Complete Circular Genome Sequences of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates of the Four Different Sequence Types Causing Swine Dysentery in Switzerland.
ABSTRACT: The complete genomes of four Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates of the four different sequence types (STs) (ST6, ST66, ST196, and ST197) causing swine dysentery in Switzerland were generated by whole-genome sequencing and de novo hybrid assembly of reads obtained from second (Illumina) and third (Oxford Nanopore Technologies and Pacific Biosciences) generation high-throughput sequencing.
Project description:Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, results in substantial economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide. Although a number of different vaccine approaches have been explored with regard to this disease, they show limitations and none of them have reached the market. We here determine the vaccine potential of a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain. The virulence of this strain was assessed in experimental infection trials and its protection against swine dysentery was quantified in a vaccination-challenge experiment using a seeder infection model. Systemic IgG production and local IgA production were monitored in serum and faeces respectively. Across all trials, pigs that were colonized by virulent, strongly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strains consistently developed swine dysentery, in contrast to none of the pigs colonized by the weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae vaccine strain. In the seeder vaccination trial nearly all immunised animals developed swine dysentery on subsequent challenge with a virulent strain, but the speed of spread of swine dysentery and faecal score were significantly reduced in animals immunised with the weakly haemolytic strain compared to sham-immunised animals. The IgA response of immunised animals upon challenge with a virulent B. hyodysenteriae strain significantly correlated to a later onset of disease. The correlation between local IgA production and protection induced by a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain provides leads for future vaccine development against swine dysentery.
Project description:Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the primary cause of swine dysentery, which is responsible for major economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. The hemolytic activity of 10 B. hyodysenteriae strains isolated from stools of pigs with mild to mucohemorrhagic diarrhea was compared and seven hemolysis associated genes were sequenced. Hemolysis induced by these strains varied from strong to near absent. One weakly hemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain showed sequence changes in five hemolysis associated genes (tlyA, tlyB, hemolysin III, hemolysin activation protein and hemolysin III channel protein) resulting in amino acid substitutions. The occurrence of weakly hemolytic strains identifiable as B. hyodysenteriae should be taken into account in swine dysentery diagnostics. The presence of these strains may affect herd dysentery status, with great impact on a farms trading opportunities.
Project description:The spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a severe colonic infection of pigs that has a considerable economic impact in many swine-producing countries. In spite of its importance, knowledge about the global epidemiology and population structure of B. hyodysenteriae is limited. Progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of a low-cost, portable, and discriminatory method for strain typing. The aim of the current study was to develop and test a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method that could be used in basic veterinary diagnostic microbiology laboratories equipped with PCR technology or in more advanced laboratories with access to capillary electrophoresis. Based on eight loci, and when performed on isolates from different farms in different countries, as well as type and reference strains, the MLVA technique developed was highly discriminatory (Hunter and Gaston discriminatory index, 0.938 [95% confidence interval, 0.9175 to 0.9584]) while retaining a high phylogenetic value. Using the technique, the species was shown to be diverse (44 MLVA types from 172 isolates and strains), although isolates were stable in herds over time. The population structure appeared to be clonal. The finding of B. hyodysenteriae MLVA type 3 in piggeries in three European countries, as well as other, related, strains in different countries, suggests that spreading of the pathogen via carrier pigs is likely. MLVA overcame drawbacks associated with previous typing techniques for B. hyodysenteriae and was a powerful method for epidemiologic and population structure studies on this important pathogenic spirochete.
Project description:<i>Brachyspira hyodysenteriae</i> is an etiological agent of swine dysentery (SD). Diet fermentability plays a role in development of SD, but the mechanism(s) of action are largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether replacing lowly fermentable fiber with highly fermentable fiber would mitigate a 42 d <i>B. hyodysenteriae</i> challenge. Thirty-nine barrows were allocated to dietary treatment groups: (1) 20% corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 0% beet pulp (BP) or resistant starch (RS; lowly fermentable fiber (LFF)); (2) 10% DDGS, 5% BP, 5% RS (medium fermentable fiber (MFF)); and (3) 0% DDGS, 10% BP, 10% RS (highly fermentable fiber (HFF)). On day post inoculation 0, pigs were inoculated with <i>B. hyodysenteriae</i>. Overall, 85% LFF pigs developed clinical SD, 46% of MFF pigs developed SD, and 15% of HFF pigs developed SD (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Overall average daily gain (ADG) differed among all treatments (<i>p</i> < 0.001), with LFF pigs having the lowest ADG. For HFF pigs, ADG was 37% greater than LFF pigs (<i>p</i> < 0.001) and 19% greater than MFF pigs (<i>p</i> = 0.037). The LFF diet had greater relative abundance of <i>Shuttleworthia</i> and <i>Ruminococcus torques</i>. Further, microbiota of pigs that developed SD had enriched <i>Prevotellaceae</i>. Collectively, replacing DDGS with highly fermentable fiber reduced clinical SD, improved performance, and modulated fecal microbiota during <i>B. hyodysenteriae</i> challenge.
Project description:Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the aetiological agent of swine dysentery, a globally distributed disease that causes profound economic loss, impedes the free trade and movement of animals, and has significant impact on pig health. Infection is generally treated with antibiotics of which pleuromutilins, such as tiamulin, are widely used for this purpose, but reports of resistance worldwide threaten continued effective control. In Brachyspira hyodysenteriae pleuromutilin resistance has been associated with mutations in chromosomal genes encoding ribosome-associated functions, however the dynamics of resistance acquisition are poorly understood, compromising stewardship efforts to preserve pleuromutilin effectiveness. In this study we undertook whole genome sequencing (WGS) and phenotypic susceptibility testing of 34 UK field isolates and 3 control strains to investigate pleuromutilin resistance in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Genome-wide association studies identified a new pleuromutilin resistance gene, tva(A) (tiamulin valnemulin antibiotic resistance), encoding a predicted ABC-F transporter. In vitro culture of isolates in the presence of inhibitory or sub-inhibitory concentrations of tiamulin showed that tva(A) confers reduced pleuromutilin susceptibility that does not lead to clinical resistance but facilitates the development of higher-level resistance via mutations in genes encoding ribosome-associated functions. Genome sequencing of antibiotic-exposed isolates identified both new and previously described mutations in chromosomal genes associated with reduced pleuromutilin susceptibility, including the 23S rRNA gene and rplC, which encodes the L3 ribosomal protein. Interesting three antibiotic-exposed isolates harboured mutations in fusA, encoding Elongation Factor G, a gene not previously associated with pleuromutilin resistance. A longitudinal molecular epidemiological examination of two episodes of swine dysentery at the same farm indicated that tva(A) contributed to development of tiamulin resistance in vivo in a manner consistent with that seen experimentally in vitro. The in vitro studies further showed that tva(A) broadened the mutant selection window and raised the mutant prevention concentration above reported in vivo antibiotic concentrations obtained when administered at certain doses. We show how the identification and characterisation of tva(A), a new marker for pleuromutilin resistance, provides evidence to inform treatment regimes and reduce the development of resistance to this class of highly important antimicrobial agents.
Project description:Reported herein is the complete genome sequence of the type strain B-78 (ATCC 27164) of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of swine dysentery. The 3.1-Mb genome consists of a 3.056-Mb chromosome and a 45-kb plasmid, with 2,617 protein-coding genes, 39 RNA genes, and 40 pseudogenes.
Project description:Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included three strains of B. hyodysenteriae and two strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29,000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design.
Project description:The anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonises the large intestine of pigs and causes swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis. SD occurs worldwide, and control is hampered by a lack of vaccines and increasing antimicrobial resistance. B. hyodysenteriae strains typically produce strong beta-haemolysis on blood agar, and the haemolytic activity is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of SD. Recently, weakly haemolytic variants of B. hyodysenteriae have been identified in Europe and Australia, and weakly haemolytic strain D28 from Belgium failed to cause disease when used experimentally to infect pigs. Moreover, pigs colonised with D28 and then challenged with virulent strongly haemolytic strain B204 showed a delay of 2-4 days in developing SD compared to pigs not exposed to D28. The current study aimed to determine whether Australian weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain MU1, which is genetically distinct from D28, could cause disease and whether exposure to it protected pigs from subsequent challenge with strongly haemolytic virulent strains. Three experimental infection studies were undertaken in which no diseases occurred in 34 pigs inoculated with MU1, although mild superficial lesions were found in the colon in 2 pigs in one experiment. In two experiments, significantly fewer pigs exposed to MU1 and then challenged with strongly haemolytic virulent strains of B. hyodysenteriae developed SD compared to control pigs not previously exposed to MU1 (p?=?0.009 and p?=?0.0006). These data indicate that MU1 lacks virulence and has potential to be used to help protect pigs from SD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, swine dysentery, is a severe production limiting disease of swine. Recently, pigs in western Canada with clinical signs indistinguishable from swine dysentery were observed. Despite the presence of spirochetes on fecal smears, recognized Brachyspira spp. including B. hyodysenteriae could not be identified. A phylogenetically distinct Brachyspira, called "B. hampsonii" strain 30446, however was isolated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally reproduce mucohaemorrhagic colitis and characterize strain 30446 shedding following inoculation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eighteen 13-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to inoculation (n?=?12) or control (n?=?6) groups in each of two trials. In trial 1, pigs were inoculated with a tissue homogenate collected from clinically affected field cases. In trial 2, pigs were inoculated with a pure broth culture of strain 30446. In both trials, mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea was significantly more common in inoculated pigs than controls, all of which remained healthy. In animals with mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea, significantly more spirochetes were observed on Gram stained fecal smears, and higher numbers of strain 30446 genome equivalents were detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Strain 30446 was cultured from colon and/or feces of all affected but no control animals at necropsy. CONCLUSIONS: "Brachyspira hampsonii" strain 30446 causes mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea in pigs following a 4-9 day incubation period. Fecal shedding was detectable by day 4 post inoculation, and rarely preceded the onset of mucoid or haemorrhagic diarrhea by more than 2 days. Culture and 30446-specific qPCR are reliable methods of detection of this organism in feces and tissues of diarrheic pigs. The emergence of a novel Brachyspira spp., such as "B. hampsonii", creates diagnostic challenges including higher risk of false negative diagnostic tests. We therefore recommend diagnostic laboratories routinely use Brachyspira culture, nox-based and species-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing to diagnose Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.
Project description:The enteric, anaerobic spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a severe mucohemorrhagic diarrheal disease of pigs that has economic significance in every major pork-producing country. Recent investigation into potential vaccine candidates has focused on the outer membrane proteins of B. hyodysenteriae. Bhmp39 (formerly Vsp39) is the most abundant surface-exposed outer membrane protein of B. hyodysenteriae; its predicted gene sequence has previously been shown to share sequence similarity to eight genes divided evenly between two paralogous loci. The peptide sequence suggested that Bhmp39 is encoded by one of these genes, bhmp39h. The biological significance of maintaining eight homologous bhmp39 genes is unclear, though it has been proposed that this may play a role in antigenic variation. In this study, real-time, reverse transcription-PCR was used to demonstrate that bhmp39f and bhmp39h were the transcripts most abundantly expressed by B. hyodysenteriae strain B204 cultured under in vitro growth conditions. Mass spectrometry data of the purified 39-kDa membrane protein showed that both Bhmp39f and Bhmp39h were present. Northern blot analysis across predicted Rho-independent terminators demonstrated that the genes of the bhmp39efgh locus result in monocistronic transcripts.