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Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 for Neovascular Eye Diseases: From Biology to Therapy.


ABSTRACT: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other eye diseases are characterized by retinal and/or choroidal neovascularization, ultimately causing vision loss in millions of people worldwide. nvAMD and PDR are associated with aging and the number of those affected is expected to increase as the global median age and life expectancy continue to rise. With this increase in prevalence, the development of novel, orally bioavailable therapies for neovascular eye diseases that target multiple pathways is critical, since current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments, delivered by intravitreal injection, are accompanied with tachyphylaxis, a high treatment burden and risk of complications. One potential target is apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/reduction-oxidation factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1). The multifunctional protein APE1/Ref-1 may be targeted via inhibitors of its redox-regulating transcription factor activation activity to modulate angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress response and cell cycle in neovascular eye disease; these inhibitors also have neuroprotective effects in other tissues. An APE1/Ref-1 small molecule inhibitor is already in clinical trials for cancer, PDR and diabetic macular edema. Efforts to develop further inhibitors are underway. APE1/Ref-1 is a novel candidate for therapeutically targeting neovascular eye diseases and alleviating the burden associated with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8508814 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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