MFG-E8 Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration Through Dose-Dependent Mediation of Actin Polymerization.
ABSTRACT: Background Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the main contributor to neointimal formation. The Arp2/3 (actin-related proteins 2 and 3) complex activates actin polymerization and is involved in lamellipodia formation during VSMC migration. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein expressed in VSMCs. We hypothesized that MFG-E8 regulates VSMC migration through modulation of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. Methods and Results To determine whether MFG-E8 is essential for VSMC migration, a model of neointimal hyperplasia was induced in the common carotid artery of wild-type and MFG-E8 knockout mice, and the extent of neointimal formation was evaluated. Genetic deletion of MFG-E8 in mice attenuated injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Cultured VSMCs deficient in MFG-E8 exhibited decreased cell migration. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting revealed decreased Arp2 but not Arp3 expression in the common carotid arteries and VSMCs deficient in MFG-E8. Exogenous administration of recombinant MFG-E8 biphasically and dose-dependently regulated the cultured VSMCs. At a low concentration, MFG-E8 upregulated Arp2 expression. By contrast, MFG-E8 at a high concentration reduced the Arp2 level and significantly attenuated actin assembly. Arp2 upregulation mediated by low-dose MFG-E8 was abolished by treating cultured VSMCs with β1 integrin function-blocking antibody and Rac1 inhibitors. Moreover, treatment of the artery with a high dose of recombinant MFG-E8 diminished injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and reduced VSMC migration. Conclusions MFG-E8 plays a critical role in VSMC migration through dose-dependent regulation of Arp2-mediated actin polymerization. These findings suggest that high doses of MFG-E8 may have therapeutic potential for treating vascular occlusive diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Among older adults, arterial aging is the major factor contributing to increased risk for cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The chronic vascular inflammation that accompanies aging causes diffuse intimal-medial thickening of the arterial wall, thus increasing the vulnerability of aged vessels to vascular insults. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a biomarker for aging arteries. This integrin-binding glycoprotein, induced by angiotensin II, facilitates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and invasion in aging vasculatures. This study investigated whether MFG-E8 directly mediates the initial inflammatory responses in aged arteries or VSMCs. METHODS:A model of neointimal hyperplasia was induced in the common carotid artery (CCA) of aged mice to exacerbate age-associated vascular remodeling. Recombinant MFG-E8 (rMFG-E8) was administered to the injured artery using Pluronic gel to accentuate the effect on age-related vascular pathophysiology. The MFG-E8 level, leukocyte infiltration, and proinflammatory cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression in the arterial wall were evaluated through immunohistochemistry. By using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, the activation of the critical proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the injured CCAs was analyzed. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were conducted using VSMCs isolated from the aortas of young and aged mice to assess NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB-dependent gene expression, and cell proliferation. The extent of intimal-medial thickening in the injured vessels was analyzed morphometrically. Finally, Transwell migration assay was used to examine VSMC migration. RESULTS:Endogenous MFG-E8 expression in aged CCAs was significantly induced by ligation injury. Aged CCAs treated with rMFG-E8 exhibited increased leukocyte extravasation, CAM expression, and considerably increased NF-κB activation induced by rMFG-E8 in the ligated vessels. Exposure of early passage VSMCs from aged aortas to rMFG-E8 substantially increased NF-κB activation, proinflammatory gene expression, and cell proliferation. However, rMFG-E8 attenuated VSMC migration. CONCLUSIONS:MFG-E8 promoted the proinflammatory phenotypic shift of aged VSMCs and arteries, rendering the vasculature prone to vascular diseases. MFG-E8 may constitute a novel therapeutic target for retarding the aging processes in such vessels.
Project description:Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and excessive accumulation of dysfunctional PVAT are hallmarks of pathogenesis after angioplasty. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MIA3 is associated with atherosclerosis-relevant VSMC phenotypes. However, the role of MIA3 in the vascular remodeling response to injury remains unknown. Here, we found that expression of MIA3 is increased in proliferative VSMCs and knockdown of MIA3 reduces VSMCs proliferation, migration, and inflammation, whereas MIA3 overexpression promoted VSMC migration and proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of MIA3 ameliorates femoral artery wire injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and increases brown-like perivascular adipocytes. Collectively, the data suggest that MIA3 deficiency prevents neointimal formation by decreasing VSMC proliferation, migration, and inflammation and maintaining BAT-like perivascular adipocytes in PVAT during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:Neointimal hyperplasia, stimulated by injury and certain vascular diseases, promotes artery obstruction and tissue ischemia. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs), multiple modulators of protein handling machinery regulate intimal hyperplasia. These include elements of the VSMC unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (UPRER), and transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which catalyzes post-translational protein modification. Previous results for deficiency of UPRER-specific mediator XBP1, and of TG2, have been significant, but in multiple instances contradictory, for effects on cultured VSMC function, and, using multiple models, for neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Here, we engineered VSMC-specific deficiency of XBP1, and studied cultured VSMCs, and neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid artery ligation in vivo. Intimal area almost doubled in Xbp1fl/fl SM22?-CRE+ mice 21 days post-ligation. Cultured murine Xbp1 deficient VSMCs migrated more in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) than control VSMCs, and had an increased level of inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (Ire1?), a PDGF receptor-binding UPRER transmembrane endonuclease whose substrates include XBP1. Cultured XBP1-deficient VSMCs demonstrated decreased levels of TG2 protein, in association with increased TG2 polyubiquitination, but with increased TG transamidation catalytic activity. Moreover, IRE1?, and TG2-specific transamidation cross-links were increased in carotid artery neointima in Xbp1fl/fl SM22?-CRE+ mice. Cultured TG2-deficient VSMCs had decreased XBP1 associated with increased IRE1?, and increased migration in response to PDGF. Neointimal hyperplasia also was significantly increased in Tgm2fl/fl SM22?-CRE+ mice at 21 days after carotid ligation. In conclusion, a VSMC regulatory circuit between XBP1 and TG2 limits neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid ligation.
Project description:Advancing age induces aortic wall thickening that results from the concerted effects of numerous signaling proteins, many of which have yet to be identified. To search for novel proteins associated with aortic wall thickening, we have performed a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study to analyze aortic proteins from young (8 months) and old (30 months) rats and identified 50 proteins that significantly change in abundance with aging. One novel protein, the milk fat globule protein epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8), increases 2.3-fold in abundance in old aorta. Transcription and translation analysis demonstrated that aortic MFG-E8 mRNA and protein levels increase with aging in several mammalian species including humans. Dual immunolabeling shows that MFG-E8 colocalizes with both angiotensin II and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 within vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of the thickened aged aortic wall. Exposure of early passage VSMCs from young aorta to angiotensin II markedly increases MFG-E8 and enhances invasive capacity to levels observed in VSMCs from old rats. Treatment of VSMCs with MFG-E8 increases MCP-1 expression and VSMCs invasion that are inhibited by the MCP-1 receptor blocker vCCI. Silencing MFG-E8 RNA substantially reduces MFG-E8 expression and VSMCs invasion capacity. The data indicate that arterial MFG-E8 significantly increases with aging and is a pivotal relay element within the angiotensin II/MCP-1/VSMC invasion signaling cascade. Thus, targeting of MFG-E8 within this signaling axis pathway is a potential novel therapy for the prevention and treatment of the age-associated vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.
Project description:Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neointimal hyperplasia is a prominent pathological event during in-stent restenosis. Phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from a differentiated/contractile to a dedifferentiated/synthetic phenotype, accompanied by migration and proliferation of VSMCs play an important role in neointimal hyperplasia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotype switching of VSMCs have yet to be fully understood.<h4>Methods</h4>The mouse carotid artery ligation model was established to evaluate Sema3A expression and its role during neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and promoter-luciferase reporter assays were used to examine regulatory mechanism of Sema3A expression. SiRNA transfection and lentivirus infection were performed to regulate Sema3A expression. EdU assays, Wound-healing scratch experiments and Transwell migration assays were used to assess VSMC proliferation and migration.<h4>Findings</h4>In this study, we found that semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) was significantly downregulated in VSMCs during neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in mice and in human atherosclerotic plaques. Meanwhile, Sema3A was transcriptionally downregulated by PDGF-BB via p53 in VSMCs. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of Sema3A inhibited VSMC proliferation and migration, as well as increasing differentiated gene expression. Mechanistically, Sema3A increased the NRP1-plexin-A1 complex and decreased the NRP1-PDGFR? complex, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of PDGFR?. Moreover, we found that overexpression of Sema3A suppressed neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in vivo.<h4>Interpretation</h4>These results suggest that local delivery of Sema3A may act as a novel therapeutic option to prevent in-stent restenosis.
Project description:Objective- Dysregulated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays an essential role in neointimal hyperplasia. CD36 functions critically in atherogenesis and thrombosis. We hypothesize that CD36 regulates VSMC proliferation and contributes to the development of obstructive vascular diseases. Approach and Results- We found by immunofluorescent staining that CD36 was highly expressed in human vessels with obstructive diseases. Using guidewire-induced carotid artery injury and shear stress-induced intima thickening models, we compared neointimal hyperplasia in Apoe-/-, Cd36-/- /Apoe-/-, and CD36 specifically deleted in VSMC (VSMC cd36-/-) mice. CD36 deficiency, either global or VSMC-specific, dramatically reduced injury-induced neointimal thickening. Correspondingly, carotid artery blood flow was significantly increased in Cd36-/- /Apoe-/- compared with Apoe-/- mice. In cultured VSMCs from thoracic aorta of wild-type and Cd36-/- mice, we found that loss of CD36 significantly decreased serum-stimulated proliferation and increased cell populations in S phase, suggesting that CD36 is necessary for VSMC S/G2-M-phase transition. Treatment of VSMCs with a TSR (thrombospondin type 1 repeat) peptide significantly increased wild-type, but not Cd36-/- VSMC proliferation. TSR or serum treatment significantly increased cyclin A expression in wild-type, but not in Cd36-/- VSMCs. STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription), which reportedly enhances both VSMC differentiation and maturation, was higher in Cd36-/- VSMCs. CD36 deficiency significantly decreased expression of Col1A1 (type 1 collagen A1 chain) and TGF-?1 (transforming growth factor beta 1), and increased expression of contractile proteins, including calponin 1 and smooth muscle ? actin, and dramatically increased cell contraction. Conclusions- CD36 promotes VSMC proliferation via upregulation of cyclin A expression that contributes to the development of neointimal hyperplasia, collagen deposition, and obstructive vascular diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Bi-allelic function-inactivating ENPP1 mutations cause artery media calcification (AMC) with associated severe myointimal hyperplasia in generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), whereas mono-allelic ENPP1 deficiency is phenotypically normal. Here, we tested if ENPP1 deficiency promotes abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-driven responses to injury, with or without calcification. The ER stress mediator C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) affects neointimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis, and has paradoxical effects on bone formation. Hence, we assessed relationships between ENPP1 and CHOP in VSMCs. METHODS:We studied ENPP1-deficient mice and control littermates subjected to left carotid artery ligation, and isolated and studied VSMCs from these and Chop-/- mice, or with CHOP siRNA treatment. RESULTS:Normal Enpp1-/+ mice, in addition to Enpp1-/- mice prior to AMC development, had accelerated neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid artery ligation at 7-8 weeks age. Neointimal hyperplasia was linked with robust artery media CHOP expression in situ, but with marked AMC only in injured Enpp1-/- arteries. Cultured, ENPP1-deficient and CHOP-deficient VSMCs had increased migration and proliferation to PDGF. Cultured Chop-/- VSMCs demonstrated increased Pi donor-induced calcification. CHOP was significantly increased in Pi donor treated Enpp1-/- and Enpp1-/+ cultured VSMCs. CHOP siRNA treatment of Enpp1-/- VSMCs increased calcification, associated with elevated expression of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and the master osteoblastic transcription factor RUNX2. CONCLUSIONS:Both mono-allelic and bi-allelic ENPP1 deficiency promote dysregulated VSMC function, with robust lesion CHOP expression and enhanced neointimal hyperplasia after injury in vivo, but marked post-injury calcification limited to Enpp1-/- mice. Intimal hyperplasia in GACI appears regulated by biologic effects of ENPP1 deficiency other than calcification, including ER stress. VSMC CHOP excess in ENPP1 deficiency may primarily function to limit VSMC calcification.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) after arterial injury contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of neointimal hyperplasia. As a major component of epigenetics, histone methylation plays an important role in several cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in restenosis is still unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Human aortic VSMCs were challenged with PDGF-BB, and total histones were extracted and analysed by HPLC/MS. For the in vivo study, rats were subjected to wire-guided common carotid injury. KEY RESULTS:PDGF-BB markedly increased the H3K27me3 level, as demonstrated by use of HPLC/MS and confirmed by western blot analysis. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), the histone H3K27 methyltransferase component of polycomb repressive complex 2, was also up-regulated by PDGF-BB in VSMCs, and in the neointimal hyperplasia induced by wire injury of the rat carotid artery. Furthermore, inhibiting H3K27me3 by treatment with 3-?M UNC1999, an EZH2/1 inhibitor, significantly suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation compared with the PDGF-BB-treated group. Consistently, neointimal formation was significantly attenuated by oral or perivascular administration of UNC1999 compared with the sham group. Mechanistically, the increase in H3K27me3 inhibited the transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4A and thus promoted VSMC proliferation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Vascular injury elevated the expression of EZH2 and the downstream target H3K27me3, which suppressed p16INK4A expression in VSMCs and promoted VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia. EZH2 inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target for restenosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNA miR-214 has been implicated in many biological cellular functions, but the impact of miR-214 and its target genes on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and neointima smooth muscle cell hyperplasia is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS:Expression of miR-214 was closely regulated by different pathogenic stimuli in VSMCs through a transcriptional mechanism and decreased in response to vascular injury. Overexpression of miR-214 in serum-starved VSMCs significantly decreased VSMC proliferation and migration, whereas knockdown of miR-214 dramatically increased VSMC proliferation and migration. Gene and protein biochemical assays, including proteomic analyses, showed that NCK associated protein 1 (NCKAP1)-a major component of the WAVE complex that regulates lamellipodia formation and cell motility-was negatively regulated by miR-214 in VSMCs. Luciferase assays showed that miR-214 substantially repressed wild-type but not the miR-214 binding site mutated version of NCKAP1 3' untranslated region luciferase activity in VSMCs. This result confirmed that NCKAP1 is the functional target of miR-214 in VSMCs. NCKAP1 knockdown in VSMCs recapitulates the inhibitory effects of miR-214 overexpression on actin polymerization, cell migration, and proliferation. Data from cotransfection experiments also revealed that inhibition of NCKAP1 is required for miR-214-mediated lamellipodia formation, cell motility, and growth. Importantly, locally enforced expression of miR-214 in the injured vessels significantly reduced NCKAP1 expression levels, inhibited VSMC proliferation, and prevented neointima smooth muscle cell hyperplasia after injury. CONCLUSIONS:We uncovered an important role of miR-214 and its target gene NCKAP1 in modulating VSMC functions and neointima hyperplasia. Our findings suggest that miR-214 represents a potential therapeutic target for vascular diseases.