of which G6P was the most predominant.
Project description:Rotaviruses are responsible for the acute diarrhea in various mammalian and avian species. The nonstructural proteins NSP2 and NSP5 are involved in the rotavirus replication and the formation of viroplasm, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within which new viral particles morphogenesis and viral RNA replication occur. There are few studies on the genetic diversity of those proteins; thus this study aims at characterizing the diversity of rotavirus based on NSP2 and NSP5 genes in rotaviruses circulating in Brazilian pig farms. For this purpose, 63 fecal samples from pig farms located in six different cities in the São Paulo State, Brazil, were screened by nested RT-PCR. Seven strains had the partial nucleotide sequencing for NSP2, whereas in six, the total sequencing for NSP5. All were characterized as genotype H1 and N1. The nucleotide identity of NSP2 genes ranged from 100% to 86.4% and the amino acid identity from 100% to 91.5%. For NSP5, the nucleotide identity was from 100% to 95.1% and the amino acid identity from 100% to 97.4%. It is concluded that the genotypes of the strains circulating in the region of study are in agreement with those reported in the literature for swine and that there is the possibility of interaction between human and animal rotaviruses.
Project description:The increased prevalence of porcine group C rotavirus (PRVC) in suckling piglets and the emergence of new genetically distinct PRVC strains are concerning due to the associated significant economic losses they cause to the swine industry. We sequenced and analyzed two new PRVC strains, RV0104 (G3), and RV0143 (G6) and compared their pathogenesis with that of the historic strain Cowden (G1) in gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs. Near complete genome sequence analysis confirmed that these two strains were distinct from one another and the Cowden strain. VP1, VP2, VP6, NSP1-NSP3, and NSP5 genes were more similar between Cowden and RV0143, whereas VP3, VP7, and NSP4 shared higher nucleotide identity between Cowden and RV0104. Three-day-old and 3-week-old Gn piglets were inoculated with 105 FFU/piglet of Cowden, RV0104 or RV0143, or mock. All 3-day-old piglets developed severe diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy, with mean PRVC fecal shedding titers peaking and numerically higher in RV0104 and RV0143 piglets on post infection day (PID) 2. Histopathological examination of the small intestine revealed that the 3-day-old Cowden and RV0104 inoculated piglets were mildly affected, while significant destruction of small intestinal villi was observed in the RV0143 inoculated piglets. Consistent with the highest degree of pathological changes in the small intestines, the RV0143 inoculated piglets had numerically higher levels of serum IL-17 and IFN-? cytokines and numerically lower PRVC IgA geometric mean antibody titers. Milder pathological changes and overall higher titers of PRVC IgA antibodies were observed in 3-week-old vs. 3-day-old piglets. Additionally, diarrhea was only observed in RV0104 and RV0143 (but not Cowden) inoculated 3-week-old piglets, while levels of serum IL-10 and PRVC IgA antibodies were higher in Cowden inoculated pigs, consistent with the lack of diarrhea. Thus, we confirmed that these current, genetically heterogeneous PRVC strains possess distinct pathobiological characteristics that may contribute to the increased prevalence of PRVC diarrhea in neonatal suckling piglets.
Project description:Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. This study was conducted to investigate the existence of enteric viruses in two Egyptian farms with a history of recurrent diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected from 25 diarrheic calves. RNA was extracted and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, torovirus, coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Overall, 76 % (19/25) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses. Rota-, noro- and astroviruses were detected in 48 %, 24 % and 32 % of tested samples, respectively. About 37 % (7/19) of positive samples had two different viruses. One-month-old calves were the group most vulnerable to infections. Based on phylogenetic analysis, bovine rotaviruses were of genotypes G6 and G10, bovine noroviruses were in GIII.2, and bovine astroviruses were in the BAstV lineage 1. Astrovirus sequences showed a high level nucleotide sequence similarity with the Brazilian BAstV sequences available in GenBank. We believe this is the first report of bovine norovirus and bovine astrovirus circulating among calves in Egypt. Further epidemiological studies are recommended to investigate their presence on a wider scale, to predict their association with NCD, and to design appropriate diagnostic and control methods.