The cps genes of Streptococcus suis serotypes 1, 2, and 9: development of rapid serotype-specific PCR assays.
ABSTRACT: We developed three type-specific PCR assays for the rapid and sensitive detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 1 (plus 14), serotype 2 (plus 1/2), and serotype 9 strains in tonsillar specimens from pigs. The PCR primers were based on the sequences of type-specific capsular genes of S. suis serotype 1, 2, and 9 strains. We recently characterized a major part of the capsular biosynthesis (cps) locus of S. suis serotype 2. Here we extended these studies and characterized major parts of the cps loci of S. suis serotypes 1 and 9. Type-specific genes were identified by cross-hybridization experiments between the individual cps genes and chromosomal DNAs from the 35 different serotypes. Four genes of S. suis serotype 1 specifically hybridized with serotype 1 and 14 strains only. Five genes of S. suis serotype 2 specifically hybridized with serotype 2 and 1/2 strains only, and two genes of S. suis serotype 9 specifically hybridized with serotype 9 strains. Until now rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests were available only for pathogenic strains of serotype 2 and highly pathogenic strains of serotype 1. The serotype-specific PCR assays can therefore be useful tools for the identification of serotype 1, 14, 2, 1/2, and 9 strains both for diagnostic purposes and in epidemiological and transmission studies. Therefore, these tests may facilitate control and eradication programs.
Project description:Streptococcussuis is an important zoonotic agent causing severe diseases in pigs and humans. To date, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been identified based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharide. The capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus encodes proteins/enzymes that are responsible for capsular production and variation in the capsule structures are the basis of S. suis serotyping. Multiplex and/or simplex PCR assays have been developed for 15 serotypes based on serotype-specific genes in the cps gene cluster. In this study, we developed a set of multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays to identify the 33 currently known S. suis serotypes. To identify serotype-specific genes for mPCR, the entire genomes of reference strains for the 33 serotypes were sequenced using whole genome high-throughput sequencing, and the cps gene clusters from these strains were identified and compared. We developed a set of 4 mPCR assays based on the polysaccharide polymerase gene wzy, one of the serotype-specific genes. The assays can identify all serotypes except for two pairs of serotypes: 1 and 14, and 2 and 1/2, which have no serotype-specific genes between them. The first assay identifies 12 serotypes (serotypes 1 to 10, 1/2, and 14) that are the most frequently isolated from diseased pigs and patients; the second identifies 10 serotypes (serotypes 11 to 21 except 14); the third identifies the remaining 11 serotypes (serotypes 22 to 31, and 33); and the fourth identifies a new cps cluster of S. suis discovered in this study in 16 isolates that agglutinated with antisera for serotypes 29 and 21. The multiplex PCR assays developed in this study provide a rapid and specific method for molecular serotyping of S. suis.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is divided into 29 serotypes based on a serological reaction against the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Multiplex PCR tests targeting the cps locus are also used to determine S. suis serotypes, but they cannot differentiate between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2. Here, we developed a pipeline permitting in silico serotype determination from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) short-read data that can readily identify all 29?S. suis serotypes.We sequenced the genomes of 121 strains representing all 29 known S. suis serotypes. We next combined available software into an automated pipeline permitting in silico serotyping of strains by differential alignment of short-read sequencing data to a custom S. suis cps loci database. Strains of serotype pairs 1 and 14, and 2 and 1/2 could be differentiated by a missense mutation in the cpsK gene. We report a 99 % match between coagglutination- and pipeline-determined serotypes for strains in our collection. We used 375 additional S. suis genomes downloaded from the NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) to validate the pipeline. Validation with SRA WGS data resulted in a 92 % match. Included pipeline subroutines permitted us to assess strain virulence marker content and obtain multilocus sequence typing directly from WGS data.Our pipeline permits rapid and accurate determination of S. suis serotype, and other lineage information, directly from WGS data. By discriminating between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2, our approach solves a three-decade longstanding S. suis typing issue.
Project description:Streptococcus suis strains are classified into 35 serotypes on the basis of the antigenicity of their capsular polysaccharides (CPs). CP synthesis genes are known to be clustered on the chromosome (cps gene cluster). The entire cps gene clusters of S. suis have so far been sequenced in 15 serotypes and found to be located between orfZ and aroA. In this study, to provide comprehensive information about S. suis CPs, we sequenced the entire cps gene clusters of the remaining serotypes and analyzed the complete set of S. suis cps gene clusters. Among the 35 cps gene clusters, 22 were located between orfZ and aroA, whereas the other 13 were flanked by other gene(s) on the chromosomes, and the chromosomal locus was classified into five patterns. By clustering analysis, the predicted products of cps genes found in the 35 serotypes were assigned into 291 homology groups, and all serotypes possessed a serotype-specific gene, except for serotypes 1, 2, 1/2, and 14. Because of the presence of genes encoding flippase (wzx) and polymerase (wzy), CPs of all serotypes were thought to be synthesized by the Wzx/Wzy pathway. Our data also implied the possibility of the transfer of the entire or partial cps gene clusters among S. suis strains, as well as the influence of spontaneous mutations in a single gene or a few genes on the antigenicity of some serotypes. Accumulation of these gene transfers and small-scale mutations may have generated the antigenic diversity of S. suis CPs.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. Thirty-three serotypes of S. suis have been identified using serum agglutination. The capsular polysaccharides synthesis (cps) locus is usually conserved among different strains of the same serotype. The cps loci of 15 serotypes have been sequenced, while the loci of the other serotypes remain unknown. In the present study, two to six serotype-specific genes of each of eight serotypes, i.e., serotypes 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 19, 23, and 25, were identified using cross-hybridization with 93 nucleic acid probes specific to genes in the cps locus, and serotype-specific PCR assays for rapid and sensitive detection of the eight serotypes were then developed. The PCR typing results of the 148 serologically typeable isolates were completely consistent with agglutination results. Furthermore, some autoagglutinating, acapsular, and multiagglutinating strains which could not be differentiated by traditional serum agglutination assays were positive in the PCR assays. Use of the PCR assays with clinical tonsillar specimens showed that the assays are sensitive and able to identify samples with autoagglutinating isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the serotype-specific genes of the eight Streptococcus suis serotypes and develop rapid and sensitive PCR assays for the eight serotypes which can be identified only by serum agglutination.
Project description:The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an economically important pathogen of pigs as well as a zoonotic cause of human disease. Serotyping is used for further characterization of isolates; some serotypes seem to be more virulent and more widely spread than others. This study characterizes a collection of German field isolates of Streptococcus suis from pigs dating from 1996 to 2016 with respect to capsular genes (cps) specific for individual serotypes and pathotype by multiplex PCR and relates results to the clinical background of these isolates. The most prominent finding was the reduction in prevalence of serotype-2/serotype-1/2 among invasive isolates during this sampling period, which might be attributed to widely implemented autogenous vaccination programs in swine against serotype 2 in Germany. In diseased pigs (systemically ill; respiratory disease) isolates of serotype-1/serotype-14, serotype-2/serotype-1/2, serotype 3 to 5 and 7 to 9 were most frequent while in carrier isolates a greater variety of cps types was found. Serotype-1/serotype-14 seemed to be preferentially located in joints, serotype 4 and serotype 3 in the central nervous system, respectively. The virulence associated extracellular protein factor was almost exclusively associated with invasive serotype-1/serotype-14 and serotype-2/serotype-1/2 isolates. In contrast, lung isolates of serotype-2/serotype-1/2 mainly harbored the gene for muramidase-released protein. Serotype 4 and serotype 9 isolates from clinically diseased pigs most frequently carried the muramidase-released protein gene and the suilysin gene. When examined by transmission electron microscopy all but one of the isolates which were non-typable by molecular and serological methods showed various amounts of capsular material indicating potentially new serotypes among these isolates. Given the variety of cps types/serotypes detected in pigs, not only veterinarians but also medical doctors should consider other serotypes than just serotype 2 when investigating potential human cases of Streptococcus suis infection.
Project description:Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an encapsulated bacterium and an important swine pathogen. Opsonizing antibody responses targeting capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are protective against extracellular pathogens. To elucidate the protective activity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against S. suis serotype 2 CPS, mice were immunized with a serotype 2 CPS-glycoconjugate and three hybridomas were isolated; of which, two were murine IgMs and the other a murine IgG1. Whereas the IgMs (mAbs 9E7 and 13C8) showed different reactivity levels with S. suis serotypes 1, 1/2, 2 and 14, the IgG1 (mAb 16H11) was shown to be serotype 2-specific. All mAbs targeted the sialylated chain of the CPSs. Using an opsonophagocytosis assay, the IgMs were opsonizing towards the S. suis serotypes to which they cross-react, while the IgG1 failed to induce bacterial elimination. In a model of mouse passive immunization followed by a lethal challenge with S. suis serotype 2, the IgG1 and IgM cross-reacting only with serotype 14 (mAb 13C8) failed to protect, while the IgM cross-reacting with serotypes 1, 1/2, and 14 (mAb 9E7) was shown to be protective by limiting bacteremia. These new mAbs show promise as new S. suis diagnostic tools, as well as potential for therapeutic applications.
Project description:The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being ?-2,6 for S. suis but ?-2,3 for GBS. It is still unclear how sialic acid may affect CPS production and, consequently, the pathogenesis of the disease caused by these two bacterial pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of sialic acid and the putative effect of sialic acid linkage modification in CPS synthesis using inter-species allelic exchange mutagenesis. To this aim, a new molecular biogenetic approach to express CPS with modified sialic acid linkage was developed. We showed that sialic acid (and its ?-2,6 linkage) is crucial for S. suis CPS synthesis, whereas for GBS, CPS synthesis may occur in presence of an ?-2,6 sialyltransferase or in absence of sialic acid moiety. To evaluate the effect of the CPS composition/structure on sialyltransferase activity, two distinct capsular serotypes within each bacterial species were compared (S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V). It was demonstrated that the observed differences in sialyltransferase activity and specificity between S. suis and GBS were serotype unrestricted. This is the first time that a study investigates the interspecies exchange of capsular sialyltransferase genes in Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained mutants represent novel tools that could be used to further investigate the immunomodulatory properties of sialylated CPSs. Finally, in spite of common CPS structural characteristics and similarities in the cps loci, sialic acid exerts differential control of CPS expression by S. suis and GBS.
Project description:The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is the major virulence factor of the emerging zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. CPS differences are also the basis for serological differentiation of the species into 29 serotypes. Serotypes 2 and 1/2, which possess identical gene content in their cps loci, express CPSs that differ only by substitution of galactose (Gal) by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in the CPS side chain. The same sugar substitution differentiates the CPS of serotypes 14 and 1, whose cps loci are also identical in gene content. Here, using mutagenesis, CPS structural analysis, and protein structure modeling, we report that a single amino acid polymorphism in the glycosyltransferase CpsK defines the enzyme substrate predilection for Gal or GalNAc and therefore determines CPS composition, structure, and strain serotype. We also show that the different CPS structures have similar antiphagocytic properties and that serotype switching has limited impact on the virulence of S. suis.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an encapsulated bacterium and one of the most important swine pathogens and a zoonotic agent for which no effective vaccine exists. Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are poorly immunogenic, but anti-CPS antibodies are essential to the host defense against encapsulated bacteria. In addition to the previously known serotypes 2 and 14, which are nonimmunogenic, we have recently purified and described the CPS structures for serotypes 1, 1/2, 3, 7, 8, and 9. Here, we aimed to elucidate how these new structurally diverse CPSs interact with the immune system to generate anti-CPS antibody responses. CPS-stimulated dendritic cells produced significant levels of C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), partially via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent pathways, and CCL2, via TLR-independent mechanisms. Mice immunized with purified serotype 3 CPS adjuvanted with TiterMax Gold produced an opsonizing IgG response, whereas other CPSs or adjuvants were negative. Mice hyperimmunized with heat-killed S. suis serotypes 3 and 9 both produced anti-CPS type 1 IgGs, whereas serotypes 7 and 8 remained negative. Also, mice infected with sublethal doses of S. suis serotype 3 produced primary anti-CPS IgM and IgG responses, of which only IgM were boosted after a secondary infection. In contrast, mice sublethally infected with S. suis serotype 9 produced weak anti-CPS IgM and IgG responses following a secondary infection. This study provides important information on the divergent evolution of CPS serotypes with highly different structural and/or biochemical properties within S. suis and their interaction with the immune system.